1000 words General Education assignment

Importance of Becoming a Global CitizenPrepare: View the Globalization: What is Happening to Us (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.? video and read the article A Model of Global Citizenship: Antecedents and Outcomes by Stephen Reysen and Iva Katzarska-Miller (2013). Go to the Ashford Library and locate one additional source on global citizenship that will help support your viewpoint. Reflect: Please take some time to reflect on how the concept of global citizenship has shaped your identity, and think about how being a global citizen has made you a better person in your communityWrite: Use the Week One Assignment Template when addressing the following prompts:After viewing the video, describe how being a global citizen in the world of advanced technology can be beneficial to your success in meeting your personal, academic, and professional goals.After reading the article by Reysen and Katzarska-Miller, explain why there has been disagreement between theorists about the definition of global citizenship and develop your own definition of global citizenship.From the article, choose two of the six outcomes of global citizenship (i.e., intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and the level of responsibility to act for the betterment of this world) as stated in the article, and explain why those two are the most important in becoming a global citizen compared to the others.Describe at least two personal examples or events in your life that illustrate the development of global citizenship based on the two outcomes you chose.Identify two specific general education courses, and explain how they each influenced you to become a global citizen.Your paperMust be 750 – 1,000 words in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Centerhttps://fod.infobase.com/OnDemandEmbed.aspx?Token=50420&aid=18596&Plt=FOD&loid=0&w=640&h=480&ref
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Running head: SHORTENED TITLE
1
Week 1 Assignment
Importance of Developing Global Citizenship
Student’s Name
GEN499 General Education Capstone
Professor’s Name
Date
SHORTENED TITLE
2
Note: This assignment should be written in the correct format. Please click on the Writing Center
tab at the left-hand toolbar of the course. You will then click on the Writing Resources tab, which
goes over the basics of writing an essay. For information on how to write in-text citations in APA
format, click on “In-Text Citation Guide” under Integrating Sources within the Writing
Resources tab. This paper needs to consist of 750 – 1,000 words (excluding the title and
reference page).
Start your paper with the title of this assignment:
Importance of Developing Global Citizenship
The introduction paragraph of this paper should inform the reader of the topic you are
writing about while providing background information and the purpose or importance of
addressing this topic of global citizenship. You should prepare the reader by stating the concepts
you are about to address further in your paper. Typically a good introduction paragraph is made
up of 5 – 7 sentences.
Short Title of First Prompt (i.e. Benefits of Being a Global Citizen)
After viewing the required video Globalization: What Is Happening to Us? (2010), you
need write a paragraph of 5 – 7 sentences addressing how being a global citizen in the world of
advanced technology can be beneficial to your success in meeting your personal, academic, and
professional goals. For instance, in thinking about how you interact with others in your courses,
you could provide an example of how online courses contribute to your development as a global
citizen. It’s important to cite the video per APA guidelines within this paragraph.
Short Title of Second Prompt
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3
After reading the article by Reysen and Katzarska-Miller, you need to write a paragraph
of 5 – 7 sentences explaining why there has been a disagreement between theorists about the
definition of global citizenship. Within the article, the authors address how specific schools of
thought define global citizenship. It would be a good idea to paraphrase this information in your
own words and cite the article per APA guidelines. Also, within this paragraph, you should
provide your own definition of global citizenship after reading what other ideas are from the
article.
Short Title of Third Prompt
Note: Based on the article, you need to write two paragraphs: a paragraph on each of the two
outcomes of global citizenship you chose (intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice,
environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and the level of responsibility to act for the
betterment of this world).
Name of First Outcome Addressed (i.e. Valuing Diversity)
Within this paragraph you need to explain why this outcome is important in becoming a global
citizen. It’s a good idea to first define the outcome in your own words and then provide a
thorough explanation on why it’s important for your own development as a global citizen.
Name of Second Outcome Addressed (i.e. Social Justice)
Same instructions as the first paragraph above.
Short Title for Fourth Prompt
First Personal Example on (Name First Outcome)
SHORTENED TITLE
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You need to write a 5 – 7 sentence paragraph describing a personal experience that has
corresponds to the first outcome you addressed in the third prompt and has assisted or resulted in
your development as a global citizen.
Second Personal Example on (Name of Second Outcome)
You need to write a 5 – 7 sentence paragraph describing a personal experience that has
corresponds to the second outcome you addressed in the third prompt and has assisted or resulted
in your development as a global citizen.
Short Title of Fifth Prompt
You need to write a 5 – 7 sentence paragraph that identifies two specific education
courses and explains how each of those courses assisted or influenced your development in
becoming a global citizen.
Conclusion
In this paragraph, you need to summarize the main points of this assignment and include
a description of why this topic is important to address when it comes to the development of
global citizenship. Typically a good conclusion paragraph consists of 5 – 7 sentences. Keep in
mind that you should not share new information in the conclusion paragraph. This means that
there should not be any in-text citations. You are basically summarizing what you have written.
SHORTENED TITLE
5
References
Note: References are written below in the correct format per APA guidelines. In addition to these
two required resources, you must locate another scholarly source from the Ashford University
Library that applies to this topic and can be used to support your perspective.
Reysen, S., & Katzarska-Miller, I. (2013). A model of global citizenship: Antecedents and
outcomes. International Journal of Psychology, 48(5), 858-870.
doi:10.1080/00207594.2012.701749
Jakobs, W. (Director), & Monfils, M. (Producer). (2010). Globalization: What is happening to
us?- LUX great thinkers series [Video file]. Retrieved
https://fod.infobase.com/OnDemandEmbed.aspx?Token=50420&aid=18596&Plt=FOD&
loid=0&w=640&h=480&ref
International Journal of Psychology, 2013
Vol. 48, No. 5, 858–870, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2012.701749
A model of global citizenship: Antecedents
and outcomes
Stephen Reysen1 and Iva Katzarska-Miller2
1
Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University–Commerce, Commerce, TX, USA
Department of Psychology, Transylvania University, Lexington, KY, USA
2
A
s the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals
opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of
identifying with a superordinate identity—global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and
embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of
responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one’s connection with others in the
world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to
greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen
identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group’s content (i.e., prosocial values and
behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness
with others) and one’s normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted
identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy,
valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act
for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global
awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the
relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global
citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique
effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions,
environments, and identity.
Keywords: Global citizenship; Social identity; Normative environment; Global awareness; Prosocial values.
A
lors que le monde devient de plus en plus interconnecte´, l’exposition a` des cultures globales offre aux
individus l’opportunite´ de de´velopper des identite´s globales. Dans deux e´tudes, nous avons examine´ les
ante´ce´dents et les conse´quences de s’identifier a` une identite´ dominante – le citoyen global. La citoyennete´ globale
est de´finie comme la conscience, la bienveillance et l’adhe´rence a` la diversite´ culturelle, tout en promouvant la
justice sociale et la durabilite´, joint a` un sens des responsabilite´s a` agir. La the´orie et la recherche ante´rieures
sugge`rent que le fait d’e^tre conscient d’e^tre connecte´ aux autres personnes dans le monde (conscience globale) et
d’e^tre encha^sse´ dans des milieux qui valorisent la citoyennete´ globale (environnement normatif) ame`ne une plus
grande identification aux citoyens globaux. De plus, la the´orie et la recherche sugge`rent que lorsque l’identite´ de
citoyen global est saillante, une plus grande identification est relie´e a` une adhe´rence au contenu du groupe (c.-a`-d.
les valeurs et les comportements prosociaux). Les re´sultats des pre´sentes e´tudes ont montre´ que la conscience
globale (connaissance et interconnexion avec les autres) et l’environnement normatif d’une personne (les amis et
les membres de la famille qui soutiennent la citoyennete´ globale) pre´disaient l’identification aux citoyens globaux.
De plus, la citoyennete´ globale pre´disait les valeurs prosociales de l’empathie intergroupe, de la mise en valeur de
la diversite´, de la justice sociale, de la durabilite´ environnementale, de l’entraide intergroupe et du sens des
responsabilite´s a` agir pour l’ame´lioration du monde. L’identification aux citoyens globaux jouait un ro^le
me´diateur sur la relation entre les ante´ce´dents (environnement normatif et conscience globale) et les conse´quences
(valeurs prosociales). Nous discutons de la relation entre les pre´sents re´sultats et les re´sultats des autres recherches
en psychologie, des implications de la citoyennete´ globale pour les autres domaines acade´miques et des avenues
de recherche futures. La citoyennete´ globale met en lumie`re l’effet unique de la prise de perspective globale sur
Correspondence should be addressed to Stephen Reysen, Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University–Commerce,
Commerce, TX 75429, USA. (E-mail: stephen.reysen@tamuc.edu).
© 2013 International Union of Psychological Science
MODEL OF GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
859
une multitude de sujets lie´s a` la psychologie, sur les plans des actions quotidiennes, de l’environnement et de
l’identite´.
A
medida que el mundo se vuelve cada vez ma´s interconectado, la exposicio´n a las culturas globales les ofrece
a los individuos oportunidades para desarrollar identidades globales. En dos estudios examinamos los
antecedentes y consecuencias de la identificacio´n con una identidad supraordinal —el ciudadano global. La
ciudadani´a global se define como la conciencia, el cuidado y la aceptacio´n de la diversidad cultural a la vez que se
promueve la justicia social y la sustentabilidad, emparejada con un sentido de responsabilidad de accio´n. La
teori´a e investigaciones previas sugieren que el ser consciente de la conexio´n que uno tiene con otras personas del
mundo (conciencia global) y estar inserto en entornos en que se valora la ciudadani´a global (entorno normativo)
conduce a una mayor identificacio´n con los ciudadanos globales. Adema´s, la teori´a e investigacio´n sugieren que
cuando la identidad del ciudadano global es destacada, la mayor identificacio´n se relaciona con la adhesio´n al
contenido del grupo (por ej., los valores y comportamientos prosociales). Los resultados de la presente serie de
estudios mostraron que la conciencia global (el conocimiento y la interconexio´n con los dema´s) y el propio
entorno normativo (los amigos y familia que apoyan la ciudadani´a global) predijeron la identificacio´n con los
ciudadanos globales, y la ciudadani´a global predijo los valores prosociales de empati´a intergrupal, valoracio´n de
la diversidad, justicia social, sustentabilidad ambiental, ayuda intergrupal y una sentida responsabilidad de
actuar para la mejora del mundo. La relacio´n entre los antecedentes (entorno normativo y conciencia global) y
los resultados (valores prosociales) estuvo mediada por la identificacio´n con los ciudadanos globales. Se discuten
la relacio´n entre estos resultados y otros resultados de investigaciones psicolo´gicas, las implicaciones de la
ciudadani´a global para otros a´mbitos acade´micos y los futuros lineamientos de investigacio´n. La ciudadani´a
global destaca el efecto u´nico de adoptar una perspectiva global frente a una multitud de temas pertinentes a la
psicologi´a de las acciones cotidianas, los entornos y la identidad.
Spurred by globalization, the concept of global
citizenship identity has become a focus of theorizing across various disciplines (Davies, 2006;
Dower, 2002a). In psychology, with a few exceptions (e.g., immigration, self-construal), little
research has empirically explored the vast effects
of globalization on identity and psychological
functioning. Calls for greater attention to the
effects of cultural (Adams & Markus, 2004) and
global (Arnett, 2002) influences on everyday life
have been relatively ignored. In the present paper
we cross disciplinary boundaries to draw on
theoretical discussions of global citizenship, and
utilize a social identity perspective (Tajfel &
Turner, 1979; Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, &
Wetherell, 1987) to add conceptual and structural
clarity to the antecedents and outcomes of taking a
globalized perspective of the world.
Clarifying the concept of global citizenship is
difficult due to the use of seemingly synonymous
terms to describe a superordinate global identity,
and the influence of theorists’ disciplinary perspectives in defining the construct. A multitude of
labels are used to describe inclusive forms of
citizenship, such as universal, world, postnational,
and transnational citizenship. While some theorists
use the terms interchangeably, others make clear
distinctions. For example, Golmohamad (2008)
equates global citizenship with international and
world citizenship, while Haugestad (2004) suggests
that a global citizen is concerned about social
justice, a ‘‘world citizen’’ is concerned about trade
and mobility, and an ‘‘earth citizen’’ is concerned
about the environment.
The confusion regarding global citizenship is
exacerbated as theorists draw from diverse disciplines and perspectives (e.g., political, theological, developmental, educational) to define the
construct. For example, theorists in philosophy
may highlight morality and ethics, education
theorists may highlight global awareness, while
others may eschew the concept altogether as
idealist and untenable because there is no concrete
legal recognition of global group membership (for
a review of competing conceptions of global
identity see Delanty, 2000; Dower, 2002a). In an
effort to integrate the various disciplinary framings
and highlight the commonalities in prior discussions of global citizenship, Reysen, Pierce,
Spencer, and Katzarska-Miller (2012b) reviewed
global education literature and interviews with
self-described global citizens, and indeed found
consistent themes regarding the antecedents
(global awareness, normative environment) and
values posited to be outcomes of global citizenship
(intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social
justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup
helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the
betterment of the world).
For the purpose of the present research, we
define global citizenship, as well as the related
constructs identified by Reysen and colleagues
(2012b), by drawing from prior interdisciplinary
theoretical discussions. Global awareness is defined
860
REYSEN AND KATZARSKA-MILLER
as knowledge of the world and one’s interconnectedness with others (Dower, 2002a; Oxfam, 1997).
Normative environment is defined as people and
settings (e.g., friends, family, school) that are
infused with global citizen related cultural patterns
and values (Pike, 2008). Intergroup empathy is
defined as a felt connection and concern for people
outside one’s ingroup (Golmohamad, 2008;
Oxfam, 1997). Valuing diversity is defined as an
interest in and appreciation for the diverse cultures
of the world (Dower 2002b; Golmohamad, 2008).
Social justice is defined as attitudes concerning
human rights and equitable and fair treatment of
all humans (Dower, 2002a, 2002b; Heater, 2000).
Environmental sustainability is defined as the belief
that humans and nature are connected, combined
with a felt obligation to protect of the natural
environment (Heater, 2000). Intergroup helping is
defined as aid to others outside one’s group, and is
enacted through behaviors such as donating to
charity, volunteering locally, and working with
transnational organizations to help others globally
(Dower, 2002a). Responsibility to act is defined as
an acceptance of a moral duty or obligation to act
for the betterment of the world (Dower, 2002a,
2002b). In line with themes found in prior
theorizing, we adopt the definition of global
citizenship as awareness, caring, and embracing
cultural diversity while promoting social justice
and sustainability, coupled with a sense of
responsibility to act (Snider, Reysen, &
Katzarska-Miller, in press).
SOCIAL IDENTITY PERSPECTIVE
To empirically examine the antecedents and outcomes of global citizenship, we utilize a social
identity perspective (Hogg & Smith, 2007; Tajfel &
Turner, 1979; Turner et al., 1987). Individuals feel
different levels of identification (i.e., felt connection) with social groups (Tajfel & Turner, 1979).
Each group has a prototype or set of interrelated
attributes (i.e., group content), that are specific to
that group (Hogg & Smith, 2007). When a
particular group membership is salient, the more
strongly one identifies with the group the more
depersonalization and self-stereotyping occur in
line with the group’s content such as norms,
beliefs, values, attitudes, behaviors (Turner et al.,
1987), and personality (Jenkins, Reysen, &
Katzarska-Miller, 2012). In effect, when an identity is salient, one’s degree of identification with
the group predicts adherence to the group’s
normative content (Hogg & Smith, 2007; Turner
et al., 1987).
EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
CONTENT
Following a social identity perspective, we argue
that membership in the group ‘‘global citizen’’ is
psychological in nature. As suggested by
Golmohamad (2008), global citizenship is a mindset or attitude one takes. In effect, individuals
perceive themselves to be global citizens and can
feel a psychological connection with global citizens
as a group. Consequently, greater identification
with global citizens should predict endorsement of
the group content (i.e., norms, values, behaviors)
that differs from the content of other groups (e.g.,
American). To test this notion, Reysen and
colleagues (2012b) asked participants to rate
endorsement of prosocial values (e.g., intergroup
helping), and identification with global citizens,
cosmopolitans, world citizens, international citizens, and humans. Global citizenship identification predicted endorsement of intergroup
empathy, valuing diversity, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and felt responsibility
to act, beyond identification with the other superordinate categories.
Additional studies showed that global citizenship identification predicted participants’ degree of
endorsement of prosocial values and related
behaviors (e.g., community service, recycling,
attending cultural events) beyond identification
with subgroup identities (e.g., nation, state,
occupation). Across the studies, global citizenship
content (i.e., prosocial values) was shown to differ
from the content of other social identities. In
effect, there is converging evidence that the content
of global citizenship is related to the prosocial
values (e.g., social justice, environmentalism)
posited in the literature, and global citizenship
identification predicts these prosoc …
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