5 Paragraph Essay and a Discussion (same topic)

PART 1) Write a 5 paragraph essay (intro, 3 bodies, conclusion) based on the readings and videos. Include in-text citations and a works cited page.Topic: Do animals have the ability to communicate and express emotions as humans do? Explain your point of view and provide supporting examples from any readings and videos provided.USE MLA FORMAT FOR PAPER AND ALL CITATIONS!!! You don’t need any outside sources! Must be at least 950 words (essay only! Include in-text citations and a works cited page!PART 2) Using the same readings and videos, write a discussion answering the following questions:- Can animals learn and form denotative language as we know humans do? Explain why or why not with examples from the reading and the video. Cite your examples in ( ) in MLA format.- What is Koko’s method of communication? How successful is Koko’s communication?Be sure to answer all questions with specific examples from readings/videos!Please send these in two separate word documents.ABSOLUTELY NO PLAGIARISM! THIS WILL BE TURNED IN ON TURNITIN.COM!
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PRESS RELEASE: Koko Remembers Robin Williams | koko.org
1/13/18, 4(32 PM
NEWS
< BACK TO NEWS ShareThis ABOUT US PRESS RELEASE: Koko Remembers Robin Williams Feedback Donate PROJECT KOKO EDUCATION CONSERVATION CARE & WELLNESS NEWS & MEDIA STORE SUPPORT US DONATE SHOP SIGN UP Free KOKO VIDEO Updates Robin Williams' Cheerful Meeting with Koko in 2001 Enter Your Email Address GO August 11, 2014 In 2001, Robin Williams was invited to meet Koko, the gorilla who communicates in sign language, at The Gorilla Foundation in northern California (see photo above). We had no idea what to expect, but everyone was in for a treat, and they became very special friends. On Monday, Aug. 11, the day news broke of Williams' passing, Koko and Penny and Ron (Drs. Patterson and Cohn) were together when phone calls started coming in about the sad event. After the first call, Koko came to Dr. Patterson with an inquiring look on her face. Dr. Patterson explained that "we have lost a dear friend, Robin Williams." Koko was quiet and looked very thoughtful (see photo bottom left). More phone calls about the news came in, and Koko overheard one from a former colleague who had worked with Williams while he filmed a public service announcement for The Gorilla Foundation (based on his visit with Koko) in 2003. The colleague's voice broke at the end of the conversation. About a half an hour later, Koko signed to Penny: "CRY LIP" (LIP is Koko's sign for woman). At the end of the day, Koko became very somber, with her head bowed and her lip quivering (see photo bottom right). We at the Gorilla Foundation are all greatly saddened by the news of Robin William’s death, and would like to offer his family our deepest condolences. We would also like to honor his life, which was a profound gift to humanity — and to other great apes like Koko — by sharing the following video of Robin’s powerfully emotional meeting with Koko in 2001: http://www.koko.org/koko-tribute-robin-williams Page 1 of 3 PRESS RELEASE: Koko Remembers Robin Williams | koko.org 1/13/18, 4(32 PM Video of a Close Encounter of the Rarest Kind In the above video, notice that Robin made Koko smile — something she hadn’t done for over 6 months, ever since her lifelong gorilla companion, Michael, passed away at the age of 27. But not only did Robin cheer up Koko, the effect was mutual, and Robin seemed transformed — from a high-energy entertainer, into a mellow, sensitive, empathetic guy, who also just happened to be really funny. Koko and Robin’s encounter is a supreme example of how humans and gorillas can overcome interspecies boundaries and express the highest form of empathy — embracing differences. Robin’s ability to just spend time with Koko, a gorilla, and in minutes become one of her closest friends, was extraordinary and unforgettable for Koko. We hope that it now becomes unforgettable for you too. And when you remember Robin Williams, remember that he is not only one of the world’s most beloved entertainers, he is also one of the world’s most powerful ambassadors for great ape conservation. Koko responds to the news of Robin's passing < Previous Article http://www.koko.org/koko-tribute-robin-williams Koko looks somber after it sinks in View All Next Article >
Page 2 of 3
PRESS RELEASE: Koko Remembers Robin Williams | koko.org
1/13/18, 4(32 PM
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Page 3 of 3

Understanding How the Brain Speaks Two Languages


BRAIN
Understanding How the Brain Speaks Two
Languages
Hablan dos idiomas? You should, if you know what’s good for you
By Jeffrey KlugerApril 23, 2013
Getty Images
Follow @TIMEHealth
Learning to speak was the most remarkable thing you ever did. It wasn’t just the 50,000 words you had to master to become
fluent or the fact that for the first six years of your life you learned about three new words per day. It was the tenses and the
syntax and the entire scaffolding of grammar, not to mention the metaphors and allusions and the almost-but-not-quite
synonyms.
But you accomplished it, and good for you. Now imagine doing it two or three times over — becoming bilingual, trilingual or
more. The mind of the polyglot is a very particular thing, and scientists are only beginning to look closely at how acquiring a
second language influences learning, behavior and the very structure of the brainitself. At a bilingualism conference last
weekend convened by the Lycée Français de New York, where all students learn in both English and French, and the Cultural
Services of the French Embassy, language experts gathered to explore where the science stands so far and where it’s heading
next (disclosure: my children are LFNY students).
Humans are crude linguists from the moment of birth — and perhaps even in the womb — to the extent at least that we can
hear spoken sounds and begin to recognize different combinations language sounds. At first, we don’t much care which of
these phonemes from which languages we absorb, which makes sense since the brain has to be ready to learn any of the
world’s thousands of languages depending on where we’re born.
“Before 9 months of age, a baby produces a babble made up of hundreds of phonemes from hundreds of languages,” said
Elisabeth Cros, a speech therapist with the Ecole Internationale de New York. “Parents will react to the phonemes they
recognize from their native tongues, which reinforces the baby’s use of those selected ones.”
Doubling down on a pair of languages rather than just one does take extra work, but it’s work young children are generally not
aware they’re doing. Bilingual people of all ages are continually addressing what research psychologist Ellen Bialystok of
Toronto’s York University calls the dog-chien dilemma, encountering an object, action or concept and instantaneously toggling
between two different words to describe it. Such nimble decision-making ought to improve on-the-fly problem solving, and
studies show that it does.
Language researchers often point to the famed Stroop test, which asks subjects to look at the word red, for example, which is
presented in an ink of a different color, say blue. Then they are required to say aloud or identify on a computer the ink color.
That requires an additional fraction of a second to accomplish than if both the word and ink color were the same. Everyone
experiences that lag, but for bilinguals it’s measurably shorter. “Monolinguals always need more time,” Bialystok says. “It’s a
lifelong advantage for bilinguals.”
Excelling on the Stroop test is hardly a marketable skill, but what it suggests about the brain is something else. Sean Lynch,
headmaster of the LFNY, previously worked in a multilingual school in France in which all of the students spoke French and at
least one of 12 other languages, including Japanese, Russian, Italian and Spanish. As is often the case with wellendowed schools, the students, on average, outperformed their age peers academically, and it’s impossible to determine how
much of that is due to native skill and how much to the fact that they simply have access to better teachers, books and other
resources. Still, Lynch observed that these students seemed to show a greater facility with skills that relied on interpreting
symbolic representations, such as math or music.
Lynch also believes — albeit based primarily on his own observations — that multilingual kids may exhibit social empathy
sooner than children who grow up speaking only one language, which makes developmental sense. The theory of mind —
understanding that what’s in your head is not the same as what’s in other people’s heads — does not emerge in children until
they’re about 3 years old. Prior to that, they assume that if, say, they know a secret you probably do too. There’s a kind of
primal narcissism in this — a belief that their worldview is the universal one. Once they learn that’s not the case, selfcenteredness falls away — at least a little — and the long process of true socialization begins. There’s nothing that accelerates
the acquisition of that kind of other-awareness like the realization that even the very words you use to label the things in your
world — dog, tree, banana — are not the same ones everyone uses.
Preliminary imaging work suggests that the roots of this behavior may even be visible in the brain. Some studies, for example,
have shown a thickening of the cortex in two brain regions — most importantly the left inferior parietal, which helps code for
language and gesturing. Bialystok is not entirely sold on these studies, since she would expect the greatest differences to be in
the frontal lobes, where higher functions such as planning, decisionmaking and other aspects of what’s known as executive
control take place. Some of her own work has found an increase in white matter — the fatty sheathing that insulates nerves
and improves their ability to communicate — in the frontal regions of bilinguals, suggesting denser signaling and complexity of
functions in these areas. “Structural differences are where the new science is really unfolding,” she says. “That work will
reveal a lot.”
Not every study out there finds benefits to bilingualism. Earlier this year, psychologists at Concordia University in Montreal
studied 168 children ages 1 and 2 years old being raised by bilingual parents. In general, they found that the kids in the
younger half of that cohort had smaller comprehension vocabularies — the number of words they appeared to understand —
than kids being raised monolingual. The older half of the sample group had smaller production vocabularies — or words they
could pronounce. This results, the researches believe, from parents mixing their languages when speaking to their kids,
choosing the words they feel the children will have an easier time understanding or reproducing. That in turn leads to what
linguists call code-switching — a commingling of tongues by the children that produces what Americans call Spanglish or
Franglish when Spanish or French melded with English (this particular study produced more complex comminglings, since it
included kids speaking German, Japanese and Farsi as well). However, Bialystok agrees that this is a short-term disadvantage
of bilingualism, and says in most cases the kids catch up.
And when they do, language skills acquired early can pay late-life dividends. In one study, bilinguals experienced the onset of
age-related dementia 4.1 years later than monolinguals, and full-blown Alzheimer’s 5.1 years later. “One school of thought
says that any cognitive reserve — education, multilingualism, even playing Sudoku puzzles — strengthens the brain and helps
it resist disease,” says Bialystok. “The other says that the brains of multilinguals experience the same level of disease as those
of monolinguals, but they cope with it better. They function at a higher level than they would otherwise be able to function.”
In another 2013 study, this one from the University of Kentucky, bilingual and monolingual people in the 60- to 68-year-old
age group underwent brain scans while performing a cognitive task that required them to switch back and forth among
several different ideas. Both groups performed the task accurately, but bilinguals were faster as well as more metabolically
economical in executing the cognitive mission, using less energy in the frontal cortex than the monolinguals.
The very fact that something as simple as working with puzzles or having once got a good education can improve brain
function does prove that multilingualism is not the only path to staying cognitively healthy in your dotage. And plenty of
monolinguals do perfectly well at acquiring empathy and social skills early in life. Still, there are roughly 6,500 spoken
languages in the world. There must be a reason our brains come factory-loaded to learn more than just one.
Jeffrey Kluger
gesticulate the point. He would make his wishes known, give warnings, perhaps
develop a social system like that of bees and ants, with such a wonderful efficiency
of communal enterprise that all men would have plenty to eat, warm apartments – all
exactly alike and perfectly convenient – to live in, and everybody could and would
sit in the sun or by the fire, as the climate demanded, not talking but just basking,
with every want satisfied, most of his life. The young would romp and make love,
the old would sleep, the middle-aged would do the routine work almost
unconsciously and eat a great deal. But that would be the life of a social,
superintelligent, purely sign-using animal.
Language and Thought (1953)
Susanne K. Langer
Susanne K. Langer was born in New York City in 1895 and attended
Radcliffe College. There she studied philosophy, an interest she maintained until her
death in 1985. She stayed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as a tutor at Harvard
University from 1927 to 1942. Langer then taught at the University of Delaware,
Columbia University, and Connecticut College, where she remained from 1954 until
the end of her distinguished teaching career. Her books include Philosophy in a
New Key: A Study of the Symbolism of Reason, Rite, and Art (1942), Feeling and
Form (1953), and Mind: An Essay in Human Feeling (1967).
In the following essay, which originally appeared in Ms. Magazine, Langer
explores how language separates humans from the rest of the animal kingdom. She
contends that the use of symbols – in addition to the use of signs that animals also
use – frees humans not only to react to their environment but also to think about it.
Moreover, symbols allow us to create imagery and ideas not directly related to the
real world, so that we can plan, imagine, and communicate abstractions – to do, in
essence, the things that make us human.
1
2
3
4
A symbol is not the same thing as a sign; that is a fact that psychologists and
philosophers often overlook. All intelligent animals use signs; so do we. To them as
well as to us sounds and smells and motions are signs of food, danger, the presence
of other beings, or of rain or storm. Furthermore, some animals not only attend to
signs but produce them for the benefit of others. Dogs bark at the door to be let in;
rabbits thump to call each other; the cooing of doves and the growl of a wolf
defending his kill are unequivocal signs of feelings and intentions to be reckoned
with by other creatures.
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6
7
We use signs just as animals do, though with considerably more elaboration. We
stop at red lights and go on green; we answer calls and bells, watch the sky for
coming storms, read trouble or promise or anger in each other’s eyes. That is animal
intelligence raised to the human level. Those of us who are dog lovers can probably
all tell wonderful stories of how high our dogs have sometimes risen in the scale of
clever sign interpretation and sign using.
A sign is anything that announces the existence or the imminence of some event,
the presence of a thing or a person, or a change in the state of affairs. There are signs
of the weather, signs of danger, signs of future good or evil, signs of what the past
has been. In every case a sign is closely bound up with something to be noted or
expected in experience. It is always a part of the situation to which it refers, though
the reference may be remote in space and time. In so far as we are led to note or
expect the signified event we are making correct use of a sign. This is the essence of
rational behavior, which animals show in varying degrees. It is entirely realistic,
being closely bound up with the actual objective course of history – learned by
experience, and cashed in or voided by further experience.
8
If man had kept to the straight and narrow path of sign using, he would be like the
other animals, though perhaps a little brighter. He would not talk, but grunt and
1
To us who are human, it does not sound very glorious. We want to go places and
do things, own all sorts of gadgets that we do not absolutely need, and when we sit
down to take it easy we want to talk. Rights and property, social position, special
talents and virtues, and above all our ideas, are what we live for. We have gone off
on a tangent that takes us far away from the mere biological cycle that animal
generations accomplish; and that is because we can use not only signs but symbols.
A symbol differs from a sign in that it does not announce the presence of the
object, the being, condition, or whatnot, which is its meaning, but merely brings this
thing to mind. It is not a mere “substitute sign” to which we react as though it were
the object itself. The fact is that our reaction to hearing a person’s name is quite
different from our reaction to the person himself. There are certain rare cases where
a symbol stands directly for its meaning: in religious experience, for instance, the
Host is not only a symbol but a Presence. But symbols in the ordinary sense are not
mystic. They are the same sort of thing that ordinary signs are; only they do not call
our attention to something necessarily present or to be physically dealt with – they
call up merely a conception of the thing they “mean.”
The difference between a sign and a symbol is, in brief, that a sign causes us to
think or act in the face of the thing signified, whereas a symbol causes us to think
about the thing symbolized. Therein lies the great importance of symbolism for
human life, its power to make this life so different from any other animal biography
that generations of men have found it incredible to suppose that they were of purely
zoological origin. A sign is always embedded in reality, in a present that emerges
from the actual past and stretches to the future; but a symbol may be divorced from
reality altogether. It may refer to what is not the case, to a mere idea, a figment, a
dream. It serves, therefore, to liberate thought from the immediate stimuli of a
physically present world; and that liberation marks the essential difference between
human and nonhuman mentality. Animals think, but they think of and at things; men
think primarily about things. Words, pictures, and memory images are symbols that
may be combined and varied in a thousand ways. The result is a symbolic structure
whose meaning is a complex of all their respective meanings, and this kaleidoscope
of ideas is the typical product of the human brain that we call the “stream of
thought.”
The process of transforming all direct experience into imagery or into that
supreme mode of symbolic expression, language, has so completely taken possession
of the human mind that it is not only a special talent but a dominant, organic need.
All our sense impressions leave their traces in our memory not only as signs
disposing our practical reactions in the future but also as symbols, images
representing our ideas of things; and the tendency to manipulate ideas, to combine
and abstract, mix and extend them by playing with symbols, is man’s outstanding
characteristic. It seems to be what his brain most naturally and spontaneously does.
Therefore his primitive mental function is not judging reality, but dreaming his
desires.
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order to define its own moral attitudes, so a scientist wrestles with the mere
presentation of “the facts” before he can reason about them. The process of
envisaging facts, values, hopes, and fears underlies our whole behavior pattern; and
this process is reflected in the evolution of an extraordinary phenomenon found
always, and only, in human societi …
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