500 words (rough draft) reading an article and writing a claim about a point in it.

so my assignment is to read the article that is attached below and focus on one point in it and write a claim about it. while writing your claim try to be more specific, arguable, complex, unique, and in response to the text.please be careful about it it is worth 5% of my total grade. and the minimum words are 500. here is the rubric: Criterion43210Situationally appropriateThe student has constructed a text that capitalizes upon the assignment criteria fully.The student has constructed a text that utilizes the assignment criteria as a guideline.The student has constructed a text that shows moderate understanding of the assignment goals.The student has constructed a text that shows some understanding of the assignment goals.The student has constructed a text that shows no understanding of the assignment goals.Consideration of AudienceThe student has constructed a text that shows a deep understanding of her/his intended audience?s goals, values, and preferred method of communication. The student has constructed a text that shows an understanding of her/his intended audience?s goals, values, and preferred method of communication.The student has constructed a text that demonstrates an understanding of the goals and values of her/his intended audience, but fails to deploy their preferred methods of communication.The student has constructed a text that demonstrates an understanding of who her/his intended audience is, but fails to adequately consider the audience?s goals, values, and preferred method of communication.The student has constructed a text that does not demonstrate an understanding of who her/his intended audience is. Claim ForegroundingThe student makes a unique claim that drives the entirety of her/his paper.The student makes a unique claim that drives the majority of her/his paper. The student makes a claim that drives the majority of their paper.The student makes a claim that drives some of their paper.The student either lacks a clear claim, or the claim that she/he does make does not drive their paper.Exploration of claimThe student fully explores the implications and greater stakes of her/his claim, thereby earning the reader?s trust and understanding.The student explores the implications and greater stakes of her/his claim, but may fail to do so thoroughly.The student explores either the implications or the greater stakes of her/his claim, but may do neither thoroughly. The student fails to explore either the implications or the greater stakes for her/his claim.The student does not address the implications/greater stakes of her/his claim.Usefulness of EvidenceThe student has selected evidence that easily strengthens her/his argument and is properly portioned for the assignment parameters.The student has selected evidence that may serve her/his argument, if treated correctly. The student has chosen evidence that does not support her/his argument, or is not appropriate for the assignment parameters.The student has chosen evidence that neither supports her/his arguments nor is appropriate for the assignment parameters. The student has not supported her/his arguments with evidence.Deployment of EvidenceThe student actively (but respectfully) transforms her/his chosen evidence in order to privilege her/his arguments.The student actively transforms her/his chosen evidence in order to privilege her/his arguments. The student somewhat transforms her/his chosen evidence, but may not do so adequately in order to privilege her/his arguments.The student does not transform her/his chosen evidence in order to serve as part of her/his argumentation.The student has not chosen evidence, and therefore there is none to transform.Paper TrailThe student helpfully marks the beginning and ending of borrowed material with attribution, citation, and appropriate punctuation/formatting.The student marks the beginning and ending of borrowed material with attribution and citation, but punctuation and formatting may not be accurate.The student uses attribution and/or citation, but in a way that leaves some debate as to where borrowed information begins and ends.The student inconsistently or inaccurately marks borrowed information. Citations may be incorrectly formatted, quotations may not be marked clearly, attribution may be absent or not helpful.The student fails to mark borrowed information through attribution, citation, punctuation, and formatting.ParagraphingThe student has constructed each paragraph by focusing on a single purpose, argument or point, and each paragraph is placed in a way that builds a progressive understanding of the student?s claim.The student has constructed each paragraph by focusing on a single purpose, argument or point. One paragraph may be out of place, but otherwise paragraphs build toward a progressive understanding of the student?s claim.The student has constructed each paragraph by focusing on a single purpose, argument or point, but the paragraphs are not arranged in such a way as to build a progressive understanding of the student?s claim.The student has not constructed paragraphs by focusing on a single argument. Purposes, arguments, and points bleed across paragraphs. The student has paid little to no attention to paragraphing, and her/his argumentation is difficult to isolate and followToneThe student has selected a tone that both privileges their voice and actively considers the situation and audience for which she/he has constructed her/his text.The student has selected a tone that privileges her/his voice, but may fail to actively consider either the situation or audience for which she/he has constructed her/his text.The student has selected a tone that privileges her/his voice, but fails to consider the situation or audience for which she/he has constructed her/his text.The student has selected a tone that demonstrates some level of personal voice, but fails to privilege that voice or effectively address the situation/audience for which she/he has constructed her/his text.The student has not actively selected a tone, mixing dialect, formality, and forms of address that show a lack of consideration of situation and audience.CorrectnessThe student has constructed a text that has takes advantage of grammar and word choice in order to communicate more effectively.The student has constructed a text that uses appropriate grammar and word choice for the situation.The student has constructed a text that fails to deploy either appropriate grammar or word choice for the situation.The student has constructed a text that fails to deploy both appropriate grammar or word choice for the situation.The student has constructed a text that is difficult to read and inhibits the reader?s understanding of her/his arguments.MLA citation.

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Arts of the Contact Zone
Author(s): Mary Louise Pratt
Source: Profession, ofession (1991), pp. 33-40
Published by: Modern Language Association
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25595469
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learned the meaning of corn
Arts of the Contact Zone
Mary Louise Pratt
modified labor, what it means for
one’s body and talents to be
owned and dispensed by another.
? He knows something about
Japan, Taiwan, Cuba, and Cen
tral America and how men and
_ boys do things there. Through
the history and experience of
Whenever the subject of literacy comes up, what often
pops first into my mind is a conversation I overheard
eight years ago between my son Sam and his best friend,
Willie, aged six and seven, respectively: “Why don’t you
baseball stadiums he thought about architecture, light,
wind, topography, meteorology, the dynamics of public
space. He learned the meaning of expertise, of knowing
about something well enough that you can start a conver
trade me Many Trails for Carl Yats . . . Yesits . . . Ya
sation with a stranger and feel sure of holding your own.
strum-scrum.” “That’s not how you say it, dummy, it’s
Even with an adult?especially with an adult. Through
Carl Yes… Yes.. . oh, I don’t know.” Sam and Willie
out his preadolescent years, baseball history was Sam’s
had just discovered baseball cards. Many Trails was their
luminous point of contact with grown-ups, his lifeline to
decoding, with the help of first-grade English phonics, of
caring. And, of course, all this time he was also playing
the name Manny Trillo. The name they were quite rightly
baseball, struggling his way through the stages of the local
stumped on was Carl Yastremski. That was the first time
Little League system, lucky enough to be a pretty good
I remembered seeing them put their incipient literacy to
their own use, and I was of course thrilled.
player, loving the game and coming to know deeply his
Sam and Willie learned a lot about phonics that year
by trying to decipher surnames on baseball cards, and a
lot about cities, states, heights, weights, places of birth,
strengths and weaknesses.
Literacy began for Sam with the newly pronounceable
names on the picture cards and brought him what has
been easily the broadest, most varied, most enduring, and
stages of life. In the years, that followed, I watched Sam
most integrated experience of his thirteen-year life. Like
apply his arithmetic skills to working out batting averages
many parents, I was delighted to see schooling give Sam
and subtracting retirement years from rookie years; I
watched him develop senses of patterning and order by
arranging and rearranging his cards for hours on end, and
aesthetic judgment by comparing different photos, differ
ent series, layouts, and color schemes. American geogra
phy and history took shape in his mind through baseball
cards. Much of his social life revolved around trading
them, and he learned about exchange, fairness, trust, the
importance of processes as opposed to results, what it
means to get cheated, taken advantage of, even robbed.
Baseball cards were the medium of his economic life too.
Nowhere better to learn the power and arbitrariness of
money, the absolute divorce between use value and
exchange value, notions of long- and short-term invest
ment, the possibility of personal values that are indepen
dent of market values.
Baseball cards meant baseball card shows, where there
the tools with which to find and open all these doors. At
the same time I found it unforgivable that schooling itself
gave him nothing remotely as meaningful to do, let alone
anything that would actually take him beyond the refer
ential, masculinist ethos of baseball and its lore.
However, I was not invited here to speak as a parent,
nor as an expert on literacy. I was asked to speak as an
MLA member working in the elite academy. In that
capacity my contribution is undoubtedly supposed to be
abstract, irrelevant, and anchored outside the real world. I
wouldn’t dream of disappointing anyone. I propose
immediately to head back several centuries to a text that
has a few points in common with baseball cards and raises
thoughts about what Tony Sarmiento, in his comments
to the conference, called new visions of literacy. In 1908 a
Peruvianist named Richard Pietschmann was exploring in
the Danish Royal Archive in Copenhagen and came
was much to be learned about adult worlds as well. And
baseball cards opened the door to baseball books, shelves
and shelves of encyclopedias, magazines, histories, biogra
phies, novels, books of jokes, anecdotes, cartoons, even
poems. Sam learned the history of American racism and
the struggle against it through baseball; he saw the depres
The author is Professor of Spanish and Comparative Literature and
Director of the Program in Modern Thought and Literature at Stan
ford University. This paper was presented as the keynote address at the
Responsibilities for Literacy conference in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in
September 1990.
sion and two world wars from behind home plate. He
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34 Arts of the Contact Zone
across a manuscript. It was dated in the city of Cuzco in
his half brother, a mestizo whose Spanish father had given
Peru, in the year 1613, some forty years after the final fall
him access to religious education.
of the Inca empire to the Spanish and signed with an
unmistakably Andean indigenous name: Felipe Guaman
Poma de Ayala. Written in a mixture of Quechua and
ungrammatical, expressive Spanish, the manuscript was a
letter addressed by an unknown but apparently literate
Andean to King Philip III of Spain. What stunned
Pietschmann was that the letter was twelve hundred pages
long. There were almost eight hundred pages of written
text and four hundred of captioned line drawings. It was
Guaman Pomas letter to the king is written in two lan
guages (Spanish and Quechua) and two parts. The first is
called the Nueva coronica ‘New Chronicle/ The title is
important. The chronicle of course was the main writing
apparatus through which the Spanish represented their
American conquests to themselves. It constituted one of
the main official discourses. In writing a “new chronicle,”
Guaman Poma took over the official Spanish genre for his
own ends. Those ends were, roughly, to construct a new
titled The First New Chronicle and Good Government. No
picture of the world, a picture of a Christian world with
one knew (or knows) how the manuscript got to the
Andean rather than European peoples at the center of
it?Cuzco, not Jerusalem. In the New Chronicle Guaman
library in Copenhagen or how long it had been there. No
one, it appeared, had ever bothered to read it or figured
out how. Quechua was not thought of as a written lan
guage in 1908, nor Andean culture as a literate culture.
Pietschmann prepared a paper on his find, which he
presented in London in 1912, a year after the rediscovery
of Machu Picchu by Hiram Bingham. Reception, by an
international congress of Americanists, was apparently
confused. It took twenty-five years for a facsimile edition
of the work to appear, in Paris. It was not till the late
1970s, as positivist reading habits gave way to interpretive
studies and colonial elitisms to postcolonial pluralisms,
Poma begins by rewriting the Christian history of the
world from Adam and Eve (fig. 1), incorporating the
Amerindians into it as offspring of one of the sons of
Noah. He identifies five ages of Christian history that he
links in parallel with the five ages of canonical Andean
history?separate but equal trajectories that diverge with
Noah and reintersect not with Columbus but with Saint
Bartholomew, claimed to have preceded Columbus in the
Americas. In a couple of hundred pages, Guaman Poma
constructs a veritable encyclopedia of Inca and pre-Inca
that Western scholars found ways of reading Guaman
Pomas New Chronicle and Good Government as the
extraordinary intercultural tour de force that it was. The
letter got there, only 350 years too late, a miracle and a
terrible tragedy.
I propose to say a few more words about this erstwhile
unreadable text, in order to lay out some thoughts about
writing and literacy in what I like to call the contact zones.
I use this term to refer to social spaces where cultures
meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in con
texts of highly asymmetrical relations of power, such as
colonialism, slavery, or their aftermaths as they are lived
out in many parts of the world today. Eventually I will
use the term to reconsider the models of community that
many of us rely on in teaching and theorizing and that are
under challenge today. But first a little more about Gua
man Pomas giant letter to Philip III.
Insofar as anything is known about him at all, Guaman
Poma exemplified the sociocultural complexities pro
duced by conquest and empire. He was an indigenous
Andean who claimed noble Inca descent and who had
adopted (at least in some sense) Christianity. He may
have worked in the Spanish colonial administration as an
interpreter, scribe, or assistant to a Spanish tax collector?
as a mediator, in short. He says he learned to write from
Fig. 1. Adam and Eve.
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Mary Louise Pratt 35
history, customs, laws, social forms, public offices, and
both metropolitan audiences and the spe
dynastic leaders. The depictions resemble European man
munity. Their reception is thus highly
ners and customs description, but also reproduce the
Such texts often constitute a marginalized groups point of
meticulous detail with which knowledge in Inca society
was stored on quipusznd in the oral memories of elders.
Guaman Pomas New Chronicle is an instance of what I
entry into the dominant circuits of print culture. It is
interesting to think, for example, of American slave auto
biography in its autoethnographic dimensions, which in
have proposed to call an autoethnographic text, by which I
some respects distinguish it from Euramerican autobio
mean a text in which people undertake to describe them
graphical tradition. The concept might help explain why
selves in ways that engage with representations others
have made of them. Thus if ethnographic texts are those
in which European metropolitan subjects represent to
themselves their others (usually their conquered others),
autoethnographic texts are representations that the so
defined others construct in response to or in dialogue with
those texts. Autoethnographic texts are not, then, what
are usually thought of as autochthonous forms of expres
sion or self-representation (as the Andean quipus were).
Rather they involve a selective collaboration with and
appropriation of idioms of the metropolis or the con
queror. These are merged or infiltrated to varying degrees
with indigenous idioms to create self-representations
intended to intervene in metropolitan modes of under
standing. Autoethnographic works are often addressed to
some of the earliest published writing by Chicanas took
the form of folkloric manners and customs sketches
written in English and published in English-language
newspapers or folklore magazines (see Treviiio). Auto
ethnographic representation often involves concrete
collaborations between people, as between literate ex
slaves and abolitionist intellectuals, or between Guaman
Poma and the Inca elders who were his informants.
Often, as in Guaman Poma, it involves more than one
language. In recent decades autoethnography, critique,
and resistance have reconnected with writing in a con
temporary creation of the contact zone, the testimonio.
Guaman Pomas New Chronicle ends with a revisionist
account of the Spanish conquest, which, he argues,
should have been a peaceful encounter of equals with the
potential for benefiting both, but for the mindless greed
of the Spanish. He parodies Spanish history. Following
contact with the Incas, he writes, “In all Castille, there
was a great commotion. All day and at night in their
dreams the Spaniards were saying ‘Yndias, yndias, oro,
plata, oro, platadel Piru'” (“Indies, Indies, gold, silver,
gold, silver from Peru”) (fig. 2). The Spanish, he writes,
brought nothing of value to share with the Andeans,
nothing “but armor and guns con la codicia de oro, plata,
oro y plata, yndias, a las Yndias, Piru” (“with the lust for
gold, silver, gold and silver, Indies, the Indies, Peru”)
(372). I quote these words as an example of a conquered
subject using the conquerors language to construct a
parodic, oppositional representation of the conquerors
own speech. Guaman Poma mirrors back to the Spanish
(in their language, which is alien to him) an image of
themselves that they often suppress and will therefore
surely recognize. Such are the dynamics of language, writ
ing, and representation in contact zones.
The second half of the epistle continues the critique. It
is titled Buen gobierno y justicia ‘Good Government and
Justice’ and combines a description of colonial society in
the Andean region with a passionate denunciation of
Spanish exploitation and abuse. (These, at the time he
was writing, were decimating the population of the j^ndes
a genocidal
In fact,
the potential loss of the labor
Fig. 2. Conquista. Meeting of Spaniard andatInca.
a main
cause for reform of the system.)
in Quechua, “You eat this gold?” Spaniard force
“We eat this gold.”
Guaman Pomas most implacable hostility is invoked by
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36 Arts of the Contact Zone
the clergy, followed by the dreaded corregidorest or colo
nial overseers (fig. 3). He also praises good works, Chris
tian habits, and just men where he finds them, and offers
at length his views as to what constitutes “good govern
ment and justice.” The Indies, he argues, should be
not simply imitate or reproduce it; he selects and adapts it
along Andean lines to express (bilingually, mind you)
Andean interests and aspirations. Ethnographers have
used the term transculturation to describe processes
administered through a collaboration of Inca and Spanish
whereby members of subordinated or marginal groups
select and invent from materials transmitted by a domi
elites. The epistle ends with an imaginary question-and
nant or metropolitan culture. The term, originally coined
answer session in which, in a reversal of hierarchy, the
by Cuban sociologist Fernando Ortiz in the 1940s, aimed
king is depicted asking Guaman Poma questions about
to replace overly reductive concepts of acculturation and
how to reform the empire?a dialogue imagined across
the many lines that divide the Andean scribe from the
assimilation used to characterize culture under conquest.
imperial monarch, and in which the subordinated subject
single-handedly gives himself authority in the colonizers
language and verbal repertoire. In a way, it worked?this
extraordinary text did get written?but in a way it did
not, for the letter never reached its addressee.
To grasp the import of Guaman Pomas project, one
needs to keep in mind that the Incas had no system of
writing. Their huge empire is said to be the only known
instance of a full-blown bureaucratic state society built
and administered without writing. Guaman Poma con
structs his text by appropriating and adapting pieces of
the representational repertoire of the invaders. He does
While subordinate peoples do not usually control what
emanates from the dominant culture, they do determine
to varying extents what gets absorbed into their own and
what it gets used for. Transculturation, like autoethnogra
phy, is a phenomenon of the contact zone.
As scholars have realized only relatively recently, the
transcultural character of Guaman Pomas text is intri
cately apparent in its visual as well as its written compo
nent. The genre of the four hundred line drawings is
European?there seems to have been no tradition of rep
resentational drawing among the Incas?but in their exe
cution they deploy specifically Andean systems of spatial
symbolism that express Andean values and aspirations.1
In figure 1, for instance, Adam is depicted on the left
hand side below the sun, while Eve is on the right-hand
side below the moon, and slighdy lower than Adam. The
two are divided by the diagonal of Adams digging stick.
In Andean spatial symbolism, the diagonal descending
from the sun marks the basic line of power and authority
dividing upper from lower, male from female, dominant
from subordinate. In figure 2, the Inca appears in the
same position as Adam, with the Spaniard opposite, and
the two at the same height. In figure 3, depicting Spanish
abuses of power, the symbolic pattern is reversed. The
Spaniard is in a high position indicating dominance, but
on the “wrong” (right-hand) side. The diagonals of his
lance and that of the servant doing the flogging mark out
a line of illegitimate, though real, power. The Andean
figures continue to occupy the left-hand side of the pic
ture, but clearly as victims. Guaman Poma wrote that the
Spanish conquest had produced “un mundo al reves” ‘a
world in reverse/
In sum, Guaman Pomas text is truly a product of the
contact zone. If one thinks of cultures, or literatures, as dis
crete, coherently structured, monolingual edifices, Gua
man Pomas text, and indeed any autoethnographic work,
appears anomalous or chaotic?as it apparendy did to the
European scholars Pietschmann spoke to in 1912. If one
does not think of cultures this way, then Guaman Pomas
Fig. 3. Corregidor de minas. Catalog of Spanish abuses of
text is simply heterogeneous, as the Andean region was
indigenous labor force.
itself and remains today. Such a text is heterogeneous on
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Mary Louise Pratt 37
the reception end as well as the production end: it will read
visible, more pressing, and, like Guaman Poma’s text,
very differently to people in different positions in the con
more decipherable to those who once would have ignored
tact zone. Because it deploys European and Andean sys
them in defense of a stable, centered sense of knowledge
tems of meaning making, the letter necessarily means
and reality.
differently to bilingual Spanish-Quechua speakers and to
monolingual speakers in either language; the drawings
mean differently to monocultural readers, Spanish or
Contact and Community
Andean, and to bicultural readers responding to the
Andean symbolic structures embodied in European genres.
The idea of the contact zone is intended in part to con
In the Andes in the early 1600s there existed a literate
trast with ideas of community that underlie much of the
public with considerable intercultural competence and
thinking about language, communication, and culture
degrees of bilingualism. Unfo …
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