6 questions of project management

hello there are 6 questions of project management, the answer will be from the attachment, with each question I’m gonna put the number of module to get the answer from it 1-Discuss a good/best practice for project integration management (module 7)2-Project post-mortem is often viewed as a waste of time. What is your recommendation to improve its effective use? Please explain.(module8)3-Identify and discuss the most detrimental project execution challenge and suggest ways to manage it.(module8)4-For the course project that your team selected, discuss what the best leadership style to effective direct the project is. Please explain why.(module 8)5-What are the most important components of project kick-off discussion?(module7)6-Should project managers work to mitigate risks? Why or why not?(module7)
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MGMT 565
Project Management
Module 8A: How to Create a High
Performance Team
Assemble Project Team
• As project enters the project execution phase, the project core team now needs to expand
• Following are the key steps to form a great project team:
? Start on-boarding the core team members during chartering and expand judiciously as the
project team prepares to execute
? Share the charter to ensure members understand the project at a high level
enthusiastically
? Project manager should learn core team members’ personal motives and develop a plan
for individual improvement
? Develop sufficiently detailed plan (e.g. RACI) and assign team members to specific
deliverables activities
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Project Team Development
Common Characteristics
Development Stages
Forming – initial formation of team; familiarizing
with team operating methods
Storming – confront and resolve tension,
forming a high performance team
Norming – achieve new norm and reasonable
degree of comfort
Performing – develop bond among team
members, esp. as they confront challenges
Adjourning – overcome feeling of loss when
project team ends and team disbands
• Most teams can spend considerable time
across these stages
• Stressful situations can result in teams
stalling in early stages and making little
progress toward norming and performing
• Challenges and issues can result in
setbacks, even after achieving
performing stage; progress is non-linear
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What are the Attributes of a High
Performance Project Teams?
• Finding and acquiring the right people on the project team is only one step. With these
people starting on the project, how can project leads fully tap into the talents and create a
high performance project team?
• Edward J., Kinlaw, Claire S., and Kinlaw, Dennis C. (2000) studied the characteristics of
high performance in project teams and summarized their findings by addressing six
questions:
1.
How do project leaders and members understand team development?
2.
In what ways, if any, is team development related to project performance?
3.
How do the perceptions of project members and leaders about a project’s performance compare to the
perceptions of key project stakeholders?
4.
What is the role of project managers in team development?
5.
What are the characteristics of the best or superior project teams?
6.
What are the key team development functions that project managers (and other leaders) typically perform?
Source: Edward J., Kinlaw, Claire S., and Kinlaw, Dennis C., (2000). “Developing superior project teams, Scope Management
A Conference Paper,” http://www.pmi.org/learning/library/characteristics-high-performance-project-teams-8525
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Team Performance Assessment
• Q1: How do project leaders and members understand team development?
? Team development and project performance are interconnected, so
much so that they become one and the same.
? As such, project managers and members often do not identify actions
that focus on team development as separate from performing work.
•Interviewees demonstrated little to no awareness of team
development as separate and measurable activity
• Q2: In what ways, if any, is team development related to project
performance?
? They are intimately linked. The weight of team development is
proportional to the weight of project performance.
? Thus higher team development translates to higher project performance.
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Team Performance Assessments
• Q3: How do the perceptions of project members and leaders about a
project’s performance compare to the perceptions of key project
stakeholders?
? This the evaluation of project performance by customers, project teams, and
leaders are consistent. Therefore positive perception of one party is
consistent with the positive perception from another party.
• Q4: What is the role of project managers in team development?
? There is near universal agreement by everyone (e.g. team members and
project executives) that project managers determine how well projects
develop as teams.
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Team Performance
Assessments
• Q5: What are the
characteristics of
the best or superior
project teams?
Recognition
Team focus –
working on
project needs
versus
individual wants
Communication
Structure
Empowerment
There is general agreement
across projects about the
characteristics that are
associated with strong project
teams. The key characteristics
include:
Diversity
Competence
Interdependenc
e
Commitment
Cohesion
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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Team Performance
Assessments
• Q6: What are the
key team
development
functions that
project managers
(and other leaders)
typically perform?
Plans Team
Development
Initiates
Team
Development
Storyteller
Coaches
There is general
agreement across projects
about the key specific
functions performed by
project leaders in
developing the project into
a strong team.
Builds
Commitment
Models Team
Work
Builds
Cohesion
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
Integrates
Project Team
Development
and Project
Performance
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Other Characteristics of High Performance Team
Personal
characteristics of
project manager
Team
characteristics
Communication
considerations
• Drive to achieve and personal commitment to the project
• Understanding and acceptance of responsibilities
• Willingness to listen and consider alternative views
•
•
•
•
Right balance of skills
Willingness to help another
Emphasis on continuous improvement
Effective time management
• Share information among teams
• Discuss important (and contentious) topics openly
• When dealing with conflicts and disagreements, focus on tasks, not
on personalities
• Strive to overcome obstacles
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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MGMT 565
Project Management
Module 8B: How to Work With Project
Executives
Understanding Project
Executives
• Project executives establish the direction, secures funding and
resources, determines the key project success criteria, resolves
major obstacles, and approves changes.
• Members of this group include:
? Project sponsors – responsible for the day-to-day direction of the
project
? Steering teams – governance teams, often in larger projects,
responsible for cross-functional engagement and set directions
? Chief project office (CPO) – responsible for the overall project delivery
? Financiers – responsible for funding the projects (or finding the funding
for the project)
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Project Executive
Responsibilities
Project executives often have some, if not all, of these roles:
? Oversee the development of project business case, charter, and other key project
management deliverables
? Authorize funding and cash flow, often setting up guidelines and tolerances
? Authorize or reject changes to schedule, cost, or scope
? Spend time with project managers on a regular basis to address project concerns
? Work with the project manager by removing obstacles, mitigating negative risks, and
exploiting opportunities
? Report to the organizational leadership on project progress
? Support the project manager organizationally (and some times politically)
? Authorize project closure
? Celebrate with project managers and teams
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Working with Difficult Project
Executives
Poor project sponsorship is one of the most frequently cited reason for
project failure.
• Therefore, it is important for project managers to closely work with the
project sponsors and other executives to ensure continual support.
• There can also be difficult situations and personalities. Here are some
common ones:
1. Unclear direction from executives
2. Overly engaging sponsor
3. Sponsors/executives not found
4. Unrealistic expectations
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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Working with Difficult Project
Executives
• Unclear direction from executives
? Problem: Project executives have many expectations, and they are not compatible OR
consistent. Some times, there wants can be very confusing. Yet, these executives are holding
the project manager responsible if the deliverable does not meet their expectation.
? Solutions: Clarify the effort and solution often and early. Clearly document scope, schedule,
budget, and other project constraints and obtain their agreements and signoffs. In fact, it may
be a good idea to ask them to prioritize. Also ask them to complete this sentence: “I will
consider this project a success if…”.
• Overly engaging sponsor
? Problems: Project sponsors become too active in project, sometimes making decisions without
consulting or informing project managers. At best, they are trying to help. At worst, they want to
show of how smart or powerful they are.
? Solution: Meet with the sponsor individually and address these concerns. If sponsor is
discouraging some people from voicing their concerns, then ask for them. For example,
mention this in the meeting: “Kate had a wonderful idea the other day. Can we…”
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Working with Difficult Project
Executives
• Sponsors/executives not found
? Problem: The opposite problem can occur too. Some sponsors are disengaged completely
and unfairly delegate the project managers on key decisions that the executives should make
(or least be involved in making decisions).
? Solutions: Meet with the sponsor individually and ask them to be engaged OR ask them to
give you the formal authority to make key decisions (assuming you are ready). In other cases,
create a steering committee for large projects and engage the team rather than one individual.
• Unrealistic expectations
? Problems: Project executives expect the project manager (and the project team) to boil the
entire ocean and solve world hunger.
? Solutions: Focus on scope management and requirement prioritization and separate the
“wants” from the “needs”. Agree on a prioritization framework early in the project planning and
apply it diligently. Also, document risks. Finally work with the subject matter experts and other
managers/leads on the project to agree on a set of expectations. This way, the executives will
receive the same message from the project team.
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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MGMT 565 Project
Management
Module 8C: How to Monitor and Control
Projects
Monitoring and Controlling
Key Concepts
• Monitoring – Collecting, recording, and reporting project
performance information
• Evaluating – Based on data collected by monitoring, making
judgments regarding the quality and effectiveness of project
performance and deviation from the plan
• Controlling – When deviation occurs, bring actual performance
back into compliance with the plan
• Auditing – Provide objective analysis and review of the project
and the project management processes to ensure performance
— actual versus planned
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Monitoring and Controlling
• In general, the project manager mainly wants to monitor:
? Time (Schedule)
? Cost (Budget)
? Scope (Project Performance)
• But there can be additional considerations:
? Quality
? Vendor Performance
? Adoption (preparation and actual accomplishment)
? Team Satisfaction
? Sponsor and Executive Support
• Do not want to avoid collecting necessary data because it is hard to get
• Do not want to collect too much data
• The next step is to design a reporting system that gets the data to the proper
people in a timely and understandable manner
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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Signs of Project Trouble
•
•
•
•
•
•
Muddy Waters
Mysterious Stakeholders
Unconstrained Constraints
Suspicious Status Reports
Discord and Drama
Unresponsive sponsor
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Information Needs &
Reporting
• Everyone should be tied into the reporting system
• Reports should address each level
• Not at same depth and frequency for every level
? Lower level needs detailed information
? Senior management levels need overview reports
• Report frequency is typically high at low levels and less
frequent at higher levels
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The Reporting Process
•
•
•
•
Reports must contain relevant data
Must be issued frequently
Should be available in time for control
Distribution of project reports depends on interest
? For senior management, may be few milestones
? For project manager, there may be many critical points
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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Benefits of Detailed & Timely
Reports
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mutual understanding of the goals
Awareness of the progress of parallel activities
Understanding the relationship of tasks
Early warning signals of problems
Minimizing the confusion
Higher visibility to top management
Keeping client up to date
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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Report Types
•
•
•
Routine – Reports that are issued on a regular basis or each
time the project reaches a milestone
Exception – Reports that are generated when a usual
condition occurs or as an informational vehicle when a
unusual decision is made
Special Analysis – Reports that result from studies
commissioned to look into unexpected problems
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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MGMT 565 Project
Management
Module 8D: How to Manage Special
Situations on Projects
Managing “Situations” on
Projects
• In an ideal world, projects proceed smoothly from planning with no
deviations between actual and target.
• Unfortunately, this is far from the truth in most situations. Projects are
bombarded by situations can raise problems or cause changes. Four
types of situations in particular are as follows:
? Assumptions
? Risks
? Issues
? Changes
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Assumption Management
According to PMI’s Body of Knowledge,
• Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or
certain
• Assumptions affect all aspects of project planning, and are part of the progressive
elaboration of the project
• Project teams frequently identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their
planning processes
• Assumptions generally involve a degree of risk as it is only “considered” to be true
But, assumptions sometimes do change. Consequently, it is important to manage
assumptions as risks (or issues if changes occurred)
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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Risk, Issue, and Change
Management
Definition:
Risks are uncertainties and can be both positive &
negative. When risk events occur, they become
“surprises.”
Example: A business department may not provide feedback in time.
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Risk, Issue, and Change
Management
Definition:
Issues are obstacles, problems, or real concerns
that are already hindering the progress of the
project.
A business department did not provide feedback by the deadline,
which was a few days ago.
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Risk, Issue, and Change
Management
Definition:
Changes are alterations resulting in deviations from
previously agreed upon standards.
Changes can be related to one or more of these
factors: schedule, resources, cost, scope, qualities,
project management processes, and other
components of the project.
Example: Our developer agreed to a new feature without informing
the Project Manager.
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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Risk, Issue, and Change
Management
Risk Management
• The purpose of risk management is to reduce the overall project risk
to a level that is acceptable.
• The cost of risk mitigation is often higher when found later
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Risk, Issue, and Change
Management
Risk Management
Best practices call for the creation of a risk register
• Contains risk description
• Quantitative or qualitative analysis of
? Probability of occurrence
? Severity of impact
• Risk owner
• Risk response / Mitigation plan
• Contingency plan
PMO Advisory highly recommends our clients to create a registry of common risks to
facilitate risk mitigation before they occur.
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Risk, Issue, and Change
Management
Issue Management
• The goal of issue management is to successfully tackle or resolve problems, remove
obstacles, or address the real concerns.
• Unlike risks, the probability of an issue is 100%
• Similar to risk, managing an issue requires an issue log – a living document that lists all
issues including the ones that may occur in the future
? Despite being the de facto owners of project issues, PMs should still assign issues to
trusted team members
? An issue log should contain an analysis of urgency and importance
? All issues require a course of action (sometimes immediate) to address them
• As PMs find an issue, it needs to be captured and documented
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Risk, Issue, and Change
Management
Change Management
At its core, change management is about making change explicit and
known:
• The decision to accept or deny change requires active participation and
acknowledgement from all relevant stakeholders
• Unknown changes result in scope creep, cost overruns, schedule
delays, quality problems, and overworked staff
• In some situations, sometimes changes are made without PM’s
agreement or knowledge
• Similar to risks and issues, changes should also be formally captured in
a change registry
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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Risk, Issue, and Change Management
Examples of a Risk Register and Issue Log
Example of a Risk Register
ID #
Category
Title
Description
Risk
Probability
Status
Impact
Project Impact Initiator
Level
Owner
Date
Date
Created Resolved
Risk Response
Mitigation Plan
Contingency Plan
001
002
003
004
005
006
Example of an Issue Log
ID #
Category
Name
Description
Status
Severity
Initiator
Owner
Submitted
Date
001
002
003
004
005
006
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Due
Date
Action Plan
Resolution
Resolved
Date
Risk, Issue, and Change
Management
Examples of a Change Log
ID#
Requester
Title of Change
Change
Status
Priority
Date
Required
Authorization
Investigate
Implement
Impacts
Authorizer
001
002
003
004
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Budget
Effort
Schedule
Expectation Management
For projects, an expectation is a belief in the future of a desired outcome. When achieved
especially if exceeded, it will bring positive satisfaction. The reverse is often also true.
One of the best thinkers in this field is Victor Vroom. In his seminal book, Work and
Motivation, he proposed a now famous theory named the “Expectancy Theory.”
Source: Vroom, Victor H., Work and Motivation, New York: Wiley, 1994.
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
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MGMT 565 Project
Management
Module 8E: How to Close Projects
About Project Closure
• All Projects end… somehow
? Project is done, objectives have been achieved, strong closure
? Hopefully clients are happy, but not always
? Project limped along, fund depleted or situation changed, project either abruptly or
eventually closed
? No projects run forever
• Even though some zombie projects sleep walk for a long time
• However project ends, teams disassemble
? Disbanding project teams can be painful but nece …
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