A bucket wheel excavator SRs 1200X 24/4

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Improving Repair Management of Bucket
Wheel Excavator SRs1200 by Application
of Project Management Concept
Impact Factor: 0.82
Petar Jovanovic
Vladimir Obradovic
University of Belgrade
University of Belgrade
Available from: Vladimir Obradovic
Retrieved on: 11 January 2016
Strojniški vestnik – Journal of Mechanical Engineering 54(2008)7-8, 565-573
UDC 656.088:621.879.324
Paper received: 24.08.2007
Paper accepted: 19.12.2007
Improving Repair Management of Bucket Wheel Excavator
SRs1200 by Application of Project Management Concept
Brane Semolic1,* – Petar Jovanovic2 – Sava Kovacev3 – Vladimir Obradovic2
Faculty of Logistics, Celje, Slovenia
University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Kolubara Metal, Lazarevac, Serbia
The losses resulting from the defect or breakdown of equipment amount to incredible sums, often
far higher than the cost of maintenance, repair or reconstruction. It is for this reason that a large number
of methods for maintenance and repair of industrial and other plants have been developed. Elaborated in
much detail, these methods nevertheless leave a lot of space for improvement. The improvement is
primarily viewed in the context of the management of time, resources and costs of such enterprises. This
paper presents a certain concept of project management the implementation of which may improve the
maintenance and repair projects. The concept was tested in practice and confirmed in the project of
revitalizing of the bucket wheel excavator SRs1200 at MB Kolubara, one of the most complex projects of
the kind in the region recently, in terms of technical complexity of reconstruction, the number of
participants, the number of activities, cost and time of realization, as well as other elements of the
project. The application of this concept allowed for achieving significant results in the technical and
financial fields, which will further be analyzed in detail.
© 2008 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.
Keywords: bucket wheel excavators, maintance management, reapair management, project
Simple consumer items such as small
electronics, small appliances, and mechanical
devices are expected to work without fail. For
communications devices, and even automobiles,
most consumers will tolerate very few failures.
For some very complex systems such as nuclear
power plants and rocket propulsion systems,
failures can be disastrous and very high
reliabilities are required [1].
Therefore, proper maintenance and repair
in terms of time, cost and quality is of utmost
The result of ineffective maintenance
management in the USA only represents a loss of
more than $60 billion each year. The losses of
production time and product quality that result
management have had a dramatic impact on the
US industries’ ability to compete with Japan and
other countries that have implemented more
advanced manufacturing and maintenance
management philosophies [2].
Smaller countries have to pay even more
attention to the efficient maintenance and repair
management of the big industrial systems, since
their competitive position is far more difficult and
losses could have substantial influence on the
country’s economy and stability as a whole.
Traditional approaches of maintenance and
repair management could give acceptable results
but they have to be combined with contemporary
management disciplines. Modern, specialized
management approaches, such as change
management, innovation management, risk
management, project management are in a
process of exploring and developing new
possibilities and ways of application.
Various methods and techniques of project
management, if adopted properly, could
substantially improve processes of maintenance
and repair of industrial and other big pieces of
Industrial and process plants typically
employ several types of maintenance anagement
a. run-to-failure
When a machine breaks down, fix it. This is
a reactive, the most expensive method of
*Corr. Author’s Address: University of Maribor, Faculty of Logistics, Mariborska 7, 3000 Celje
Strojniški vestnik – Journal of Mechanical Engineering 54(2008)7-8
maintenance management. The major expenses
associated with this type of maintenance
management are high spare parts inventory cost,
high overtime labor costs, high machine
downtime, and low production availability. To
minimize the impact on production created by
unexpected machine failures, maintenance
personnel must also be able to react immediately
to all machine failures [2].
Breakdown maintenance was practiced in
the early days of production technology and was
reactive in nature. Equipment was allowed to run
until a functional failure occurred. Secondary
damage was often observed along with a primary
failure [3].
b. preventive maintenance
Maintenance tasks are based on elapsed time
or hours of operation. All preventive maintenance
management programs assume that machines will
degrade within a time frame typical of their
particular classification. The normal result of
using statistics to schedule maintenance is either
unnecessary repairs or catastrophic failure [2].
Some of the preventive maintenance
procedures have been developed; however, they
lack details to make them efficient and safe, and
to reinforce sound maintenance practices [4].
c. predictive maintenance
Predictive maintenance is monitoring the
vibration of rotating machinery in an attempt to
detect incipient problems and to prevent
catastrophic failure [2].
d. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
The concept was developed by Deming in the
late 1950s. It is a program of zero breakdowns
and zero defects aimed at improving or
eliminating the following six crippling shop-floor
losses [2]:
• equipment breakdowns
• setup and adjustment slowdowns
• idling and short-term stoppages
• reduced capacity
• quality-related losses
• startup/restart losses
e. Reliability-Centered Maintenance
If machinery and plant systems are properly
designed, installed, operated, and maintained,
they will not fail, and their useful life is almost
infinite. Few, if any, catastrophic failures are
random, and some outside influence, such as
operator error or improper repair, causes all
failures [2].
These and other traditional ways of
maintenance and repair management have
significant drawbacks. Various issues could
emerge as a reason why these strategies do not
give best results in terms of objectives, costs, time
and quality. If we focus on these elements:
objectives, costs, time and quality, it is more than
obvious that tools and techniques, as well the
process of project management should be applied
in order to improve repair and maintenance
management as a whole [5].
Even though, many authors recognize
engineering and maintenance as specific projects
[6], project management methodology is not
applied at all or at least not in a proper way in
these areas in transition economies.
This process of project management is
intended to guide project managers and project
teams in effectively performing key process steps,
such as identifying the true need defining the
project objective, creating an execution schedule,
and maintaining control throughout the entire
project [7].
Project management is the application of
knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project
activities to meet project requirements [8].
maintenance projects using computer supported
Critical Path Method (CPM) techniques was one
of the earliest applications of computers in
support of the maintenance function. The central
idea behind development and use of such systems
was to identify opportunities for parallel
execution of tasks associated with a turnaround
project so that available manpower and resources
may be utilized as efficiently as possible to
minimize equipment downtime [9].
Typically, the well-designed CPM system
produces reports which show how limited
resources may be used to complete a project in
the shortest possible time. Alternatively, the
system may show the manpower necessary for
completion of a project in a given length of time
In spite of the CPM system’s “head start”
in use by maintenance groups, this potentially
profitable tool soon was abandoned by a
surprisingly large number of plants and
Most companies said the available CPM
systems were too complex or too cumbersome for
effective use in maintenance turnaround projects
Semolic, B. – Jovanovic, P. – Kovacev, S. – Obradovic, V.
Strojniški vestnik – Journal of Mechanical Engineering 54(2008)7-8, 565-573
or small construction jobs [9].
There are two major issues for abandoning
of the CPM techniques.
First of all CPM is not a project
Even though project management has been
in existence for more than 40 years, there are still
different views and misconceptions about what
project management really is. Textbooks on
operations research or management science still
have chapters entitled “Project management” that
discuss only PERT (and CPM) scheduling
techniques. A textbooks on organizational design
recognized project management as simply another
organizational form [10].
Every day
engineers, salespeople,
technicians, and countless others are thrust into
the role of project manager. They’re very good at
what they do. In fact, they’re typically the most
technically knowledgeable engineers or the most
successful salespeople [7].
Industrial and mechanical engineers
usually posses substantial technical knowledge
regarding the industry and equipment that they
are involved with, but not the knowledge of
project management as a process.
The art of project management relates to
the fact that projects are really about people
getting things done. Project management requires
a keen knowledge of human behavior and the
interpersonal skills. The second aspect involves
the knowledge, understanding, and skillful
application of a prescribed project management
process [7].
The customer satisfaction is another very
important issue in project management. Customer
satisfaction, connected with the criteria for
successful project objectives realization, is the
basic starting point for the introduction of project
excellence [18].
The project management is a scientifically
based and practically confirmed concept that uses
appropriate methods of organization, planning
and control in order to rationally coordinate all
the necessary resources and activities in order that
a certain project be executed in a most efficient
manner [11].
There is a number of approaches to project
management, the best known and the most largely
accepted of which are certainly those proposed by
the International Project Management Association
(IPMA) and the Project Management Institute
To the purpose of the maintenance and
repair of industrial equipment project in Serbia,
we propose the project devised by Jovanovic [11],
which in turn sublimes the elements of other
proposed project management models. According
to this concept, it is necessary to primarily
identify the basic elements of the execution of
any project to be planned, monitored and
controlled, and these are: time, resources and
costs. Therefore this concept of project
management includes three basic modules – time
management, resources management and project
execution costs management, as shown in Figure
1. Planning, monitoring and control over time,
resources and costs of the project execution help
achieve the basic objectives of the project, i.e.,
meeting the planned deadlines for the project
completion within the planned costs [11].
According to all previously mentioned, we
have come to the following hypothesis: the
application of project management and the
general concept mentioned above, with specific
procedures adjusted for this purpose, could
substantially contribute to the time and cost
reduction in maintenance and repair projects.
In order to prove the above stated
hypothesis, we applied the project management
concept to one of the biggest repair projects in
After the breakdown of the bucket wheel
excavator SRs 1200x 24/4 at the surface
excavation area “Field D” in the Mining Basin
Kolubara, Serbia, which burned away and was cut
off from exploitation, which has in years caused
a significant delay in the production at strip
mines, and consequently the coal tailings, the
Electric Power Industry of Serbia decided to
reerect – revitalize the excavator to which aim
they announced an international tender for the
bucket wheel excavator
revitalizing project
realization, to be funded by a cheap credit
provided by the Government of the Federal
Republic of Germany through the “Kreditanstalt
für Wiederaufbau” bank for reconstruction of
Improving Repair Management of Bucket Wheel Excavator SRs1200 by Application of Project Management Concept
Strojniški vestnik – Journal of Mechanical Engineering 54(2008)7-8
– Milestones
– Time estimatation
– Time schedule
– Material estimation
– Workforce estimation
– Workforce allocatio
– Acivity cost
– Cost plan
– Progress report
– Milestone report
– Supplies report
– Activity cost report
– Cumulative cost
Fig. 1. A General project management concept
The tender was announced and carried out aided
and conveyed by the consultants VEAG Power
Consult of Cottbus, Germany. The tender was
won by a German company FAM of Magdeburg,
representing the consortium including Kolubara
Metal (hereinafter KM) of Vreoci, Serbia, as
main subcontractor for machinery equipment and
a complete assembly and installment and ABB of
Cottbus, Germany, as main subcontractor for
electric equipment.
The basic objective of the project was to
reduce the lagging in the strip mines in the
Mining Basin of Kolubara, which will directly
affect the coal stock balance to be delivered by
the MB Kolubara to the Steam Power Plant
“Nikola Tesla” at Obrenovac. In order to achieve
this basic objective, it was the obligation of the
subcontractors and suppliers in the realization of
the scope of deliveries and services in the
contracted period and for the anticipated –
contracted (fixed) value of the transaction, to
complete the revitalizing and launch the bucket
wheel excavator SRs 1201 destroyed in the fire.
The resulting sub objectives are the following:
The realization of the first revitalizing of
the bucket wheel excavator in the MB
Kolubara, which in turn will serve as
example for the future revitalizations in
terms of the method and scope of
The modernization from the aspect of the
solutions applied both in the machine and
in the electric sections, as regards the fact
that the original solutions date back to
1968 and that
manifold changes
meanwhile occurred in the regulations
regarding this matter as well as in the
solutions, so that the constructive and
designing measures undertaken in the
revitalizing of the bucket wheel excavator
resulted in the increase in the excavator
capacity from 3450 m3/h to 4100 m3/h of
loose soil;
Allowing for further revitalizing by
providing a reliable large capacity
Technology transfer from German firms to
the national ones.
The contracted liability of the KM towards the
FAM as the consortium representative includes
the following:
designing (designing detailed engineering
for machine equipment);
malfunction detection (including special
purpose tests) and revitalization
Semolic, B. – Jovanovic, P. – Kovacev, S. – Obradovic, V.
Strojniški vestnik – Journal of Mechanical Engineering 54(2008)7-8, 565-573
machine equipment and steel structure;
manufacturing, transport and assembly of
the entire revitalizing and new equipment
at the assembly site at Zeoke – “Field D”
participation in functional trials of the
assembled tool in the free mode of
participation in the launching of the
excavator in the full load mode of
The contracted value of the transaction of
the Kolubara Metal was stipulated at
3,095,000.00 EUR.
Bearing in mind that the key elements of the
bucket wheel excavator SRs 1201 revitalizing were
the deadline, the budget and the participation in the
consortium, the general management of the KM
made a firm decision to apply the project
management approach with all its elements in this
job, primarily on the basis of the proposed project
management concept, as well as the project
management procedure adapted to the projects of
overhauling and revitalizing of heavy machinery
equipment as given in [11].
To the purpose of increasing the capacity
of the KM in the field of project management the
experts from the University of Belgrade and the
Serbian Project Management Association
(YUPMA), member of the International Project
Management Association (IPMA) were recruited.
In accordance with the concept, the project
organization structure and the KM project team
were formed first, to be engaged in revitalizing
work. As there is a large number of participants in
the project, the project organization structure is
rather complex and is shown in Figure 2.
The project itself was conducted by the KM
project team consisting of a number of functionally
different experts, so that a multidisciplinary approach
could be achieved. The team included the project
manager (the team leader), 1 mechanical engineer, an
expert in the assembly/dismantling activities, 1 civil
engineer, an expert in steel structures, 1 mechanical
engineer of machinery equipment, 1 electrical
engineer, 1 graduate process engineer for antirust
protection, 2 mechanical and 1 electrical technicians,
with an occasional inclusion of 1 graduate process
engineer specialized in welding. In addition to the
mentioned team members, the experts from the
Serbian Project Management Association were
engaged as consultants and provided professional
support in all the phases of project management.
The given project management concept
meant that the execution would be planned in detail,
so that the plan of the overall project was obtained,
which in turn would serve as basis for further
management. Devising the project plan meant
identification of all activities to be carried out as per
contract, devising the WBS (Work Breakdown
Structure) and determining the key events.
Fig. 2. The bucket wheel excavator SRs 1201 revitalizing project organization
Improving Repair Management of Bucket Wheel Excavator SRs1200 by Application of Project Management Concept
Strojniški vestnik – Journal of Mechanical Engineering 54(2008)7-8, 565-573
A special problem in planning referred to
identifying the prospective newly established
activities (additional works or supplies caused by
a detailed malfunction detection of equipment
previously estimated as usable, possible delays in
manufacturing by the subcontractors, etc…). On
the basis of the detailed plan of activities a time
plan and an estimation of the duration of the
project were worked out.
The further structuring of the bucket wheel
excavator SRs1201 x 24/4 revitalizing was
worked out by coordinating individual activities
to be carried out with the persons and/or sectors
in charge of these activities, as well as
responsibility the function bears. It was in this
way that the estimate and allocations of
workforce, as well as …
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