According to Smith & Parker (2015) Neuman based her systems model on wholism

According to Smith & Parker (2015) Neuman based her systems model on wholism. A dynamic systems perspective of energy and variable
interaction with the environment. Neuman also believed that a system is an order that holds together it’s parts. Each of us interact with, and
exchange with our environment. This exchange can move us either to or away from a state of stability. Neuman referred to external forces as
stressors that impact either positively or negatively the system of patient’s.
Neuman goes on to say that each system is unique but includes physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental and spiritual
components. When a person becomes ill, these stressors have broken through the systems defense mechanism and are causing harm.
From a nursing perspective it is the nurse’s responsibility to determine the appropriate intervention to counteract the stressor.
This model can be applied to most any patient-nurse relationship in any setting. Although some patient’s cannot be brought back to a
state of wholeness or wellness, they can be brought to a point where the stressors are controlled as much as possible.
Hardin (2016) states that clinical guidelines in Neuman’s Systems Model lend themselves nicely to a multidisciplinary perspective.
Hospice is designed to function in a multidisciplinary fashion. Patient’s are cared for by nurses, social workers, aides, chaplains and
counselors, and volunteers. In the world of Hospice, Neuman’s Model makes perfect sense, her model includes the physiological, psychological,
sociocultural,developmental, and spiritual stressors of patient’s. Hospice also views patient’s from a holistic standpoint, including all of the mentioned
areas into the plan of care for the patient and family. Hospice clinicians realize that a force such as Cancer, COPD, CHF, etc. has invaded the
patient system, and their defenses were not able to combat this invasion. Hospice clinicians also realize that the person cannot be returned to a point
of wholeness or wellness, but efforts are made to mitigate the damages and suffering the patient experiences during this invasion of an outside
stressor.
Nursing outcomes are based on goals set by the patient/family and the clinician. As the patient achieves or does not achieve those goals, nursing
outcomes can be evaluated, reassessed and adjusted to help move the patient to the desired goal. Neuman refers to a diagnostic taxonomy, this
organized client system, level of response, client subsystem responding to the stressor, the source of the stress and it’s type. Using this identifier a
clinician can utilize Nuemans Model in most any clinical setting in order to formulate a plan of care.
Neuman’s Systems Model encompasses the entire being, looking at every angle of a person’s system. This model then guides the clinician to
look for ways to determine what outside force may be attacking the patient’s system. From this, medical personnel can formulate a plan to
alleviated the stressor and help bring the patient back to wholeness, or at least to a new “normal”.
References
Hardin, S., PhD. (2016, May 12) The Neuman Systems Model, Retrieved November 29, 2017, from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download? doi=10.1.929.3458=rep=repl+typ=pdf
Smith, M.C., & Parker, M.E., (2015).Nursing theories and nursing practice (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA:F.A. Dais

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