Advanced Tech in Journalism

I have a course called Advanced Tech in Journalism. I need to finish a homework. This assignment is very important to me, make sure you have good writing and grammar skills. You have to finish it independently and I will check it.Discussion: Image File FormatsThis discussion post allows you to demonstrate your understanding of image file format (Week 10 Readings). As discussed in the current weekly course readings, there are several commonly used image file formats, including JPEG, TIFF, PNG and many others. As students studying journalism, it is important that you understand the image formats used in the industry.For this week’s discussion, answer the following questions:What image file formats do you commonly use when shooting photos?Why would a photographer decide not to shoot using in the JPEG format?Why would a designer create a vector file and not a raster file?What is a PSD file, and how does this file format differ from other image file formats?Requirements:300 – 400 wordsWell-written sentencesProper grammar, spelling and punctuationPlease read and download the file, according to the contents of the file to answer the question. If you do not read it, I think I’ll get 0.
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Image File Formats Advantages /
Disadvantages
Image File Formats (Most common)
JPG or JPEG
Advantages – Small File Size – Ideal for web use and email. Varying rates of
compression reduce file size further, at a cost of loss of original image quality.
Recognized file format on all computers as well as displaying on digital photo
frames, mobile phones, DVD players etc.Ideal for small prints such as instant
photo booths.
Disadvantages – Lossy compression, as the file is compressed to save space, it loses
some of the original file data and therefore degrades image quality. Further editing
on the image can degrade quality even further. Only suitable for smaller print
output, as on larger images, compression artifacts and noise can be present on final
print.
TIFF
Advantages – Uncompressed image retains maximum amount of image data from
the camera. Can be compressed to reduce file sizes using mathematical algorithms
such as ZIP without loss of image data. Standard format for printing either at
home or dedicated Photo lab.
Disadvantages – Large file sizes, around 20 mb for a 12 megapixel image, so larger
storage devices needed for long term archival use. Good specification computer
needed to process and load images. Most website and online images galleries do
not support TIFF uploading. Slow speeds when transferring to online galleries that
do support TIFF files.
PSD
Advantages – A format created by Adobe for Photoshop use, it contains all the
original image data as well as any layers, adjustments and full image history. Ideal
for use when processing images as a user can save the file and then go back to it at
a later date.
Disadvantages – Generally only recognized by Photoshop software and certain
other image manipulation software.
Understanding File Formats
First, it is important to understand there are two kinds of graphics created on a computer:
raster images and vector images.
Raster images are composed of a grid of
pixels (often called bitmap images).
Vector images consist of points, lines and
curves based on mathematical definitions.
Raster (bitmap) images require higher resolutions to appear smooth. Raster images are
best used for photographs and images with
subtle shading, (continuous tone images).
The edges of vector graphics remain smooth
at any size or resolution. Fonts, line art (charts
and graphs) and illustrations are typically
vector-based.
Raster file formats include TIFF, JPG, GIF,
BMP, PNG, PSD, EPS.
Vector file formats include EMF, EPS, PDF, PS.
Raster File Formats
Raster file formats differ by the amount of data contained in the image. The smaller the file, the less
data there is. The amount of data affects both the quality and the color of the image. As a rule of
thumb, on-screen viewing requires less quality and fewer colors than printed material. Below is a list
of raster file formats, listed from higher quality to lesser quality.
TIFF (Tagged-Image File Format) — A large raster file. It is used when a high resolution photographic
file is needed. Typically used for print production.
PSD (Photoshop Document) — An Adobe Photoshop raster file in its native file format. Layered
Photoshop files default to .psd. To save in other formats, use the Layers: Flatten Image command.
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) — Although typically a vector art file format, if an image is saved as a
Photoshop EPS file, it is a large raster file similar to a TIFF file.
JPG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) — A compressed raster file. It is used when a small
photographic file is needed (typically for the Web). JPG files can be created at a variety of
compression levels. More compression equals less quality. It is important to know the resolution of a
JPG file to determine if the image is of high enough quality to be used for print production.
PNG (Portable Network Graphics) — A small, limited-color raster file, used for on-screen viewing.
Designed to replace the GIF file format, it has more color options than a GIF file.
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) — A small, limited-color raster file. It is used for on-screen
viewing only, when a very small file with just a few solid colors is needed.
BMP (Windows Bitmap) — A raster file specific to Windows with limited color options.
continued
Vector File Formats
Vector file formats are created using mathematical definitions to produce smooth paths. They can
be scaled in size without any loss of quality. They are typically used for type, illustrations and line art.
EMF (Enhanced MetaFile) — A MicroSoft Windows vector art file.
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) — A file created by an illustration program (e.g., Adobe Illustrator,
Corel Draw, etc.) using the postscript language. EPS files can also contain raster images, but
typically a vector eps file indicates a line art illustration, such as a logo or a graph. It is important
to note the difference between a vector eps and a raster eps file. When printed, artwork saved as a
vector eps file will be very crisp (for example, an Excel graph brought into Adobe Illustrator), while
artwork saved as a raster eps may have soft edges (for example, an Excel graph brought into Adobe
Photoshop).
PDF (Portable Document Format) — An Adobe Acrobat file that can be both vector and raster,
depending on the original artwork. If the original artwork is a vector file, the pdf will be vector art;
if the original artwork is a raster file, the pdf will be a raster file. Pdf files are often a combination
of both. Pdf files are compressed—like jpg files, the compression can be created at a variety
of compression levels, which have an impact on the end quality of the reproduction. For print
purposes, pdf files should be saved at the highest resolution possible, which is only possible if the
pdf file is created using Adobe Acrobat Distiller or a PDF creation program (e.g., Adobe Acrobat
Professional).
PS (PostScript) — A file in the PostScript language, created by using a PostScript print driver.
Color Modes
Monochrome Images consisting of only black and white.
Grayscale Images with 256 shades of gray, ranging from black to white.
CMYK Primarily for full color printing. CMYK is an acronym for cyan, magenta, yellow and black, the
standard colors used in offset printing.
RGB Primarily for on-screen viewing. RGB is an acronym for red, green and blue, the colors used for
computer monitors and video electronics.
Resolution
Print resolution is measured in dots per inch or dpi. The higher the resolution, the higher the quality
of the printing. Minimum resolution for photographic images is 300 dpi at final reproduction size
(100 percent). Minimum resolution for monochrome line art (diagrams, drawings and graphs) is 1200
dpi at final reproduction size (100 percent).
Computer monitors display images at approximately 72 dpi. That means images saved for Web
viewing on a computer are not typically suitable for printing.

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