African Literature Essay

So everything is done. However, what the essay is missing is the uses of all the sources incorporated into the essay. So please incorporate all of the sources in the essay and analyze to the thesis. At the same time you need to incorporate two readings into the essay too. PLEASE READ THE INSTRUCTION BELOW CAREFULLY! . Students are to select two readings that have been covered in the class, and choose a specific issue to analyze and explore within their’ essays. Some of the issues that have already been covered in the readings include racial discrimination, segregation, mass incarceration, voting rights, income inequality, poverty, sexism, access to equal education, unethical medical practices, lack of equal access to health care, White mob violence of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Black on Black violence, and the police shootings of countless African Americans. Students are to examine and analyze the similarities as well as the differences between two texts that they chose to write about. The writing assignment should consist of 1000–1500 words. Writing minimum requirement: 4–6 pages (double-spaced). The essay itself must consist of an introduction, 3 or more fully developed body paragraphs and a conclusion along with a separate works cited page. The assignment must be written in MLA, APA, or Chicago formats. Students need to include at least 10 sources for this assignment: five academic journal articles, three books, and two dissertations or two MA theses. Before turning in this written assignment, an annotated bibliography must be submitted first. In advance, students should consider some of these questions when writing their’ essays:How are the authors using language in the texts? How do the authors use language to communicate certain ideas to the reader? What words jump out at you from the texts? Why? What type of atmosphere do the authors create in these texts? What stands out to you in these pieces of writing? Who is the intended audience in both texts? Where is the setting in these stories or writings? Describe something that stands out to you in the settings between the two stories or writings? Where do you think these events are taking place? What are some of the points that the authors raise in their stories or pieces of writing? Why are these writings important to understanding the Black experience? What do we learn about history and society from reading these texts? Do we learn anything new or important about African American people and their’ culture from these texts? What do you think was the authors’ purpose for writing these stories? What do the authors want us to learn or take away from their stories? What are the authors’ purpose in writing these texts? What specifically are the authors trying to communicate to the audience through their writings? What do the authors want their’ audiences to take away from their stories or pieces of writing? How do these stories or pieces of writing help us to address deeper societal issues like racial discrimination, sexism, classicism, homophobia, Islamophobia, gentrification, unemployment, income inequality, mass incarceration, unethical medical practices in prison, poverty, voting rights, access to equal education, lack of equal access to health care, Civil Rights, Human Rights, Black on Black violence, and the police shootings of countless African Americans in the present day? Do the authors provide any solutions to these deeper societal issues in their writings? If you feel the authors failed this objective, do you have any solutions to these deeper societal issues? In final, how do these writings help us to learn more about the human experience?HERE ARE THE READINGS YOU CAN USE IN THE ESSAYThe Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Or Gustavus Vassa, The Afriican Written By Himself On Being Brought from Africa to America by: phillis Wheatley To the Right Honourable William, Early of Dartmouth by: Phillis Wheatley Letter to Thomas Jefferson by: Benjamin Banneker A Charge by: Prince HallA Thanksgiving Sermon by: Absalom Jones An Address to Those Who Keep Slaves and Approve the Practice by: Richard Allen.

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Kevin Le
Chris Bell
AFRS 210
03 December 2017
Racial Discrimination
Thesis Statement: Racial discrimination affecting African Americans is a pervasive
phenomenon that carries adverse impacts.
Racial discrimination is regarded as less favorable treatment of an individual compared to
another in similar circumstances owing to differences in race, color, nationality, and color.
Racial discrimination has pervaded American social life for centuries tracing far as slave trade.
The notion that one race is superior than another has resulted in a society where people with dark
and brown skin color are given unfavorable treatment compared to those of Anglo origins. Racial
discrimination has extended to all aspects of American social, religious, economic, and political
lives and carries adverse effects for victims. Racial discrimination affecting African Americans
is a pervasive phenomenon that carries adverse impacts.
First, African American and any other races that experience racial discrimination are
protected from any form of discrimination by law. However, legislations have not eradicated the
phenomenon as African Americans are still experiencing unfair treatment in different spheres of
life. The focus of laws by the government has been to grant all citizens equal rights regardless of
their race. However, racism is still existent in various forms, from institutionalized forms of
racism to blatant maltreatment of African Americans by police, with disparities based on race in
healthcare, education, employment opportunities, and housing.
Assari et al. maintains that racial discrimination has a correlation with mental health
issues among the youth as they transition to adulthood. Men are more affected by perceived
racial discrimination as opposed to their female counterparts. Based on unfavorable treatment,
men focus on unhealthy lifestyles owing to lack of opportunities to pursue better interests. Crime
is pervasive in neighborhoods inhabited by African Americans and Mexicans and other
unhealthy lifestyles like drug abuse are more present among these communities. Racial
discrimination has driven men from these communities to adopt such lifestyles in an effort to
fend for themselves. The implication, according to Assari et al., is that youth among African
Americans grow up with unequal opportunities and more susceptible to incarceration.
Overtime, racism in America has become an institutionalized phenomenon. According to
Littlewood, social and political organizations have adopted policies aimed at discriminating
against minorities. Institutional racism is manifested in government officers, companies, religion,
educational organizations among other social and political settings. Institutional racism is
portrayed in military, justice system and carries adverse impacts on a bulk of people based on
their racial group. Racism in America has been exacerbated by institutions that perpetuate
discrimination against people of color. For instance, the institution of slavery preyed on blacks
by keeping them in bondage, with institutions like churches playing a central role in maintaining
segregation. Racial discrimination in health has resulted in unethical medical experiments
conducted on people of color and health disparities are still present today. Institutional racism is
portrayed through racial profiling that is reported every day in American airwaves. In American
airports, people of Middle Eastern descent are profiled and Black and Latino men are
disproportionately targeted by police officer for stop and frisk activities. Institutional racism is
manifested in income and wealth distribution, government positions, housing, employment
opportunities. The issue of institutionalized racism has spread to religion where Shelton et al.,
looks at how blacks and whites Christians in America have let racism shape their religious
convictions. Whites and blacks have adopted religious practices that are founded on their racial
profiles. Racial discrimination is a sensitive subject among the public and there is little being
done to formulate strategies on how to address the phenomenon.
There are numerous adverse impacts that racism has among the lives of minorities,
especially African Americans. Racism has resulted in poor work relations in organizations,
where team work is expected between people from different racial backgrounds. According to
Ragins et al., African Americans have to contend with discrimination in the workplace, in
selection and recruitment, compensation, remuneration, and working conditions. Moreover,
Ragins et al., addresses how racism has a trickling effect where individuals affected by
consequences of racial discrimination impact bystanders. Racial discrimination perpetrated
against one individual is racial discrimination perpetrated against all individuals. Psychological
functioning of victims of racial discrimination is negatively impacted. This is the argument
presented by Sellers et al., as African Americans cope with challenges of racism in institutions
and general life. African Americans have to contend with racial discrimination and this has a
correlation with psychological functioning of the victims of racial discrimination. One of the
psychological impacts are illustrated in a longitudinal study conducted by Walker et al., who
investigates the correlation between death ideation and racial discrimination among African
American young people. Racial discrimination has an exclusionary impact on the victims and
some are unable to cope with the challenges and attempt or succeed in life-threatening behavior.
Moreover, the impact on the psychological well-being is illustrated by Utsey et al., where racial
discrimination is associated with diminished life satisfaction and self-esteem. The article
discussed how disparities in health, opportunities of employment, and resources affect coping
mechanisms of African Americans.
The media is pervaded with reports of instances of racial discrimination of minorities and
particularly African Americans perpetrated by their white counterparts. African Americans are
treated unfavorably in political, social, and economic spheres where they are forced to contend
with substandard social services like education, health, and housing. Moreover, racism has
infiltrated American institution like religion, education, and the justice system and African
Americans receive unfavorable treatment in social and political fronts. Although there is
legislation intended to protect minority groups against discrimination, there has been little to no
change in the country. There are adverse effects on African Americans, with regards to
unavailability of equal opportunities to fully utilize the resources available to them. The
implication is that their coping mechanisms result in high crime neighborhoods, drug abuse, lack
of educational opportunities and psychological effects. African Americans and minorities may be
protected by law from racial profiling but the law enforcement agencies and criminal justice
system and other institutions in America perpetuate the vice. With more and more instances of
racial discrimination, there is need to formulate new ways on how to address the phenomenon.
Works Cited
Anderson, W. (2006). Fighting racial discrimination: Treating all Americans fairly under the law.
New York: Rosen Pub. Group.
Assari, Shervin, et al. “An increase in perceived racial discrimination predicts mental health
deterioration a decade later in male but not female Black youth transitioning to
adulthood.” Frontiers in Public Health 5 (2017):
Littlewood, R. “Institutional racism.” Psychiatric Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 7, Jan. 2003, pp. 277–
277., doi:10.1192/pb.27.7.277.
Quillian, Lincoln, et al. “Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial
discrimination in hiring over time.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 114.41 (2017): 10870-10875.
Ragins, Belle Rose, et al. “Anchoring Relationships at Work: High-Quality Mentors and Other
Supportive Work Relationships as Buffers to Ambient Racial Discrimination.” Personnel
Psychology 70.1 (2017): 211-256.
Ragins, Belle Rose, et al. “Like second-hand smoke, racial discrimination at work can affect
bystanders.” LSE Business Review (2017).
Sellers, Robert M., et al. “Racial identity matters: The relationship between racial discrimination
and psychological functioning in African American adolescents.” Journal of Research on
Adolescence 16.2 (2006): 187-216.
Shelton, J. E., & Emerson, M. O. (2012). Blacks and Whites in Christian America: How racial
discrimination shapes religious convictions. New York: New York University Press.
Walker, Rheeda, et al. “A longitudinal study of racial discrimination and risk for death ideation
in African American youth.” Suicide and life-threatening behavior 47.1 (2017): 86-102.
Utsey, Shawn O., et al. “Racial discrimination, coping, life satisfaction, and self-esteem among
African Americans.” Journal of Counseling & Development 78.1 (2000): 72-80.

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