?Annotated bibliography

1 to 2 pages Annotated bibliography: Using APA citation format, list four scholarly sources you looked at in researching your paper, and for each of them, do the following: (a) summarize the source in several sentences, (b) make and briefly defend a judgment about its reliability, and (c) explain its usefulness to the development of your research topic.

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Disadvantages of Social Media to the Society
Social media has seen tremendous growth for the past few years, with Facebook and
Twitter having a large number of users. Technology innovations and growth have seen new
mobile gadgets launched and being relatively cheap, the number of users owning such
devices has also increased. Holding devices such as laptops, tablets, smartphones among
others have a direct correlation to the social media usage rates (Siobhan McGrath 2012, pg.
The rate of social media growing is unexpectedly high. Social media has been
embraced by several businesses, companies, progressive nations and underdeveloped nations
to better communication and information interchange.
Social media use
Advertisers, marketers, individuals, and the group get things done via social media.
The power of social media has been greatly felt by individuals who use it positively. Unless
used in negative ways, social media has several advantages that impact the user depending on
its use.
Bandura (2001) asserts that the main advantage of social media is connectivity.
Individuals from different localities can connect through social media, share thoughts and
ideas for different purposes. In education, teachers and students have lately ventured into
social media learning where a scholar is identified and followed. A close monitor of the
person’s articles, blogs and books can positively impact the academic performance of the
students or tutor.
With a lot of people on social media from different backgrounds, religion, culture, and
locations, one can get updated about what is happening on the other parts of the world. With
varied culture and beliefs of the social media users, one can get help about some cultural
insights for purposes like research. According to Siddiqui and Singh (2016, pg. 72)
businesses use social media as a promotions’ platform where they advertise their goods and
services to a larger audience.
Social media is not only advantageous to the users. It can be used to catch a criminal.
Security agencies in collaboration with the government can set up security measures on social
media to help identify and persecute individuals who engage in cyber terrorism.
Social media has enhanced lives by influencing business transactions and operations
from different parts of the world. However, when social media is used in compromised ways,
the effects may be adverse. Many other negative effects are associated with the wrong use of
social media.
Virtual interaction and individual communication
Social media sites have led to the virtual interaction where a user is allowed to create
an account and edit their profile according to the terms and conditions provided, choose some
other users with whom they will interact with and many other conditions provided by the site.
With this kind of authority, the individual can decide to add anything to their profile without
the authentication of the person’s identity.
Users with a fake identity go ahead and interact with others and share a lot of
information. With virtual interaction, the users get to meet other users, and the level of
interaction seems physical. The no-authentication feature has led to anonymity, fake bloggers
or designers. Anonymity can sometimes lead to serious problems where individuals can
engage in any harmful behavior on social media and get away with it because no one can
catch and punish them.
Social media has negatively influenced the individual’s ability to think and make
decisions independently. Peer pressure and online conformity have greatly seen many youths
and social media users shift their thinking and decision-making process. They tend to fit into
the social media class which might affect their lives when it comes to professional matters.
Many individuals write very interesting resumes and curriculum vitae during a job
application. When contacted through social sites, the level of the applicants’ confidence and
intelligence is high. Research showed that most individuals failed to defend their resumes and
other details about them in during an actual interview.
Natascha Zeitel-Bank (2014, pg. 1185) states that communication via the sites might
be easy since there is the virtual layer that separates the interviewer and the respondent. Faceto-face interaction, however, do not end up well because the respondent behaves entirely
different. A study by scholars showed that some respondents might hire other “intelligent
people” to undertake the virtual interview for them, but when it comes to the real thing, the
truth is revealed.
This issue has negatively affected companies or groups which conduct interviews and
hire individuals via online platforms. Such incidences result in hiring the wrong people who
cannot perform to the required organizational standards.
Disadvantages of social media to the society
Cyberbullying- many social media users have reported being victims of
cyberbullying. Users have received threatening and intimidating messages that cause
insecurities. With the creation of many fake accounts that cannot be traced, individuals can
create the account and bully anyone. The effects of cyberbullying are very disastrous. Some
individuals who were bullied were reported to feel insecure about others attempting or
engaging in suicide (Amedie 2015, p.12).
Hacking- the internet is never a secure place to keep or transmit private or crucial
data since the data can be hacked and easily shared over the internet. Individuals or
companies whose information has been hacked might incur financial losses among other
losses which include privacy infringement. When one’s information is hacked and posted in
a manner that affects or defames their image, a lot of suffering comes along (Dr. M.
Neelamalar & Ms. P. Chitra 2009, p.g. 129-131)
The individual or company reputation might go down including loss of customers or
bad image for the organization. This will greatly affect the lives of the individuals whose
information was hacked.
Security issues- a collaboration of the security agencies together with the social
media sites for the security agencies to have access to the user’s information is a compromise
of the users’ privacy. Security agencies claim to be doing this for the sake of identifying
threats and criminals. This becomes a security breach when a certain report is published on
the internet using the individuals’ private information.
Defamation tool- hackers and other malicious attackers might use malicious means
and get access to an individual’s account and post intimidating and abusive messages. This is
mostly done to users with a good reputation or very influential people in the society. Such
attacks are mostly facilitated by their competitors who want to overtake them.
Defamation can be very hurting since a wrong image of the user is portrayed, abuses
directing to the user’s audience can negatively affect them since the audience might not
understand that that was a defamation message.
Health issues- the nature of social media interactions causes a lazy lifestyle. Most
individuals are addicted not only to their phones but also to social media. This calls for a
connection between the user and their mobile phones which should remain with them 24/7
(Dr. M. Neelamalar & Ms. P. Chitra 2009, p.g. 129-131). Long-term contact with the
computerized devices is harmful to human health since the fumes released by methods are not
good for human consumption and can cause several complications.
Exercise is the best cure or preventive measure for some of the human complications.
Social media sites are mostly accessed from a relaxed position such as sitting reluctantly on a
couch, lying on the bed and so on. When this becomes a routine, disorders and other
complications might affect the users.
Peer pressure- through social media, people interact with others and make new
friends. New skills, games, and views are shared among the friends. Continued interaction
with a person with a certain group of people has an impact on individual’s behavior and the
kind of leisure activities they engaged in. Friends via social media might share videos and
other clips of how they enjoy their leisure time (Siddiqui & Singh 2016, pg. 74-75).
Videos of drug and alcohol abuse might trigger an individual to try the act out. Continued
usage of the same leads to drug addiction among other social injustices related to the same.
Death related problems- gamers among other sports people might get very useful
content to boost their training and skills. Videos of role models and other prosperous people
who have made it in the same filed are very important. Technological advancements have
seen an image, and video editing platforms created. When a video is edited and posted on
social media, one can almost fail to determine an original and edited video (Kieran Healy
2017, pg. 778).
When gamers who are struggling to make it try to copy and make moves as those of
their role models, everything might not go on well. An incident where a young biker tried
life-threatening moves which he had watched from a video left him crippled. The young boy
was doing stunts which left him critically injured the moment he missed a single step.
Individuals are advised to, therefore, try out only the moves that are possible and not
Other negative effects of social media on the society include;
It causes addiction- most social media users spend are addicted to the social
networking sites. Individual spend a lot of time on the social networks chatting and
interacting with others. This might greatly affect the individuals’ attention towards their
profession. Students have been greatly affected by social networking which takes a lot of
class work time Jacob (Amedie 2015, p.10).
Employees who are active on social media divert their attention from performing their daily
tasks which might greatly affect productivity hence losses for the company.
The content being shared via the networking site is sometimes not for children.
Availability of smartphones and other gadgets to young children gives the children a chance
to get to social sites. Viewing or watching videos, photos among other content that is
prohibited to the children might corrupt the child’s mind and negatively affect their morals
and behavior.
Use of the wrong identity, use of lies and images that do not match the individual’s
real identity has led to increased lies among youths. Youths use wrong information to attract
and get new friends or fit into a certain social class (Hakim, et al. 2016, pg. 62). This has led
to many social myths and fake relationships which are social media-borne. A lot of time spent
on social media has led to the breakdown of a family tie since there is no time to discuss
family matters due to busy social networking schedules.
Social media also abuses the society by exposing the privacy of its users. Sensitive
information shared via social networks might be easily shared widely by hackers and other
malicious attackers whose intentions are not good. Individual or company reputation can be
damaged by social media.
The use of social media is vital in an individual’s or company’s daily activities.
However, the damage that can be caused to the society by the use of social media is equal to
the benefits. Social media is already part of the society and the only solution to these
disadvantages can be if the users learn to be careful or proper training programs on social
media use could be introduced.
Correct usage of the networking sites can be very advantageous and the power of
social media utilized. In general, social media is both a constructive and a destructive tool
depending on how one uses it.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media psychology, 3(3),
Dr. M. Neelamalar & Ms. P. Chitra (2009). New media and society: A Study on the impact of
social networking sites on indian youth: Retrieved from:
Hakim Khalid Mehraj, Akhtar Neyaz Bhat , and Hakeem Rameez Mehraj (2014). Impacts of
Media on Society: A Sociological Perspective. Volume 3 Issue 6. Retrieved
from: http://www.ijhssi.org/papers/v3(6)/Version-4/L0364056064.pdf
Jacob Amedie (2015). Pop Culture Intersections. The Impact of Social Media on Society.
Retrieved from:
Kieran Healy (2017). Public Sociology in the Age of Social Media. Vol. 15/No. 3. Retrieved
from: https://kieranhealy.org/files/papers/soc-social-media.pdf
Natascha Zeitel-Bank (2014). Social media and its effects on individuals and social systems.
Retrieved from: http://www.toknowpress.net/ISBN/978-961-6914-093/papers/ML14-714.pdf
Shabnoor Siddiqui and Tajinder Singh (2016). Social Media its Impact with Positive and
Negative Aspects. Volume 5– Issue 2. Retrieved from:
Siobhan McGrath (2012).New Media Technologies in the Household. Retrieved from:

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