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Attached is chapter 4. Please review before reading below. The primary function of the job description paper is to increase understanding of your current, or a prospective, position. The following areas of the job description should be considered:Tasks,Tools and Technology,Knowledge,Skills and Abilities,Educational Requirements.Submit a paper in which you describe each of the above mentioned areas of the job description from the vantage point of your chosen position. Provide two or more ways that you would advertise or recruit someone for that position (see chapter 4 of the textbook). In addition, include a description of at least two methods of assessment used when recruiting qualified candidates and why these two assessment methods would be most appropriate.Writing the Job Description Paper:Must be three double-spaced pages in length, excluding the cover page and reference page, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in your approved style guide.Must include a cover page with the following:Name of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.Must use APA style as outlined in your approved style guide to document all sources.Must include, on the final page, a Reference List that is completed according to APA style as outlined in your approved style guide and has at least two references in addition to the text.

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Attracting the Right Talent
Caia Images/Caia Images/Superstock
Learning Outcomes
After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
• Identify a wide range of sources for attracting and recruiting talent.
• Explain the strategic value of effective recruitment through combinations of internal and external applicant
sources and recruitment strategies.
• Link recruitment to the strategic HRM process.
• Apply pertinent HR laws to the recruitment process.
• Discuss emerging trends, opportunities, and challenges in recruitment.
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People are indeed the most valuable asset of an organization. Without their knowledge, skills,
and talents, an organization will not be able to operate or compete effectively in the market. This is why recruitment plays a strategic role. The purpose of the recruitment process
is identifying and attracting qualified talent for organizational jobs in a timely and effective
manner. Organizations can find talent in internal ways and external ways. These methods are
discussed in detail in this chapter.
Opening Case Study
The End of Jobs?
The attraction and recruitment of talent has been at the center of employers’ attention for
many years. For decades, management glibly mouthed the maxim, “Our employees are our
most valuable asset.” However, there is evidence that structural changes in our society may be
causing management to reconsider the value of people. Here are some recent examples.
• Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. reported that they intended to fire employees in sales and
trading, investment banking, wealth management and investing and lending, and
replace them, when possible, with new technology (LaCarpa, 2012).
• In the military, unmanned systems have replaced human soldiers on dull, dirty, or dangerous missions, as robots have defused over 10,000 roadside bombs in Iraq (Myers, 2009).
• A grocery warehouse that once employed 50 to 60 workers to fill orders for grocery
stores, place them on pallets, and load them on trucks for delivery, now uses robots
exclusively to fill all the orders (Kelly, 2011).
• In Fresno, California, Pacific Gas and Electric used to employ 50 full-time meter readers,
but with installation of digital meters that collect and transmit information to a central
data center, only six meter readers remain employed (Wiseman, Condon, & Fahey, 2013).
• Using robots, Webb Wheel Products is now making 300,000 break drums annually (a
25% increase) without adding a single employee in three years (Wiseman, Condon, &
Fahey, 2013).
Organizations appear to be leveraging any possible technology advantage to reduce the need
for people, the once most valuable resource. Automation has enabled organizations, even
entire industries, to replace workers with software and self-service technology in the service
sector, and robotic technologies in manufacturing; perhaps we are witnessing a structural
change of such dramatic proportion in the workplace that we are not likely to see a reduction
in automation and technology.
A recent study by the Associated Press found that almost all jobs being replaced by technology
are in industries that pay middle class wages, jobs that form the backbone of the middle class
in Europe, Asia, and America. For instance, in the United States more than 1.1 million secretaries vanished from the job market between 2000 and 2010 as their jobs were replaced by
software that lets bosses field calls themselves and arrange their own meetings and trips. It is
estimated that over two thirds of the 7.6 million middle class jobs that disappeared in Europe
since 2008 were due to technological innovations. The HRM function enjoys no special protection from the impact of this ongoing structural change. A negotiator with the Dutch labor
union federation FNV noted that individual employees are now expected to do for themselves from
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Finding Talent in the External Labor Market
Section 4.1
Opening Case Study
The End of Jobs? (continued)
their computers much of what was once considered the function of HRM; where he once could
walk into the employee affairs office and get answers to questions about pensions or terms of a
contract, all of that is now automated and accessible from his computer (Wiseman et al., 2013).
Over a decade ago, Cardinali (2000) observed that the number of unemployable job seekers
increases as the use of technology increases; and further complicating the issue is the fact that
those displaced by technology are often deemed not trainable, and if they are trainable, they
are frequently branded as not having sufficient working years left to be worth the training
investment. What about the often-heard retort that technology creates new jobs? Yes, new
jobs are indeed created, but nowhere near the rate at which technology is killing them off. The
advance of technology is producing wondrous products and services, but it is also taking a toll
on people because they can be so easily replaced (Wiseman et al., 2013). Corporate profits
have soared as businesses embrace new labor-saving technologies, while at the same time
doing everything and anything they can to avoid hiring permanent workers (Solman, 2013).
The implications of these trends are far from clear. On one hand, automation and technology
are rendering many jobs obsolete. On the other hand, talented “knowledge workers” who
can work with technology and collaborate effectively with others are in high demand. Perhaps the job market is shifting toward a different skill set altogether. What tomorrow’s highdemand talents are likely to be remains to be discovered by employers and employees alike.
4.1 Finding Talent in the External Labor Market
In order to recruit strategically, an organization may need to gather information about potential candidates for a job who do not work for that organization and may not have applied
for a job at that organization before. These potential candidates may currently be full-time
students, employed elsewhere in the same or a different industry, or unemployed. They may
be actively seeking employment, or they may be content with their current situation. As you
learned in Chapter 2, scanning the environment and analyzing the labor market are part of
strategic HR planning. The recruitment process translates environmental scans and labor
market analyses into specific actions to find and attract pools of candidates with the specific
competencies and skill sets that the organization needs, wherever these candidates can be
found. In this section, you will learn about a wide range of external sources of candidates and
strategies that can be used to find and attract talent.
Advertising Jobs
Newspapers, magazines, television, and radio are all common examples of media sources
where organizations can advertise jobs. In general, the effectiveness of a job advertisement
depends on two related factors: cost and reach. Cost represents a certain type of advertising
media’s price; for example, television advertising is more expensive than radio advertising.
That’s why many local employers with limited resources advertise on local radio.
On the other hand, cost cannot be the only consideration in selecting where to advertise a job
opening. It is critically important that the advertising venue be able to reach the target audience.
For example, nationwide advertising media may be necessary and justified if the pool of applicants
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Section 4.1
Finding Talent in the External Labor Market
is dispersed across the nation and if the organization is willing to relocate a qualified applicant or
allow him or her to work from a distance. On the other hand, a low-paying job with no relocation
provisions will likely attract local candidates, and local advertisements may be sufficient for it.
There is a strategic value to integrating the two criteria of cost and reach. Ultimately, the utility of a job advertisement is determined by its costs and benefits, which are determined by
the cost per qualified candidate reached. For example, most television advertising is expensive; yet, with millions of viewers, the cost per viewer reached may be minuscule. The most
important strategic question is what percentage of those viewers are actually qualified for the
job. If this percentage is low then the cost, per qualified applicant reached, may be prohibitively high. Organizations can improve these ratios by targeting their advertisements specifically to television channels, programs, and airtimes that attract larger numbers of the desired
pool of applicants.
As another example, advertising a job in the classifieds section of a news site is usually inexpensive. However, qualified people who are currently employed rarely read the classifieds, so
a job may have to be advertised for several weeks and on numerous sites before a qualified
candidate can be found. Thus, costs may escalate per qualified candidate reached. In that case,
it may be more effective to place a more expensive advertisement in a professional or industry journal that can more readily reach qualified candidates. Multiple media sources can also
be strategically combined to target diverse applicant pools.
An organization also has to make sure that an advertisement does not generate an excessive number of applicants, since the process of reviewing and eliminating applicants is costly
and time consuming. To avoid this problem, an advertisement should provide sufficient information about the company and clearly specify the position’s preferred qualifications and
minimum competencies. Advertisements are generally costly and cost more the longer they
are; a long advertisement is sometimes necessary to clearly convey the desired information.
The challenge is to provide neither too much nor too little information—only enough for the
advertisement to be effective. Careful and intentional choices are necessary for both a job
advertisement’s content and its media sources.
Web Links
Job Advertisements in USA Today
Browse through the jobs advertised on USA Today’s career classifieds for examples of position
openings that organizations are seeking to fill through a national search.
Job Advertisements in the Chicago Tribune
Select “Classified” from the Sections menu and click on the Jobs link to browse through jobs
advertised on the Chicago Tribune for examples of position openings that organizations are
seeking to fill through a regional or local search. You can also browse job openings advertised
in your own area on your local newspapers’ Web sites.
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Section 4.1
Finding Talent in the External Labor Market
Web Links (continued)
Discussion Questions
1. What types of information are included in the job advertisements you browsed?
2. What additional information would you have wanted to know as a potential candidate?
3. What are some of the main differences between local and national newspaper job
Employment Agencies
Employment agencies are a leading
source of job candidates. There are
two types of employment agencies:
public and private. Both types primarily serve the same purpose: gathering
information about individuals seeking
employment in the market; evaluating
their qualifications, skill sets, and experiences through a series of interviews
and tests; and then connecting them
with the relevant organizations for
Yellow Dog Productions/Getty Images
Public employment agencies work to The goal of employment agencies is to connect
connect unemployed i­
ndividuals— qualified individuals to organizations with job
mostly blue-collar and hourly ­workers— openings in a relevant field.
with hiring employers for the purpose
of getting them on an employment payroll, hence relieving the state of having to provide unemployment aid. To that end, both
employers and individuals seeking employment must register with a local or state employment office. Public employment agencies normally do not charge organizations any fee for
recruiting personnel.
Web Link
California Employment Development Department
This website provides an example of the services offered by a public employment agency.
Search the Web for the site of a similar public employment agency in your own state. Compare
the services offered and browse the jobs advertised.
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Section 4.1
Finding Talent in the External Labor Market
Private employment agencies, also known as headhunters, primarily deal with white-collar
employees such as executives, managers, and professionals. It is therefore crucial that
organizations provide headhunters with accurate and detailed job descriptions and job specifications to ensure that the right candidate is recruited. There are two types of private employment agencies: contingency and retainer firms. The classification depends on the method by
which a private firm charges the employer. Contingency firms charge the employer only if an
employee is successfully hired by the organization. On the other hand, retainer firms charge
the employer a fee for bringing qualified candidates to the organization’s attention, regardless of whether the organization eventually hires these candidates.
Web Links
The Ladders
These two Web sites are examples of private employment agencies. Search both Web sites
for information about the range of services each headhunter offers for employers and for job
candidates, as well as whether it can be classified as a contingency or a retainer firm.
Web Recruiting
Online recruiting has become a primary recruitment method. There are three main sources
of Web recruiting:
• Web job boards and postings
• Professional/career websites
• Employer websites
As the name implies, job boards allow employers to post available openings online to attract
qualified employees, at the same time allowing individuals who seek employment to post
their resumes.
HR can also use job boards to determine compensation packages offered by other organizations for similar positions and then use that information to create more competitive compensation packages to attract qualified individuals. However, many individuals are not seriously
seeking a position: they merely post their profiles on job boards to check job availability or
compensation packages offered by other organizations.
Career Web sites are employment sections on professional associations’ websites. These sites are
highly specific to a certain field, specialization, or industry. There are multiple advantages associated with this type of online recruiting for both employers and individuals seeking employment.
For employers, professional Web sites selectively attract only professional applicants who are
actually interested in a particular specialization. These sites do not attract the general population. For potential candidates, professional Web sites can significantly cut down search time and
effort since candidates can directly search their areas of specialization.
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Section 4.1
Finding Talent in the External Labor Market
Web Links
The Career Center of the Association of Accountants
and Financial Professionals in Business
Career Connections at the American Society of Civil Engineers
These are two examples of professional career Web sites. Note each job advertisement’s
higher level of specialization, focus, and level of detail. Now browse the Web for professional
organizations within your field, looking for sites that offer career-related links.
Finally, employer Web sites feature career and employment sections that are designated for
recruiting. Linking to these sections allows individuals to check job descriptions and specifications and post their resumes for company consideration. A significant advantage of
employer Web sites is creating a valuable database and connecting with passive job seekers
who are currently not looking for a job but would be willing to interview if presented with an
attractive job offer (Starner, 2006).
Web Links
Jobs at Google
Jobs at Southwest Airlines
Visit these two examples of employer Web sites.
Colleges and Universities
Conducting interviews on college and university campuses is one of the most influential and
effective sources of recruiting, especially for entry-level professional and technical positions.
On-campus career placement offices assist in connecting students with recruiting organizations by organizing career fairs and other recruiting events (Smith, 1995). Employers consider many factors when they select a college or university for recruiting purposes, such as
the college’s reputation, past experience with the university recruiting office or recruited
individuals, the nature of the job opening, the organization’s allocated recruiting budget, the
level of market competition, and the value of the talent in question.
Organizations can use many techniques to establish a successful college or university recruiting program. Summer internship programs are one technique. They offer organizations an
initial introduction to potential permanent recruits before any long-term commitments are
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Section 4.1
Finding Talent in the External Labor Market
made. Other influential methods for college recruiting include building longterm relationships with reputable faculty and staff members in certain highly
regarded u
­niversities, in addition to
maintaining an on-campus presence for
the organization through guest speaking
and other recruiting support activities.
Frances Roberts/age footstock/Superstock
Colleges and universities are great recruiting
grounds for entry level professional positions.
Professional Employer
Organizations and Temp
Two of the channels organizations
revert to when they search the market
for talented employees are professional employer organizations (PEOs) and temp agencies (in this term, temp is short for “temporary employment”). PEOs and temp agencies provide the service of leasing talent to other organizations based on their needs. The difference
between PEOs and temp agencies is that PEOs are more geared toward higher-end professional employees. Moreover, PEOs share authority over the leased employee, while in most
cases temp agencies maintain full control over their employees. PEOs’ first appearance in the
market was in 1980 (“Professional employer,” 2009).
Both employers and employees gain several advantages from PEOs. Employers are able to
secure the services of highly qualified employees whose work they might not be able to afford
on a permanent basis. Moreover, the PEO bears all responsibilities associated with …
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