answer the discussion questions

answer the questions on the discussion, please. there are 4 questions answer them clearly. see the attached file.please do not do it as Essay. I need you to answer each question by order you put the qestion and the answer under it. do not use contractions when you write like ” don’t, can’t, couldn’t etc..”thank you

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Stop Online Piracy Act – A Political Battle between Old
and New Media5
The Stop Online Piracy Act ( SOPA) was introduced in the U. S. House of
Representatives in 2011, along with a companion bill in the U. S. Senate, the Protect
Intellectual Property Act ( PIPA). If passed, SOPA would give the owners of film,
music, or other intellectual property new tools to protect themselves from online
piracy or theft. They could sue to force Internet service providers, search engines,
payment processors, and advertisement networks to block or stop doing business with
websites linked to online piracy. Business was split on the proposed law. The Motion
Picture Association of America, the Recording Industry Association of America, and
the U. S. Chamber of Commerce— considered “ old media”— supported SOPA. But
online companies, such as AOL, Twitter, Google, Facebook, Yahoo!, eBay, and
others— the “ new media”— opposed it. As one blogger remarked, this could become
“ the biggest controversy in 2012.”
Old media proponents argued that the SOPA legislation was needed since rogue websites steal America’s innovative and creative products by attracting more than 53
million visits per year, leading to unauthorized downloads of music, films, and books
and threaten-ing more than 19 million American jobs in creative industries. More
than 400 businesses and organizations, many from the entertainment or publishing
industries, collectively con-tributed $ 91 million to congressional lobbying efforts in
support of SOPA. This was the most the entertainment industry had ever spent on a
lobbying effort. Other supporters turned to social media and sent out tweets
advocating the necessity of SOPA.
Opponents of SOPA, by contrast, argued that “ the bill, as drafted, would expose lawabiding U. S. Internet and technology companies to new uncertain liabilities, private
rights of action, and technology mandates that would require monitoring of Web
sites,” according to a letter sent to members of the House and Senate Judiciary
Committees by Goggle, Facebook, Yahoo!, and eBay. Several Internet companies
proposed an alternative bill that would punish foreign websites that engaged in
copyright infringement through interna-tional trade law. “ We have a chance to reset
the legislative table to find out what kind of legislation is needed,” said Markham
Erickson, executive director of NetCoalition, a trade group comprised mostly of
Internet companies. “ We have an opportunity to step back, recalibrate and
understand what the problem is.” Google’s director of public policy added, “ Like
others, we believe Congress wants to get this right, and we know there are targeted
and smart ways to shut down foreign rouge Web sites without asking U. S. companies
to censor the Internet.”
The new media organizations introduced novel political strategies to combat the act.
Critics created a “ Censorship US” day and its website encouraged political protest
using social media tactics. In January 2012, Reddit. com, a social news site, was joined
by other Internet sites, including the politically oriented MoveOn. org, the popular
technology and culture blog BoingBoing, and the Internet humor site Cheezburger
Network, for a day-long, sitewide blackout to protest SOPA. Wikipedia, the world’s
free online encyclopedia, was dark for a day except for a short paragraph urging users
to protest SOPA on the ground it could “ fatally damage the free and open Internet.” (
Google, Facebook, and Twitter declined to participate in the blackout, despite their
public opposition to SOPA. Some criticized the companies, accusing them of being
unwilling to sacrifice a day’s worth of revenue.)
The critics of SOPA also undertook more traditional political efforts, such a letter
writ-ing campaign, sending of e- mails, and making telephone calls to various
influential mem-bers of Congress. Facebook hired former a White House press
secretary, Joe Lockhart, to push the company’s opposition in Congress. Goggle
reportedly spent $ 5 million in the first quarter of 2012 to combat SOPA ( a 240
percent increase from Google’s lobbying spending in the first quarter of 2011), with
Microsoft spending $ 1.8 million, and Amazon and Apple $ 500,000 each during the
same period.
The Stop Online Piracy Act “ awakened the entire world,” said a Harvard law
professor. “ They are realizing just how big this fight was becoming.” In response,
many in Congress reversed their initial position in support of SOPA. “ Thanks for all
the calls, e- mails and tweets. I will be opposing # SOPA and # PIPA,” tweeted
Senator Jeff Merkley. Later, Sena-tor Grassley, a senior Republican on the Senate
Judiciary Committee, withdrew his support for a bill he helped write.
Political analysts commented that the new media’s protests seemed to have worked.
Initially 81 members of Congress supported the bill, compared with only 25
legislators opposed ( the rest were undecided), but crumbling support may have
contributed to Senator Harry Reid’s announcement in January 2012 that the Senate’s
vote on the SOPA counter-part, PIPA, would be delayed. The House quickly
followed, announcing that the House Judiciary Committee would postpone
consideration of the legislation “ until there is wider agreement on a solution.” The
committee’s chair, Lamar Smith, commented, “ I have heard from the critics and I
take seriously their concerns regarding proposed legislation to address the problem on
online piracy.”
Sources : “ Google, Facebook Warn against New US Piracy Legislation,” BBC News:
Technology , November 16, 2011, www . bbc. com/ news/ technology; “ Bills to Stop
Web Piracy Invite a Protracted Battle,” The New York Times , January 15, 2012,
www. nytimes. com; “ Stop Online Piracy Act ( SOPA): 2012’ s Biggest Controversyto- be?” Toonari Post , January 16, 2012, www. toonaripost. com; “ In Fight over
Piracy Bills, New Economy Rises against Old,” The New York Times , January 18,
2012, www. nytimes. com; “ Wikipedia Dark, Google Lobbies in Protest of Antipiracy Bill,” Canada. com , January 18, 2012, www . canada. com; “ PIPA Vote and
SOPA Hearing Pushed Off as Copyright Bills’ Congressional Support Collapses,”
Forbes , January 20, 2012, www. forbes. com; and “ Under Scrutiny, Google Spends
Record Amount on Lobbying,” The New York Times— Bits , April 23, 2012, bits.
blogs. nytimes. com .
Discussion Questions
1. Which of the political tactics discussed in this chapter are evident in this case?
2. Why were the political tactics used by the “ new media” so effective in this case?
3. Would the effectiveness of these tactics vary, depending on the political issue at
4. What can traditional companies learn from the new forms of political activity
described in this case?

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