answer the following questions

I will upload the question the instructor asked(Question 1), the paper you wrote and two paper that two students wrote. Answer the instructors question and also write two responses to those two papers (Question 2a and 2b) that two students wrote

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1) In that week 4 research discussion, the instructor asked this question “Which
theory or
concepts will you base your study on?
Below is the paper you wrote
Researchers have identified the need for utilizing both theoretical and
conceptual frameworks which will lead to success in the long term. In this case, the
application of the two frameworks helps in having a successful research process in
various fields. In qualitative research, some of the theories applicable include those which
focus on the analysis of concepts so that they fall under theoretical perceptions in the
long term (Connelly, 2014). As a result, the application of the various frameworks that
may lead to success in the research activity has become prevalent over the years. Most of
the researchers have become involved in studies where they apply theoretical and
conceptual frameworks interchangeably. However, it is essential to understand that the
two terms have differences and none of them can replace the other in the research
process. As a result, understanding the impact of each of the research activity should be
taken into consideration by every researcher.
From the two articles, the information theory has become applicable in the different
research processes. In this case, the articles recognize the importance of having accuracy
when using information from the various sources. A researcher should aim at collecting
the different types of data which they will use in deriving conclusions that will make the
studies a success (Green, 2014). The information theory states that every activity in the
research process must apply both theories and concepts that will contribute to the
successful achievement of goals and objectives. Therefore, understanding the
requirements of a research process will in the long term ensure that application of the
fittest theory will lead to success in the long term. Researchers should focus on achieving
the intended purpose of the research regardless of the challenges.
Also, the two articles apply the term theoretical framework as a collection of
concepts from different sources that aid in having a better understanding of the topic in
discussion. The articles state that once a researcher has identified the topic of discussion
and the best method of acquiring information, they will use different concepts that will
ensure that the right conclusions are made (Connelly, 2014). The two articles have a
common theme where they argue that the terms theoretical and conceptual frameworks
have become interchangeable concepts for the this case, it has become hard
to distinguish between theoretical and conceptual aspects as applied in the research
activities. However, the two terms have differences in their meanings, and this has called
for the need to have their application in the right way during the research processes.
Regardless of the situation, there is the need to distinguish the two terms and apply each
where it fits for research success.
There is the need to understand the interrelationships between conceptual and
theoretical frameworks in the research process. In this case, the two have shared concepts
which make it possible for their operation in solving various problems (Green, 2014).
Knowing the different concepts of each of the term will show how they relate to each
other. Below is the conceptual map showing the relationship between conceptual and
theoretical framework.
Based on the information above, the theoretical and conceptual frameworks share
in the concepts so that one contributes to the success of the other. In this case, the
theoretical framework uses theories which exist (Connelly, 2014). However, the
conceptual framework aims at deriving concepts from the theories so that it becomes easy
to formulate the different ideas that make it simpler to understand the theories applied. As
a result, the two have an interaction where they focus on concepts from theories.
Connelly, L. M. (2014). Use of theoretical frameworks in research. MEDSURG Nursing,
23(3), 187-188.
Green, H. E. (2014). Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative
research. Nurse Researcher, 21(6), 34-38.
2) Write two discussion responses to these works done by others
a) Various concepts make up abstract bits and pieces of a theory. Theory attempts to
provide an explanation about or between concepts or an idea that explains an
interaction. Proper Qualitative studies create grounded theory which stems from
observations. Choice of theory and framework for studies are needed or results may not
be what was initially anticipated (Connelly, 2014).
The framework from concepts and theory can both be used in research and assist
in design. Theoretical framework is typically based on only one theory. Conceptual
framework may incorporate multiple concepts leading to various theories and
associations. Grounded theory uses an inductive method and does not use
framework. Terminology needs to be learned by researchers to perform studies and
research efficiently (Green, 2014).
Grounded theory is inductive and observational studying and analyzing particular
questions or concepts which could possibly create a theory with concepts that correlate
(Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017). Research for the subject in question varies, however,
grounded theory plays a large role as a lot of the literature suggested a direct observation
of older adult trauma patients. Roy’s adaptation theory is feasible in various life events
where adaptation is needed (Connelly, 2014). Adaptation after trauma related injuries fits
this model as well. Orem’s theory of self-care would be acceptable also.
Population specific tailored care for older adult trauma patients will decrease
length of stay, morbidity/mortality rates, and increase level of function at discharge.
— Length of stay (LOS)
Older adult trauma patient (TP) + Specific care (TP) —Level of function at discharge
—Morbidity/mortality rate
Connelly, L. (2014). Use of Theoretical Frameworks in Research. MEDSURG Nursing,
(3), 187-188. Retrieved from South University Online Library:
Gray, J., Grove, S., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burns and Groves The Practice of Nursing
Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence; Edition 8. Retrieved
from South University Online Library:!/4/2
Green, H. (2014). Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research.
Nurse Researcher, 21(6), 34-38. Retrieved from South University Online Library:
b) The purpose of my proposed research study is to examine ER physician and mid-level
provider utilization of PDMPs and its correlation to the number of controlled substances
prescribed. I have had a difficult time finding any concise theory in reviewing literature
on PDMP research studies. The majority of the research studies report methods such as
interviews and surveys but do not specifically cite a theory or framework. I was able to
find one study that did utilized a specified framework though. A study by Barth et al.
(2017) on the development of interventions to improve PDMP use among physicians
used the Medical Research Council (MRC) complex interventions framework. This
framework “…provides both theory and practice to policy makers and public health
practitioners about how to conduct a process evaluation of complex health interventions
to better inform policy and practice” (Moore et al., 2017, para. 2).
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides
information, evidence-based practices, and treatment locators to prevent, treat, and
promote recovery from. SAMHSA recommends that PDMPs be implemented into
practice as a way to regulate and prevent prescription drug misuse and abuse. In this
context, PDMPs are used as an intervention to “…facilitate appropriate prescribing and
dispensing of controlled pharmaceuticals and interdiction of drug diversion to help
address prescription drug abuse and improve health outcomes (Association of State and
Territorial Health Officials [astho], 2017, para. 1). From my readings, the complex
interventions framework is related to therapeutic interventions. While utilizing PDMPs
does not appear to be inherently therapeutic, it is an intervention none-the-less and so this
particular framework could be loosely used in structuring my proposed study.
Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. (2017). Prescription Drug
Monitoring Programs: Tools for Education, Epidemiological Surveillance,
Prevention, and Early Intervention [Report]. Retrieved from
Barth, K., Ball, S., Adams, R., Nikitin, R., Wooten, N., Quershi, Z., & Larson, M.
(2017). Development and Feasibility of an Academic Detailing Intervention to
Improve Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Use Among Physicians. Journal
of Continuing Education In Health Professionals, 37(2), 98-105.
Moore, G., Audrey, S., Barker, M., Bond, L., Bonell, C., Hardeman, W., … Baird,
J. (2015, March 19). Process evaluation of complex interventions: Medical
Research Council guidance. [Summary]. Retrieved from National Collaborating
Centre for Methods and Tools:

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