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one of the file about everything in chapter 14, and the another one is the problems Please do problems 14-1, 14-3, 14-5, 14-15this assignment in civil engineering course which is Transportation
chapter_14_problems.pdf

ch14.ppt

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jml8E68*.$8.6$<7/:1M$-7/n,6$93$8.6$n190.6M$<7+M6$/3$8.90$7/+M=+L$06*89/1$90 ,656,o6pq7 rstsrsuvsw x$y`z_{f$`a$|J`}J^c_{$~JI_a$`?$_??HfI$Had$]^cJJ^I?39679*+1$300/*9+89/1$/3 88+86$ 9<.=+L$+1M$A7+10-/78+89/1$3n*9+,0R$?+0.91<8/1R$F7?7R$46657 31M670/1R$?+960$P7$+1M$P9E.+9,R$?M=+7M$P7R$]?c?Jf_a?$?J`cf$Had$ycH{^_{J? P*?7+=Q 9,,R$O1*7$Nii?7 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Highway Surveys and Location © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 1 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel ? 4 phases of highway location process and related issues ? Learn how to apply ground survey and remote sensing methods ? Understand how to obtain and interpret aerial photographs ? Advanced Scanning techniques ? Mass diagram to minimize earthwork costs © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 2 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel 14.1 Principles of Highway Location ? Basic principle of highway location is to produce a system that provides for an efficient flow of traffic ? Minimal disruption to historic, archeological, and environmental sites ? Highway location process: ? Office study of existing information ? Reconnaissance survey ? Preliminary location survey ? Final location survey © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 3 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Phase 1: Office Study ? Examination of all available data from various sources ? Engineering reports, Maps, Aerial photographs, Charts ? Learn following characteristics ? Engineering: topography, geology, climate ? Social and demographic: land use/zoning ? Environmental “wildlife; air, noise, and water pollution ? Economic: Costs for construction © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 4 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Phase 2: Reconnaissance ? Objective is to identify several feasible routes ? Aerial photography is widely employed to consider factors such as: ? Terrain and soil conditions ? Serviceability ? Crossing of other transportation facilities ? Directness of route ? Environmentally sensitive areas © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 5 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Phase 3: Preliminary Location ? Economic Evaluation ? Evaluation of each possible route is considered ? Environmental Evaluation ? Highway construction has a significant impact on surroundings ? Federal legislations set environmental requirements through impact statements: ? ? ? Detailed description of alternatives Short/long term studies Positive/negative studies © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 6 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Phase 4: Final Location Survey ? Detailed layout of the selected route ? Horizontal/vertical alignments are determined ? Positions of structures and drainage channels ? Trial-and-error process by the designer for engineering and aesthetic factors ? Computer aided design has greatly facilitated highway design © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 7 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel 14.2 Highway Survey Methods ? Involves measuring and computing horizontal and vertical angles, heights, and horizontal distances ? Used to prepare base maps with contour lines ? Surveying techniques split into three categories: ? Ground Surveys ? Remote Sensing ? Computer Graphics © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 8 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Ground Surveys ? Basic location technique for highways ? Total Station ? Is used for measuring angles, distances, and elevation © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 9 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Digital Survey Advancements ? Survey Data Collectors ? Devices that connect to any survey instrument and allows for more accurate three-dimensional surfaces to be created ? Multilayered Information ? Digital formats offer a greater deal of flexibility ? Global Position System Surveys (GPS) ? Allows accuracy within 2cm resolution © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 10 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Remote Sensing ? Is the measurement of distances and elevations by using devices located above the earth such as airplanes and satellites ? Most common is photogrammetry which utilizes aerial photography ? Successful implementation depends on terrain ? Difficult terrain include ? Thick forest ? Deep canyons/tall buildings ? Photographs with uniform shades © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 11 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel 14.3 Highway Earthwork and Final Plans ? Final element in the locations process is to establish the horizontal and vertical alignments of the highway project ? Elements of the final process ? Highway grades and terrain ? ? ? Earthwork Volumes Ordinates of mass Diagram Overhaul payments ? Preparation of highway plans © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 12 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Highway Grades and Terrain ? Terrain of the land is most significant in the selection of highway location ? Primary factor when considering grade line is the amount of earthwork involved. ? Selecting grade line as close to natural ground level will reduce requirements ? Grade line is dictated by expected floodwater level © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 13 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Computing Earthwork Volumes ? With a certain grade line chosen there is a certain amount of earthwork involved. ? The amount of earthwork involved is determined by taking cross sections 50ft apart. © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 14 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Types of Cross Sections © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 15 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Computing Ordinates of the Mass Diagram ? Mass Diagram is a series of connected lines that depicts the net accumulation of cut or fill between any two stations © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 16 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Computing Overhaul Payments ? Contractors are compensated for the cost of earthmoving. ? Free Haul ? The contract price will include a stipulated maximum distance that earth will be moved. ? Overhaul ? If the contract distance is exceeded than the contract stipulates a unit price add-on © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 17 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Preparation of Highway Plans ? After final location is determined designers need to provide plans and specifications for the facility. ? Instructions under which the highway is constructed ? Includes preparation of engineers’ estimates and contractors’ bids ? Plans provide all the details necessary for proper construction © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 18 Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition Garber & Hoel Summary ? The selection of a suitable highway location requires information obtained from highway surveys ? Ground methods ? Electronic equipment/computers ? Four phases of highway location process ? Computation of earthwork © 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 19 ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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