Anthropology assignment

Darwin and Lamarck Assignment: The goal of this assignment is for you to gain a clear understanding of the differences between Lamarck?s hypothesis and Darwin?s theory and to clearly understand how natural selection works to change populations of organisms over time. Below are two descriptions of events surrounding Darwin?s Finches. One scenario reflects Lamarck?s hypothesis and one scenario reflects Darwin?s hypothesis. Your Assignment: 1) Copy each scenario below into a word file and label each scenario appropriately- as either Darwin?s Natural Selection theory or Lamarck?s hypothesis of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics. 2) For each scenario you need to use all of the components and link them with the appropriate sentence in the scenario. For example, in each scenario there is a sentence on environment change. This is number 1 for Lamarck and number 5 for Darwin, so you would put a 1 or 5 in front of the sentence, depending on which scenario you are working on. (1) or (5) ?A drought hits the island and there is no rain for 550 days. There may be more than one sentence that reflects the component. You only need to mark one example (sentence) for each component. Each scenario should have a number for all of the components. You should use all of the components for each scenario. In Lamarck?s scenario there are 4 components and for Darwin?s scenario there are 6 components. If you are confused as to what to do, post your question on the Main discussion board, or as a last resort look ahead to my notes at the end. 3) Answer the three questions at the end of the two scenarios. One word answers are okay for the first two questions, the last question make sure to explain WHY you gave the answer that you did. Assignment scenarios- Two species of birds, the cactus finch and the medium ground finch, exist on Daphne Major, one of the Galapagos Islands. The cactus finch eats cactus nectar and the medium ground finch eats seeds. The beaks of the finches are instrumental in their ability to get food. The size and shape of the finch?s beak determines what food they are able to eat. The cactus finch?s beak allows them to get the nectar out of cactus flowers and the medium ground finch?s beak allows them to crack and eat seeds. Scenario #1 ________________________________ (Darwin or Lamarck?) All of the medium ground finches are very similar in their beak size and shape. A drought hits the island and there is no rain for 550 days. Most all of the smaller seeds that the medium ground finches eat are consumed and the medium ground finches start dying off. The only seeds left are quite large and hard. Some of the medium ground finches are able to change their beak size and adapt to the changing environment. These finches adapt and change their beaks to be able to crack the only seeds that are left in the environment, large, hard seeds. The finches that are able to change their beaks are able to survive the change in their food source and live to produce offspring. The offspring of the surviving finches are born with the larger beaks that their parents developed in their lifetime. The population of medium ground finches is now different, it has evolved. The finches now have larger beaks and are able to eat larger and harder seeds. Scenario #2 _____________________________________ (Darwin or Lamarck?) The population of medium ground finches is highly variable in their individual beak size and shape. Some of the finches have smaller, shorter, weaker beaks and others have larger, deeper, stronger beaks. A drought hits the island and there is no rain for 550 days. There is now a limited supply of seeds on the island. Fairly quickly all of the smaller, easier to crack seeds are eaten. The finches that have smaller, shorter beaks go hungry and start to die off. The medium ground finches with larger beaks are able to crack the larger, harder seeds, they live longer and reproduce offspring. The offspring inherit their parents larger beaks. The population of medium ground finches is now different. Overall a majority of the medium ground finches now have larger, deeper beaks and there are very few finches with smaller, shorter beaks. Components of Lamarck?s hypothesis of use/disuse or inheritance of acquired characteristics 1. Environments change 2. Individuals within a species are similar in the traits that they possess 3. Individuals bodies change in response to environmental change, and variation is created during an individuals lifetime (there is a fluid in the body that can be activated by the will or needs of the organism). 4. Variation created within an individual?s lifetime is inherited or acquired by their offspring Components of Darwin?s theory of natural selection 1. Variation exists (in traits, among individuals within a species) 2. Competition exists 3. Environment selects desirable traits, as evidenced by fitness (differential reproductive success) 4. Traits are inherited by offspring 5. Environments change 6. Populations evolve over time Three Questions to answer: 1. What is the key trait of selection among the finches? 2. What are the finches competing over? 3. Is the competition within or between species? Briefly explain why you gave the answer that you did.
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Darwin and Lamarck Assignment: The goal of this assignment is for you to gain a clear
understanding of the differences between Lamarck?s hypothesis and Darwin?s theory and to clearly
understand how natural selection works to change populations of organisms over time. Below are
two descriptions of events surrounding Darwin?s Finches. One scenario reflects Lamarck?s
hypothesis and one scenario reflects Darwin?s hypothesis.
Your Assignment:
1) Copy each scenario below into a word file and label each scenario appropriatelyas either Darwin?s Natural Selection theory or Lamarck?s hypothesis of Inheritance of
Acquired Characteristics.
2) For each scenario you need to use all of the components and link them with the
appropriate sentence in the scenario. For example, in each scenario there is a
sentence on environment change. This is number 1 for Lamarck and number 5 for
Darwin, so you would put a 1 or 5 in front of the sentence, depending on which scenario
you are working on.
(1) or (5) ?A drought hits the island and there is no rain for 550 days.
There may be more than one sentence that reflects the component. You only need to
mark one example (sentence) for each component. Each scenario should have a number
for all of the components. You should use all of the components for each scenario. In
Lamarck?s scenario there are 4 components and for Darwin?s scenario there are 6
components. If you are confused as to what to do, post your question on the Main
discussion board, or as a last resort look ahead to my notes at the end.
3) Answer the three questions at the end of the two scenarios. One word answers are
okay for the first two questions, the last question make sure to explain WHY you gave the
answer that you did.
Assignment scenarios- Two species of birds, the cactus finch and the medium ground finch, exist on
Daphne Major, one of the Galapagos Islands. The cactus finch eats cactus nectar and the medium ground
finch eats seeds. The beaks of the finches are instrumental in their ability to get food. The size and shape
of the finch?s beak determines what food they are able to eat. The cactus finch?s beak allows them to get
the nectar out of cactus flowers and the medium ground finch?s beak allows them to crack and eat seeds.
Scenario #1 ________________________________ (Darwin or Lamarck?)
All of the medium ground finches are very similar in their beak size and shape. A drought hits the
island and there is no rain for 550 days. Most all of the smaller seeds that the medium ground
finches eat are consumed and the medium ground finches start dying off. The only seeds left are
quite large and hard. Some of the medium ground finches are able to change their beak size and
adapt to the changing environment. These finches adapt and change their beaks to be able to
crack the only seeds that are left in the environment, large, hard seeds. The finches that are able
to change their beaks are able to survive the change in their food source and live to produce
offspring. The offspring of the surviving finches are born with the larger beaks that their parents
developed in their lifetime. The population of medium ground finches is now different, it has
evolved. The finches now have larger beaks and are able to eat larger and harder seeds.
Scenario #2 _____________________________________ (Darwin or Lamarck?)
The population of medium ground finches is highly variable in their individual beak size and shape.
Some of the finches have smaller, shorter, weaker beaks and others have larger, deeper, stronger
beaks. A drought hits the island and there is no rain for 550 days. There is now a limited supply of
seeds on the island. Fairly quickly all of the smaller, easier to crack seeds are eaten. The finches
that have smaller, shorter beaks go hungry and start to die off. The medium ground finches with
larger beaks are able to crack the larger, harder seeds, they live longer and reproduce offspring.
The offspring inherit their parents larger beaks. The population of medium ground finches is now
different. Overall a majority of the medium ground finches now have larger, deeper beaks and
there are very few finches with smaller, shorter beaks.
Components of Lamarck?s hypothesis of use/disuse or inheritance of acquired
characteristics
1. Environments change
2. Individuals within a species are similar in the traits that they possess
3. Individuals bodies change in response to environmental change, and variation is created during
an individuals lifetime (there is a fluid in the body that can be activated by the will or needs of the
organism).
4. Variation created within an individual?s lifetime is inherited or acquired by their offspring
Components of Darwin?s theory of natural selection
1. Variation exists (in traits, among individuals within a species)
2. Competition exists
3. Environment selects desirable traits, as evidenced by fitness (differential reproductive success)
4. Traits are inherited by offspring
5. Environments change
6. Populations evolve over time
Three Questions to answer:
1. What is the key trait of selection among the finches?
2. What are the finches competing over?
3. Is the competition within or between species? Briefly explain why you gave the answer that you
did.
After you turn in your Assignment: Read my notes below to make sure you were accurate in
your answers. I will not correct each answer you give, I will check to see that you completed the
assignment and I will grade you on whether or not you completed the assignment and followed the
directions.
Darwin and Lamarck Assignment Review
The goal of this assignment is for you to apply what you have learned about Darwin?s Theory of
Natural Selection and Lamarck?s hypothesis of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics or
Use/Disuse hypothesis. As you read through each scenario you should be able to match up the
components. Keep in mind it is critical for you to learn Darwin?s Theory of Natural Selection to be
successful this semester.
Scenario One: reflects Lamarck?s hypothesis as to how populations change over time.
Scenario #1 (2) All of the medium ground finches are very similar in their beak size and shape.
(1) A drought hits the island and there is no rain for 550 days. Most all of the smaller seeds that
the medium ground finches eat are consumed and the medium ground finches start dying off. The
only seeds left are quite large and hard. (3) Some of the medium ground finches are able to
change their beak size and adapt to the changing environment. These finches adapt and change
their beaks to be able to crack the only seeds that are left in the environment, large, hard seeds.
The finches that are able to change their beaks are able to survive the change in their food source
and live to produce offspring. (4) The offspring of the surviving finches are born with the larger
beaks that their parents developed in their lifetime. The population of medium ground finches is
now different, it has evolved. The finches now have larger beaks and are able to eat larger and
harder seeds.
Scenario Two: reflects Darwin?s Theory of Natural Selection
Scenario #2 (1) The population of medium ground finches is highly variable in their individual
beak size and shape. Some of the finches have smaller, shorter, weaker beaks and others have
larger, deeper, stronger beaks. (5) A drought hits the island and there is no rain for 550 days.
There is now a limited supply of seeds on the island. Fairly quickly all of the smaller, easier to
crack seeds are eaten. (2) The finches that have smaller, shorter beaks go hungry and start to die
off. (3) The medium ground finches with larger beaks are able to crack the larger, harder seeds,
they live longer and reproduce offspring. (4) The offspring inherit their parent?s larger beaks. (6)
The population of medium ground finches is now different. Overall a majority of the medium
ground finches now have larger, deeper beaks and there are very few finches with smaller, shorter
beaks.
Questions
1. What is the key trait of selection among the finches? The beaks are the key trait that
determines whether or not the finches live or die.
2. What are the finches competing over? They are competing over food. As the environment
changed and certain seeds became scarce the finch?s beaks determined their ability to get food
and therefore survive.
3. Is the competition within or between species? The competition is within species.
Individuals within the same species are the ones who will compete most fiercely over resources
The cactus finches have beaks which allow them to get cactus nector, the medium ground finches
have beaks which allow them to crush seeds. There are other finches on the Galapagos Islands
with beaks suited for different food sources. There are insect eaters, and one finch which pecks
birds and sucks their blood! The vampire finch.
General Information on the Assignment
Is Lamark?s hypothesis scientific? Is it valid? To be scientific a hypothesis must be testable.
Most of the components in Lamark?s hypothesis can be tested. However, only some of Lamarck?s
components are valid, in that they stand up to scientific testing. We know that environments
change. We also know that individuals in all populations are variable in the traits that they
possess. We know that individuals inherit the genetic material that their parents pass on, but they
do NOT inherit any traits that were acquired within the parents lifetime (buff parents do not have
buff babies!). We can?t test the fluid Lamarck speculates about that is activated by someone?s will
(use or disuse).
Is Darwin?s hypothesis scientific? Is it valid? Darwin?s Theory is scientific and it is valid.
Natural Selection has been tested over and over and over again and is still being tested in
numerous populations of organisms and animals around the world today. Natural Selection is one
of the four processes that we have to explain evolution or change in populations over time (the
other three processes will be explained in Chapter 4).

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