Application: Sexual Behavior

IMPORTANT: I have attached the 1st paper to this assignment this is a 3 paper project assignment. please read the first paper and then do this paper.. this is the 2nd part of my project. Application: Sexual BehaviorGender and sexuality are intertwined in many cultures. (Gardiner & Kosmitzki, 2011) Socialization agents teach the appropriate behaviors for gender and the acceptable sexual attitudes and behaviors within a culture. Cultural differences exist around the world and across countries. For example, cultural differences may exist through the number of partners allowed in a marriage, expectations for males and females, and knowledge and application of safe sex practices. Differences may also arise in what is permitted and acceptable, such as premarital sex, same-sex relationships, and extramarital relationships. The consequences for an individual deviating from these cultural expectations also vary from culture to culture.For this Assignment, choose one sexual attitude (e.g., abstinence, monogamy, etc.) and one sexual behavior (e.g., chastity, infidelity, etc.).The Assignment (4–5 pages)Use your Final Project culture of interest and select another culture of interest to you.Compare the similarities and differences of sexual attitudes and behaviors in each culture.Describe the cultural factors that influence sexual attitudes and behaviors.Explain how sexual attitudes and behaviors are perceived and displayed within each culture.Be specific and provide examples.Support your responses using the Learning Resources and the current literature.Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.Reference:Gardiner, H., & Kosmitzki, C. (2011). Lives across cultures: Cross-cultural human development (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
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Running Head: PERCEPTIONS OF INTELLIGENCE
Perceptions of Intelligence
Joan Ruiz-Werkema
Walden University
1
PERCEPTIONS OF INTELLIGENCE
2
Perceptions of Intelligence
Introduction
The conceptualization and measurement of components that relate to intelligence are
varied among different cultures. In some cultures, an individual is considered to be intelligent
based on their ability to consult more experienced people in their culture so that they can be in a
position to find solutions to any challenges that might have been encountered (Sternberg &
Grigorenko, 2004). Moreover, creativity, literacy as well as formal education might be the
yardsticks used to measure an individual’s level of intelligence. The current paper seeks to
describe various cultures and their perceptions of intelligence. It also seeks to evaluate factors
that influence cultural perceptions of intelligence.
A description of the cultures selected and their perceptions of intelligence
According to Matsumoto (2001), the term Western Culture is often used to give a
description of the belief systems, the norms that may be observed in a social setting, traditions,
values and even customs which originate from Europe. There are specific traits that can be
identified with Western Culture and these include the ability to think rationally, democracy,
individualism, the application of modern technology in daily life activities, thinking that is based
on scientific facts, capitalism, the observance of human rights and Christianity. Moreover,
Western Culture focuses on legal, artistic, literary and philosophic themes or traditions. The
concepts of the culture primarily emerged from the Greeks who existed in Ancient times.
The Eastern culture is also referred to as Oriental Culture. In most cases, the term is used
to describe some parts that are found in Asia. In geographical terms, it can be used to identify
PERCEPTIONS OF INTELLIGENCE
3
countries or even cultures that are located East from Europe or in Oceania’s North. The Eastern
Culture demands that its people strictly follow the provisions of time meaning that the natural
order that comes about as a result of time has to be followed (Furnham & Fukumoto, 2008).
Once the sequence has been decided upon relating to the activities that are to take place within a
specified duration, it becomes difficult for the set schedule to be modified. Eastern cultures are
based on pragmatism. People from the eastern culture are passive and submissive as opposed to
being aggressive.
Smith (2008) explains that there are many differences that can be noted relating to the
two cultures. The variations not only relate to the personalities and the characteristics of the
people but also to their identification of intelligent people among themselves. The people in
Western cultures tend to believe that intelligence is a personality variable. Moreover, an
intelligent person has to be capable of devising categories. The individual should be able to
adequately contribute to ongoing rational debates (Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2004). The
American society is based on Western Culture. In such a country, whenever an intelligent person
chances upon a challenge, they should be capable of applying the knowledge they possess.
Eloquence is also interpreted as a sign of intelligence.
On the other hand, Eastern cultures interpret intelligence as a reflection of a person’s
wisdom as well as their inherent desire to become agents championing for improvements in their
societies as opposed to only focusing on personal development (Tsethlikai, 2011). The intelligent
person should be in a position to easily recognize contradictions as well as complexities in their
surrounding environment which would enable them to adequately fulfill their societal roles.
Cultural factors that might influence how intelligence is perceived in various cultures
PERCEPTIONS OF INTELLIGENCE
4
(Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2004) assert that in Eastern cultures, the traditions and cultural
believes that are observed are essential in offering guidance in the identification of intelligent
individuals and in the shaping of perceptions that relate to intelligence. The Confucian tradition
provides the guidelines that can be used to identify an intelligent person. The person has to be
one who sends the most part of his or her life building their personal character which will enable
them to do what is right.
Moreover, the person should on their educational and literacy levels. Most of the person’s
efforts should be directed towards knowledge acquisition by learning. Concepts obtained in the
learning process have to put into practice. They should be utilized in coming up with solutions
for the challenges that an individual might encounter on a day to day basis.
Social skills are also deemed important for the Eastern people. The possession of social
skills makes an individual capable of being responsive as well as perceptive to various
modifications and changes that might be occurring in their present environment. This is seen to
be a mark of intelligence (Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2004). The skills make it possible for the
individual to suitably conduct themselves in the process of maintaining social relationships.
On the other hand, Western cultures embrace individualism. This refers to a situation
whereby the people living in a given society have loose familial bonds. An individual is
perceived to be intelligent depending on the degree to which they can be in a position to look
after themselves (Uichol & Young-Shin, 2006). In addition to this, their efforts should also
extend to members of their respective families. Individualism is highly adopted in countries such
as Britain and the United States of America.
PERCEPTIONS OF INTELLIGENCE
5
Another factor that is taken into consideration is the linguistic capability of an individual.
Verbal intelligence is a desirable trait among people who practice the Western Culture. Verbal
intelligence is marked by the good use of vocabularies as well as eloquence.
The Western people also attribute intelligence to the life attitudes that an individual might
possess. An intelligent person should be able to actualize their dreams by doing what they desire.
Their lives should be marked by the achievement of the goals that they will have set for
themselves (Matsumoto, 2001). They should be able to make forecasts into the future and plan
ahead. Achievement of the set objectives would be attributed to sound judgments and good
decisions.
Measurement of intelligence in various cultures and the reason for the selection of the
method chosen
For the Western people, intelligence can be measured in the form of an individual’s
Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This becomes possible with the determination of a person’s
chronological age. Varying models can be used for adults and children (Sternberg & Grigorenko,
2004). The method can be able to take into consideration different factors that are prevalent for
in the Western culture. The individual’s general knowledge of varies aspects of Western Culture,
ability to use technological devices, social attitudes and the adherence to social norms can be
best tested using the Intelligence Quotient in the Western world.
On the other hand, intelligence in the Eastern world can be measured in terms of the
positive social impact that a person has in their society. All the endeavors of an intelligent person
should culminate in the greater good for the society. Therefore, other parameters might not be
applicable especially where a person is intelligent in the Eastern world but lives on the principles
of individualism.
PERCEPTIONS OF INTELLIGENCE
6
Conclusion
Various parts of the world have a different understanding of intelligence. The aspects that
shape their day to day life have to be adequately understood so as to draw conclusions on what is
applicable to the society. This can prove helpful for people seeking to venture into regions
situated in different parts of the world.
7
PERCEPTIONS OF INTELLIGENCE
References
Furnham, A., & Fukumoto, S. (2008). Japanese parents’ estimates of their own and their
children’s multiple intelligences: Cultural modesty and moderate
differentiation. Japanese Psychological Research, 50(2), 63–76.
Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
Matsumoto, D. (Ed.). (2001). The handbook of culture and psychology. Oxford University Press.
Smith, M. K. (2008). Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences. Retrieve
from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm
Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2004). Why we need to explore development in its cultural
context Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 369–386.
Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
Tsethlikai, M. (2011). An exploratory analysis of American Indian children’s cultural
engagement, fluid cognitive skills, and standardized verbal IQ scores. Developmental
Psychology, 47(1), 192–202. Retrieved from the Walden Library using the
PsycARTICLES database.
Uichol, K., & Young-Shin, P. (2006). Indigenous psychological analysis of academic
achievement in Korea: The influence of self-efficacy, parents, and culture. International
Journal of Psychology, 41(4), 287–292.
Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.

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