Argue how their conception of state of nature leads to their conception of legitimate sovereign power

Answer two out of three questions. Each essay should present the arguments of the thinkers that respond to questions in the prompt.Present Hobbes’, Locke’s, and Rousseau’s state of nature. Argue how their conception of state of nature leads to their conception of legitimate sovereign power. Be clear what elements are similar and what elements are distinct. How do Hamilton and Madison include elements from each thinker’s conception of sovereignty in the Constitution? How would Marx or Aristotle criticize the contract view of sovereign power? Which view of sovereignty do you think is best and why? Give one argument. How does Socrates defend the philosophical life in the Apology? Why does the philosophical life challenge the political life or political authority? How does Plato resolve this tension in the Crito? How does Aristotle argue against Plato’s solution? How does political society promote the ends of a human life? How does Aristotle’s view radically differ from contract views of political power and political authority? How does Augustine challenge Aristotle’s view of politics? Which of these four views is superior and why (that is, Plato’s, Aristotle’s, liberalism [contractarian], or Augustine’s)?
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Questions
Answer two out of three questions. Each essay should present the arguments of the
thinkers that respond to questions in the prompt.
1) Present Hobbes’, Locke’s, and Rousseau’s state of nature. Argue how their
conception of state of nature leads to their conception of legitimate sovereign
power. Be clear what elements are similar and what elements are distinct. How
do Hamilton and Madison include elements from each thinker’s conception of
sovereignty in the Constitution? How would Marx or Aristotle criticize the
contract view of sovereign power? Which view of sovereignty do you think is
best and why? Give one argument.
2) How does Rawls characterize justice? How is his view contractarian? How does he
ensure this agreement about the principles of justice is itself just? What principles
would we decide from this original position and why? How does Nozick argue
against Rawls’ view? What is justice for Nozick? Why does it not entail any form of
redistribution other than punitive? How does Nussbaum defend liberalism from its
feminist critics? Give one feminist argument against liberalism and how Nussbaum
defends it. How would Marx criticize liberalism in general? That is, why would the
economic system of capitalism prevent liberalism from flourishing (equal rights and
opportunity) and how would communism (Marx’s, not those forms that have or
currently do exist as such) actually achieve the goals of liberalism? Which of these
views of justice do you think is superior and why?
3) How does Socrates defend the philosophical life in the Apology? Why does the
philosophical life challenge the political life or political authority? How does
Plato resolve this tension in the Crito? How does Aristotle argue against Plato’s
solution? How does political society promote the ends of a human life? How
does Aristotle’s view radically differ from contract views of political power and
political authority? How does Augustine challenge Aristotle’s view of politics?
Which of these four views is superior and why (that is, Plato’s, Aristotle’s,
liberalism [contractarian], or Augustine’s)?

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