7-10 page essay draft that focuses on the benefits of electric powered cars. Basic outline is completed with some sources. essay must include a minimum of SIX sound outside sources and each subclaim must be strongly
supported by evidence. Each body paragraph must include a minimum of TWO citations and these must
be from TWO distinct sources. Essay draft must also include a counterargument and rebuttal. You want to get different authors talking with you about each subclaim. I have uploaded the outline and a few sources that I have already found.
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29 November 2017
The advancement of a new driving era
Main claim: Among the several different modes of transportation available today electric cars are
by far the most societal friendly vehicle designed since the turn of the century. Some of the
reasons include being environmentally friendly, financially less obstructing for both consumers
and states, safer and less driver reliant. Some other reasons electric cars are more friendly is the
reduction of noise pollution
1) Electric cars are to date the most economically friendly vehicles available in the
marketplace for consumers to purchase.
Electric vehicles do not use fossil fuel, therefore do not pollute the
2) Electric cars are less of a financial burden on consumers because of their energy
The owner of a dedicated EV may register for a discounted registration
Electric vehicles require less maintenance than gas powered vehicles.
Electric vehicles do not generate heat, like gas and diesel powered cars.
Normally high traffic cities face higher electric bills in the summer because
gas and diesel vehicles produce heat which heats up homes, causing people to
run their AC more, which is a waste of energy.
3) Electric cars are also less of a financial burden on the states because they wear less on
Since electric vehicles are lighter than the common gas powered sedan,
electric vehicles wear less on the roads which lessens road maintenance,
saving the state money.
4) Electric cars have new and improved software that is attentive to other obstructions
while driving, making them a safer vehicle.
These, and other requirements, help ensure public safety(Escobar)
Every Tesla rolling off the factory floor will come with
the hardware necessary to support full autonomous driving mode(Fung par 3)
Electric cars made from carbon fiber will be safer (The Lighter Drive Par 2)
5) The adaption of this new technology makes electric vehicles less driver reliant which
is an excellent improvement to standard non-technological vehicles.
Currently, electric vehicles are the only vehicles to possess self-driving
Every Tesla rolling off the factory floor will come with
the hardware necessary to support full autonomous driving mode(Fung par 2)
6) The use of an electric drivetrain also reduces noise pollution.
The noise a gas or even worst a diesel vehicle makes is very harsh on a
Traffic noise at school has been found to affect attention measured by both
neuropsychological tests and teacher observations(Weyede 2).
7) Counterargument: Non eco friendly drivers may argue that the use of electric vehicles
results in other pollution once the vehicle is no longer in operation such as the
pollution that results from battery waste.
8) Rebuttal: Car batteries are recyclable and can be reused in new cars.
9) Conclusion: The adaptability of the new electric cars will be the most effective way to
benefit the environment and society.
Does you ever have a headache from driving in rush hour traffic? Well, besides the stress from
other drivers on the road you are probably inhaling exhaust fumes from your polluting vehicle
and others around you. Gas and diesel powered cars expel tons of pollutants into the air every
day that is destroying the environment. Among the several different modes of transportation
available today, electric cars are by far the most societally friendly vehicle designed since the
turn of the 21st century. Benefits of electric vehicles include, being environmentally friendly,
financially less obstructing for both consumers and states, safer, less driver reliant and they
amount to a lot less noise pollution. Even with some of the best features available in electric
vehicles, some people, like Aaron Jennings Ph.D, believe that electric vehicles are still a
pollutant after their lifespan has expired. Overall electric vehicles continue to expand in todays
market because of their eco-friendly demeanor.
Weyde et al. Environmental Health (2017) 16:127
Road traffic noise and childrens inattention
Kjell Vegard Weyde1,3,10* , Norun Hjertager Krog1, Bente Oftedal1, Per Magnus2,3, Simon Øverland4,5,
Stephen Stansfeld6, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen7,8,9, Martine Vrijheid7,9, Montserrat de Castro Pascual7,8,9
and Gunn Marit Aasvang1
Background: An increasing number of children are exposed to road traffic noise levels that may lead to adverse
effects on health and daily functioning. Childhood is a period of intense growth and brain maturation, and children
may therefore be especially vulnerable to road traffic noise. The objective of the present study was to examine
whether road traffic noise was associated with reported inattention symptoms in children, and whether this association
was mediated by sleep duration.
Methods: This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian
Institute of Public Health. Parental reports of childrens inattention at age 8 were linked to modelled levels of residential
road traffic noise. We investigated the association between inattention and noise exposure during pregnancy
(n = 1934), noise exposure averaged over 5 years (age 3 to 8 years; n = 1384) and noise exposure at age
8 years (n = 1384), using fractional logit response models. The participants were children from Oslo, Norway.
Results: An association with inattention at age 8 years was found for road traffic noise exposure at age
8 years (coef = .0083, CI = [.0012, .0154]; 1.2% point increase in inattention score per 10 dB increase in noise
level), road traffic noise exposure average for the last 5 years (coef = .0090, CI = [.0016, .0164]; 1.3% point
increase/10 dB), and for pregnancy road traffic noise exposure for boys (coef = .0091, CI = [.0010, .0171]), but
not girls (coef = -.0021, CI = [-.0094, .0053]). Criteria for doing mediation analyses were not fulfilled.
Conclusion: Results indicate that road traffic noise has a negative impact on childrens inattention. We found
no mediation by sleep duration.
Keywords: Road traffic noise, Inattention, Children, Norwegian mother and child cohort study
About 40% of EU inhabitants are exposed to road traffic
noise levels likely to be harmful to health, and the proportion is expected to increase [1, 2]. Observational and
experimental studies on adults have shown associations
between road traffic noise and sleep disturbance, annoyance, cardiovascular disease . Although considered
a vulnerable group , less research has been done on
children. Some studies on noise exposure in children
have found increases in blood pressure, stress, annoyance, hyperactivity and behavior difficulties , and
there is some evidence for associations with impaired
* Correspondence: Kjell.Vegard.Weyde@fhi.no
Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Norwegian Institute of Public Health,
Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo,
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
sleep . One of the most robust findings is the
association between traffic noise at school and childrens
cognition, particularly memory and reading [11, 15]. In
addition to findings from cross-sectional studies, associations between traffic noise and cognition have been
found in a naturalistic experiment by . When the old
Munich airport closed and the new opened, the children
near the old airport improved long-term memory, shortterm memory and reading, whereas these skills were impaired for children living close to the new airport.
Attention is an important part of cognition, since it
determines what information that reaches working
memory, where information is evaluated and decisions
made . Inattention, as reported by teachers and parents using the criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder, has been strongly associated with reading fluency and reading comprehension, writing, mathematics
© The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to
the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver
(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Weyde et al. Environmental Health (2017) 16:127
and exam scores . In addition, it is associated
with increased probability of dropping out of school
. It is therefore important to identify factors that can
impair attention. Some previous studies have investigated whether traffic noise and inattention are associated. Traffic noise at school has been found to affect
attention measured by both neuropsychological tests
 and teacher observations .
Most studies on noise exposure and childrens cognition have focused noise exposure at school, particularly
noise from aircraft. Only a few studies have examined
the possible impact of road traffic noise at home on childrens cognition. There are different exposure windows
in which road traffic noise might impact on inattention,
including short-term, long-term or pregnancy periods.
First, the effect of road traffic noise might be short-term
or instantaneous, for example through its impact on last
nights sleep or by direct interference with communication, increased arousal and annoyance, [3, 23]. The limited literature that exists on noise and childrens sleep
suggests a link between increased road traffic noise and
sleep disturbances, such as sleep duration, sleep quality
and daytime sleepiness . Sleep reinvigorates and
is important for being alert , and impaired sleep has
been associated with both behavioral reports and neuropsychological tests of inattention , although
some studies have found no associations . Impaired
sleep is also found more often in children with attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), compared to children without ADHD . Studies have indicated that
interventions to improve sleep reduce attention deficit
symptoms in children with ADHD [30, 31].
Second, long-term impaired sleep causes neuronal
loss, impaired brain development and failure to adequately develop coping skills [32, 33], making a longer
noise exposure window relevant. In addition, noise exposure and annoyance may cause stress, and it is known
that long-term stress in children is associated with several negative health effects, such as impaired brain
development and impaired immune system functioning
[34, 35]. Among the few studies that have looked at residential noise exposure and inattention, associations have
been found with both short-term and long-term noise
exposure windows [8, 12]. However, we have only found
one study that have investigated whether sleep is a mediating factor in this association: Stansfeld et al.  found
no mediation by sleep in the association between exposure to aircraft noise and cognitive performance in
911 year-old children.
Third, road traffic noise can increase stress . Studies have indicated that maternal stress during pregnancy
can impact on childrens development . Thus, road
traffic noise during pregnancy is also an exposure window of interest, although the only previous study that
Page 2 of 14
has investigated pregnancy noise exposure found no association with behavior reports at age 7 years .
In sum, only a few studies have looked into the association between road traffic noise and inattention, and
especially studies including residential road traffic noise
exposure are lacking. The present study investigated
whether road traffic noise was associated with parentalreported inattention in 8-year olds, and whether sleep
duration was a mediating factor in this association. We
hypothesized that increased road traffic noise level
would be associated with increased rating of inattention
for all exposure windows, and that this association
would be mediated by sleep duration.
The study used questionnaire data from the Norwegian
Mother and Child Cohort Study, MoBa . MoBa is
conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
It has recruited more than 95,200 women from all over
Norway between 1999 and 2008, and 40.6% consented
to participate. It includes more than 114,500 pregnancies
with biological data and questionnaire data. Mothers
received invitations by mail, along with appointments
for ultrasound scanning in week 17 or 18 of pregnancy.
No exclusion criteria were used in the main study. Three
questionnaires were mailed to the mothers during pregnancy, and when the children were 6, 18 and 36 months,
and 5, 7 and 8 years. The cohort is described in more
detail elsewhere .
MoBa participants with residential address in Oslo
were selected because of the availability of noise exposure estimations for this city. All children were born between 2004 and 2007. From an initial sample of 14,032
MoBa participants who at some point had been registered with an Oslo address, we excluded the following:
multiple births, births not registered as live birth, all but
the oldest participating child of each mother (to avoid
multiple dependent observations), and children lacking
questionnaire information at age 8. A total of 3396 children met the inclusion criteria. Further, children were
excluded if they had lived less than 180 days at the
present address (and therefore may not yet had
returned to normal after the possible stressful lifechanging event of moving to a new place), or had missing values on either road traffic noise, sleep duration or
any other covariates (see Fig. 1). Two study samples
were used: The first sample (pregnancy sample) was
constructed to examine noise exposure during pregnancy (n = 1934). The second sample (Postnatal sample)
was constructed to examine averaged noise exposure
over five-years and noise exposure at age 8 (n = 1384).
There was an overlap between the two samples, with
1029 children present in both. Some children moved out
Weyde et al. Environmental Health (2017) 16:127
Page 3 of 14
Fig. 1 Flow chart of the postnatal (left) and pregnancy (right) study sample selection
of Oslo before they reached the age of 8 years, and thus
were part of the pregnancy sample, but not the postnatal
sample. Similarly, some children moved to Oslo after
birth, and thus were part of the postnatal sample, but
not the pregnancy sample. Another reason why some
children were in only one of the samples, was lack of covariate information or children having dropped out of
MoBa before age 8.
The analyses are based on MoBa version 9 of the
quality-assured data files.
Estimations of road and rail traffic noise exposure were
conducted by the Agency for Urban Environment, the
City of Oslo, in accordance with the Environmental
Noise Directive (END) . Noise exposure was modeled using the Nordic Prediction Method  and
the software program CadnaA version 4.3 (DataKustik,
GmbH, Germany) . A geographic information system (GIS) approach was used to geocode all the childrens residential addresses as well as the mothers
address during pregnancy. Grid predictions of 5 × 5 m2
at 4 m height were used to assign noise level to the geocoded addresses. The A-weighted day (07.0019.00)evening (19.0023.00)- and night-time (23.0007.00)
equivalent noise level, Lden, based on annual average
daily traffic (AADT) with diurnal distribution, was
employed. Lden adds a penalty of 5 dB for the evening
and 10 dB for the night. The Lden was estimated for the
most exposed façade of each childs residence as well as
for the mothers residence during pregnancy. Noise exposure from road traffic and rail traffic in the pregnancy
sample covered the whole pregnancy period (the exact
number of days). In the postnatal sample two exposure
windows were employed. The first was road traffic noise
exposure at the time of completion of the eight-year
questionnaire, Lden for the present address and year. The
second was the averaged road traffic noise exposure during the five last years before completion of the eightyear questionnaire (1825 days back from the date of
completion). The five-year period took into account all
addresses occupied during these periods.
Road traffic noise was included in the analyses as continuous variables, whereas rail traffic noise was categorized as unexposed, exposed to less than or equal to Lden
30 dB, or exposed to more than Lden 30 dB. Children and
mothers categorized as unexposed to rail traffic noise had
residential address outside a radius of 700 m from a railway line and 300 m for trams and metros, since outside
these radii, the rail traffic noise is either nonexistent or is
so low that it is masked by other noise sources. The noise
exposure assessment was based on input data for the years
2011 and 2006 and included data on topography, building
polygons, traffic counts (but estimations for smaller roads
without counts), estimated values for 24 h traffic distribution (75% day, 15% evening and 10% night for highways,
and 65%, 20% and 15% for municipal roads), signed speed,
information on noise barriers, and ground surface (hard
or soft). The search radius of 1000 m was used for highways, and 500 m for municipal roads. Residential exposure
to rail traffic noise was modeled separately and in a similar
way as road traffic noise. For rail traffic, rail time tables
were used to obtain information on traffic volume and
diurnal distribution of traffic.
Weyde et al. Environmental Health (2017) 16:127
Page 4 of 14
In the MoBa 8-year-questionnaire, mothers were asked:
Approximately how many hours of sleep per night does
your child usually obtain on weekdays?, with five different response categories: 8 h or less, 9 h, 10 h, 11 h, and
12 h or more. The variable was recoded into three categories: less than 10 h, 10 h, or more than 10 h. Sleep
duration was used to assess possible mediation effects.
were included (it is unlikely that the inclusion of only
two covariates will account for all confounding). The
additional covariates included maternal education (more
than 4 years of university/college; less than 4 years of
university/college, but more than high school; maximum
high school), ethnicity, maternal alcohol consumption
during pregnancy (consumed alcohol once a week or
more during either of the trimesters), maternal smoking
during pregnancy (smoked sometimes or daily during
the last trimester), prematurity (gestational length of
<259 or > = 259 days) and birth weight (> = vs < 2500 g). Gender and age (months) were also included in the model. Rail traffic noise was categorized as 0 dB, 0 30 dB, or above 30 dB. Air pollution was represented by three components: NO2, NOx and PM2.5. Air pollution estimates were based on Land Use Regression models generated as part of the ESCAPE and HELIX projects, and are described in more detail elsewhere . Exposure windows for the air pollution covariates were the same as for noise. In addition, air pollution during pregnancy was included in the analyses on the postnatal sample. The minimal adjustment set from the DAG for the pregnancy sample included the same covariates as listed above, but covering the pregnancy period only. In both samples, inclusion of rail traffic noise and air pollution was limited to sensitivity analyses. More details on covariates are included in Table ... Purchase answer to see full attachment
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