Assignment: Field Experience Observation Report # 4For this assignment you are asked to reflect on the following questions using the module and assigned readings as supporting evidence:What assessment practices are you observing in your host classroom (or have you learned about from the teacher you have been interviewing) that reflect the topics discussed in this module?What practices are you not observing (what is missing)?Please continue on. I have attached the other papers leading up to this. Thank you.
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Field Experience Observation Report #2
Cognitive development is described as the growth of an individual from formative years
and childhood, throughout the teenage years and young adulthood as far as his mind processes,
problem-solving and decision making are in consideration. One of the major thinkers who can be
linked with cognitive development is Vygotsky (Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis, pg. 107). Among his
social development theory, he established two important principles. That are, a person’s full
cognitive development needs social interaction and cognitive development is partial to a given
extent or in a given range at any known age of a person. These principles are seconded up by the
following concepts of Vygotsky’s theory (Kail, et al. pg. 87)
The first concept is social interaction. It is believed that social interaction plays a
fundamental position in cognitive development. It is embedded in every person, even as a kid, to
search meaning in each and everything. Curiosity forming itself in early childhood and when a
kid starts asking questions is a good indication that the child has developed the notion of making
or finding meaning in everything.
According to Vygotsky, Cognitive and human development is an outcome of a dynamic
relationship with the person and the community. The dynamic interaction denotes a connection
of mutuality among the two. That is, just as a community has a great impact on an individual, the
same way the person has the great impact on the society (Moll, et al. pg, 65)
The second concept of Vygotsky’s theory is social learning precedes development.
According to Vygotsky, he claims that a kid will not be in a position to grow unless he
experiences or undergoes social education first (Moll, et al. pg, 66). He portrays two sections
where the function in a kid’s cultural growth is enhanced. The two sections are; interpsychological or social level. The purpose initially comes out between people first. At this level,
the individual will connect, interact and reach out to other individuals. This is the section
whereby social education takes place. The other section is intra-psychological or individual level.
At this level in a kid or a person, it is the moment he has passed the social level, where he or she
attained social educations and the function will come out a second time, and at this particular
time, they will be established and therefore leading to cognitive development.
The third concept of Vygotsky’s concept is language accelerates cognitive development.
It is certain that language is very significant in any social connection. It is because; it is the main
channel of communication in any social structure. Additionally, language also plays other
secondary purposes in social development and are as follows; external or social speech,
egocentric speech, and inner speech.
Lastly, the fourth concept is the self initiated discoverer and collaborative dialogue aid in
a child’s cognitive development. According to Vygotsky, he suggests that the cultural and social
setting which kid’s actions takes place in, need communication and social connection. Also, the
kids study well during these social connections (Moll, et al. pg, 67). They get the know-how and
sharpen skills during these connections as well as culture adjoining them, and at the end, they
will hone their cognition.
One of the major examples of Vygotsky’s theories is the More Knowledgeable Other
(MKO). In this kind of example, an individual with good comprehension and significantly
superior or higher knowledge, ability and or skill about a certain subject tend to teach those who
don’t have less knowhow on the subject (Abtahi, et al. pg 7)
The MKO frequently comes in an individual of a teacher, a friend or a superior at a
workplace who has more experience. In the report, the teacher has more knowledge than the
students when it comes to teaching English. The teacher can be said to be a facilitator. It is
because, the uses different techniques to ensure that the students can comprehend the subjection.
In the report, it is seen that when the teacher interacts the students that is peer to peer, the
students tend to understand more about the subject. From this example, it can be said that
learning turns out to be more contributory and production to cognitive development when it is
obtained from MKO. For example, the teacher groups the students together so that they can be
able to understand what they are learning in a better way. It helps the students to engage and
interact thereby making necessary steps in social interaction as far as education is of concern.
The second example is the zone of proximal development. According to Vygotsky, by
comprehending what kids are in a position to attain alone as well what they can attain when they
are offered a hand by an educator can establish the strategy to teach skills? It helps to give the
students or kids slow but sure discharge of responsibilities to carry out duties without help
(Abtahi, et al. pg 10).
In the report, the teacher uses facilitating style to educate the kids. In this method, the
students learn by themselves even though they are supervised by the teacher. For instance, the
teacher leaves the students by themselves to do their own work. Even though the teacher
supervises them, I think this mode of independence help the student make the meaning of
anything they come across with.
Consequently, it can be said that MKO AND Zone of proximal development go hand in
hand. It is because the process of learning is considered to be a social connection (Abtahi, et al.
Abtahi, Yasmine, Mellony Graven, and Stephen Lerman. “Conceptualising the more
knowledgeable other within a multi-directional ZPD.” Educational Studies in
Mathematics (2017): 1-13.
Kail, Robert V., and John C. Cavanaugh. Human development: A life-span view. Cengage
Moll, Luis C. LS Vygotsky and education. Routledge, 2013.
Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis. Educational psychology: Pearson new international edition: Developing
learners. Pearson Higher Ed, 2013.
Dealing with Diversity
Observation Report #3
DEALING WITH DIVERSITY
Most of the discussion about diversity has focused on such marginalization forms such as;
class, race, sexual orientation and gender. Students in all institutions come from different
backgrounds, cultural contexts, sets of experiences and world views. Diversity plays a role on
how a student and his or her teacher view the importance of the classroom together with
everything which happens there. Example is the assumption on what typical students must
understand, know, the resources available and prior understanding which is extremely crucial
(Peters-Davis & Shultz, 2015).
Promoting diversity has always been an objective or a goal shared by multiple of American
universities and colleges. Achieving this goal in the day-to-day classroom has been often hard to
do. A student may have a perception that they do not belong in a classroom setting, and such a
feeling can lead to; feeling of inadequacy, decreased participation, together with other related
distractions. A teacher may be required to make flawed assumption on his or her students
capabilities or even making uniform assumptions on the standards of the student performance. A
teacher may even feel out of place if basing on their own descriptive traits.
When responding to students diversity, teachers should follow some general principles
which may include;
Treating students as individuals with unique and complex identities,
Encouraging student full participation while staying aware of the differences which may
influence a students response,
Varying teaching methods which take the advantage of diverse styles of learning
together with expanding the repertoire of the strategies practiced by the student,
DEALING WITH DIVERSITY
Allowing a respectful climate in the classroom acceptance of differences together with
Staying aware of any possible anxiety among the students over their performance in the
environment which is so competitive while trying not to overprotect,
Avoiding common problems like highly idiomatic language, and
Providing some linguistic redundancy.
The report suggests that for a teacher to value, encourage and promote diversity, he or she
must provide his or her students with an environment which is conducive for learning. In cases
where a number of students feel uncomfortable, not respected or unsafe, then follows that their
chances to succeed in a class drastically decrease. Even when a society becomes more diverse, it
is crucial that students learn to use and value diversity for the greater good. Teachers have their
various class roles, yet, when valuing diversity, it is one of the most crucial aspects he or she
must fulfill. He or she must take time to learn about their students backgrounds, learning styles
and interests, and allow time for the students to learn about one another and obtain some
appreciation for the diversity they bring with them (Boterman, 2013).
Diversity in class must be fully embraced and understood by both students and teachers.
An open minded and a positive classroom atmosphere is essential for any teacher to implement
an inclusive lesson plan. Creating such mindsets begins from the start, and then managing
diverse class will be successful. When individuals value diversity, they respect and recognize
the reality that people are different and the difference is generally a good thing. When one
attempts to solve problems, it is good to assemble diverse teams who possess a lot of skills and
many different dimensions of approaching such problems than it may be when assembling a
team with all its strengths concentrated in a single area (Adams & Bell, 2016).
DEALING WITH DIVERSITY
Adams, M., & Bell, L. A. (Eds.). (2016). Teaching for diversity and social justice. Routledge.
Boterman, W. R. (2013). Dealing with diversity: middle-class family households and the issue of
Blackand Whiteschools in Amsterdam. Urban Studies, 50(6), 1130-1147.
Peters-Davis, N., & Shultz, J. (2015). Challenges of multicultural education: Teaching and taking diversity
Middle Childhood and Adolescent Development
Field Experience Observation Report #1
This research aims to determine the most suitable teaching style and strategies for teaching
English lessons in high school classes. There is a broad range of approaches that can be applied
depending on the individual perspective of the teacher, experience from students, and
knowledge. Some of the most widely used methods are:
Authoritative style: in this style, communication is unidirectional, and students are
supposed to listen to the teacher and take notes only. Lengthy lectures also characterize
Demonstrator style: in this form, the teacher demonstrates to the students what they are
supposed to know.
Facilitator style: in this form, the students learn by themselves, with the supervision of
Peer to peer style: in this method, the students interact and discuss issues among
themselves during group discussions.
Coupled with these teaching styles are the different teaching strategies, aimed at enhancing
students’ participation and understanding. Some of the strategies include the use of technology
such as the internet and arranging the class in certain ways to enhance the learning of students
with learning challenges such as ADHD and autism.
The following research questions will guide the study and help gather the needed
What teaching strategies do the teachers use? How effective are the teaching strategies?
In what activities are students more active during the English lessons?
What is the level of participation of the students with ADHD and autism in the class?
What modes of assessment do English teachers use to test the understanding of the
Limitations of the study:
Lack of personalized responses for the study questions
The study will not involve interviews; therefore, it may lack personal touch with the
details of the various teachers.
Reduced range of data collected. The study is limited to using only observations,
questions, and answers with the students. This can only collect a limited amount of data.
Limited interaction with the English teachers
The English teachers might be uncooperative, and fail to offer the required information.
During the last few English classes, the English teacher has been using different teaching
method. According to him, the importance of using various methods in this lesson is to identify
the best way compatible with the current students. From his experience, no classes have ever
been similar to a previous class. Each class portrays a unique character. At some times, the
teacher is forced to use a combination of more than two methods. As such, the possibility of
serving all students is higher when several methods are used.
The method used is effective. This lesson aims to ensure that, as many students can
communicate and write proper English. A group of students understands when the teacher uses
authoritative method while other is good with the discussion. Here, the teacher has to balance
both groups. In the current class, the teacher uses an authoritative method for the first half of the
lesson then allows students them to discuss among themselves. The second part of the lesson
appears like a reflection of the first part. The students can discuss what the teacher was teaching.
The difference in the groups is evident because there are students who do not participate in
discussions but have grasped whatever the teacher has taught.
During these discussions, the teacher acts as a facilitator. Whenever there are some points
that students may require clarification, the teacher is always available during class time to guide.
However, after the lesson, students may not have another occasion to interact with the teacher
because of the workload and the responsibilities he holds. Therefore, this limitation needs to be
addressed. If the students are allowed more time to interact with their teachers, there will be an
increased conception rate.
In this class, students are more active during peer-to-peer learning combined with the
teacher as the facilitator. Here, the students are active and portray willingness to learn their
second language. Further, the presence of moderator makes them more productive because of the
available interaction and further guidance. Additionally, the students are allowed to consult
interactively. Therefore, the entire class becomes active and enjoyable.
The level of participation in class is uniform. During discussions, students participate
fully and constructively. The only disparity that appears is among the small group that does not
like peer-to-peer leaning but are active when the authoritative method is used. As such, during
these discussions, some of these students may walk out. However, among the students with
ADHD and autism, the participation is comparable to the typical students.
The assessment forms a critical part of this class. One method used for assessment is
immediate question and answers. The teacher asks random questions to random students. If they
are unable to respond, he then revisits the same area. There are weekly and monthly tests in
addition to the assignments given to students as assessments. These tests allow the teacher to
understand special needs for students. The progress of this class is commendable despite the few
challenges that may arise.
Gay, Geneva. Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College
Swales, John M. English in today’s research world: A writing guide. No. 428 S71. University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (EUA), 2000.
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