best practice for project integration management

I have an assignment which is three question about project management, and the answer can be a short answer.Discuss a good/best practice for project integration management.Should project managers work to mitigate risks? Why or why not?What are the most important components of project kick-off discussion?
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MGMT 565
Project Management
Module 7A: What is Project Risk
Management?
What is Risk Management?
• The goal of the Risk Management knowledge is simple – minimize
surprises.
? Maximize the value and gains from positive risks or opportunities
? Minimize the impact and occurrence of negative risks or threats
• From a risk management perspective, all uncertainties, even positive
ones, result in surprises. Surprises are frowned upon, even when
they are positive.
? “Surprises” reveal poor control and quality of project management,
especially to executives who are impacted by the unexpected
outcome
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What is Risk Management?
The society has multiple highly noticeable failures in recent years:
? Great recession as a result of poor financial management in the
financial market
? Failure of Obama Healthcare Website in October 2014
? Numerous data breaches in since 2014, resulting in exposure
of millions of records of private information
? Samsung Galaxy Note 7’s battery caught fire, resulting in a loss
of at least $17 billion, wiping out nearly all profits from the
mobile division
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Why Manage Risk?
Would you prefer…
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Or…
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Risk Defined
• A Risk is an uncertain event or condition, that if it occurs, has a positive or
negative effect on at least one objective
• Probability x Impact = Risk Score
Impact:
The Consequence of
Occurrence of a
Penalty Incurred If
the Objective Is Not
Obtained
Increased Probability
Probability:
The Likelihood of
Occurrence
That an Objective Will
Not Be Met Using the
Current Plan
Increased Impact
• Risk vs. Issue
? A Risk is an event that may occur in the future
? A Problem or Issue is something that has already occurred and you are
dealing with now
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Project Constraints
The Triple Constraint (Iron Triangle): Scope, Time, Cost
• As more sides of the triangle (constraints) are fixed and unyielding,
projects tend to become more challenging with greater risk.
• In general, only 2 of the 3 constraints can be selected for projects.
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Project Risk Management
• Risk Management is an organized, systematic decision-making
process that efficiently
? plans,
? assesses,
? handles,
? monitors/ controls, and
? documents risk
to increase the likelihood of achieving project goals and decrease the
likelihood that a risk would become a future problem
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Project Risk Management
Overview
According to PMBOK® Guide 6.0, there are seven
processes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Plan risk management
Identify risk
Perform qualitative risk analysis
Perform quantitative risk analysis
Plan risk responses
Implement risk responses
Monitor risks
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Project Risk Management
• Project Risk Management has us inquire about the
uncertainty within our project…
? What are our project unknowns?
? …known unknowns?
? …unknown unknowns?
• Risk Management provides a capability to quickly and
effectively communicate risk information up and down the
management chain
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Benefits of Risk
Management
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identifies existing as well as potential problems
Common description/ understanding of risk
Effective use of resources
Identifies strategies to reduce the risks
Maximizes safety of personnel
Provides a structured and systematic review of the process
Provides ongoing process for system improvements
Provides continuous risk communication
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MGMT 565
Project Management
Module 7B: What is Project Quality
Management?
What is Quality?
Quality is a set of distinctive attribute or characteristic of a product,
deliverable, or business results associated with two important concepts:
utility and warranty:
• Utility is fit for purpose. Are the deliverables suitable for function?
? For example, does the software performs as designed?
• Warranty is fit for use and how the service is delivered
? For information technology systems, it often includes four dimensions:
•Availability of the system
•Capacity to support the desired performance
•Continuity of business
•Security
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What is Project Quality
Management?
• * Project Quality Management is a knowledge area that
incorporates organization’s quality policy regarding the
planning, managing, and controlling project and product quality
requirements in order to meet stakeholder’s objectives.
• In PMBOK® Guide 6.0, there are three processes in this
knowledge:
? Plan Quality Management
? Manage Quality
? Control Quality
* Adopted from PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition
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Core Project Quality Concepts
• Making sure the level of requirements corresponds to the quality rigor
? The more specific the quality, the more detailed the requirements need to be
• Managing key stakeholder satisfaction with the project and its progress
• Empowering the project leads and team members to exercise their expertise
• Evaluate project situations based on facts and data, as much as possible. Intuition can be
important, but it should not be the sole source of information.
• Adopt a process mentality for project management and strive to balance solving problems
with a repeatable and consistent process
• In SDLC (or Agile), there are specific entry and exit criteria to ensure quality. Make sure
these criteria and those associated are agreed in advance and executed deliberately.
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Important Quality Names, Concepts
and Frameworks
• Quality Gurus
? W. Edward Deming – Pioneered the understanding of product variations of which management is crucial
for improving quality
? Joseph Juran – Developed the concept of Quality Trilogy: quality planning, quality control, and quality
improvement
? Genichi Taguchi – Pioneered a statistical method to optimize product quality
• Total Quality Management (TQM)
? Developed in the late 1970s and popularized in the 1980’s, TQM consists of coordinated enterprise-wide
efforts to delivery high quality services and products to customers.
• ISO 9001: 2015
? A European framework developed by International Standard Organization for Standardization. 9001 refers
to the quality management standard, and 2015 refers to the most current version.
• Six Sigma
? A set of process improvement techniques designed to reduce process variations. It was first introduced by
Bill Smith while he worked at Motorola in 1986. The goal is to achieve a defect-free rate of 99.99966%.
• Lean Six Sigma
? Lean Six Sigma is a data-driven approach of improving quality by driving out waste and promote work
standardization.
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MGMT 565 Project
Management
Lecture 7C: What is Project Procurement
Management?
What is Project
Procurement Management?
• Today most organizations are lean, which means they rely on their
partners and suppliers for products and services. On projects of any
significant size, organizations must work with their supply chain and
procure products and services.
• * Project Procurement Management is a knowledge area that
concentrates on working with external parties for goods and services and
to ensure proper integration with the project team for the successful
delivery of projects
• In PMBOK® Guide 6.0, there are three processes in this knowledge:
? Plan procurement management
? Conduct procurements
? Control procurements
* Adopted from PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition
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Important Procurement
Considerations
• Make or buy – decisions made regarding purchasing an existing
product/solution and configure (or customize) versus building in-house
? Understand your capabilities, environment, and project needs. For
example:
• Timing of work being purchased vs. developed
• Capability of the project team (and the organization)
• # of suppliers required
• Roles that internal vs. external members play
• Sourcing (and availability of options)
• Contract types
? Fixed price vs. time and material
? Cost reimbursable (e.g. cost plus)
• Partnering and collaboration
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Procurement Challenges
• How to procurement products and services?
? How to find and determine suitable vendors?
? How to engage them in Request for Information (RFI), Request for
Quotation (RFQ), and Request for Proposal (RFP)?
• How to short list vendors?
• How to negotiate with vendors?
• What are the organizational policies when working with vendors?
• How to vet vendors and ensure their capabilities and delivery matches the
organizational needs?
• How to manage the entire supply chain of project activities (and
capabilities), connecting internal resources with external suppliers?
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MGMT 565 Project
Management
Module 7D: Why is Project Integration
Important?
Why is Project Integration
so Important?
• By now, we have discussed nine knowledge areas in project
management.
? Some we have discussed in details. These include
Stakeholders, Scope, Schedule, Resources, and Cost.
? And others we have just introduced the concepts. These include:
Communications, Risk, Quality, and Procurement.
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Why is Project Integration
so Important?
• The tenth knowledge area and actually the first one described in the
PMBOK® Guide 6.0 is Project Integration Management.
? In some respects, organizational executives and project
managers can assign or delegate other leaders and managers
to handle any of the other nine knowledge areas.
? However, integration management is the one area in which the
project manager must own.
• Project Integration Management is the synthesis of all the project
management knowledge areas and processes to achieve synergy
and create a “whole” that is greater than the sum of the parts.
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Project Integration
Management Knowledge Area
• In PMBOK® Guide 6.0, there are seven
processes in this area:
? Develop project charter
? Develop project management plan
? Direct and manage project work
? Manage project knowledge
? Monitor and control project work
? Perform integrated change control
? Close project or phase
* Adopted from PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition
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Integration Challenges
• The details of Project Integration Management reside in MGMT576: Advanced Project
Management. In this module, we will provide an example to illustrate how project
integration is required to solve a common problem.
• Assume we have the following project activity duration and cost estimate:
? Normal condition is the current plan.
Pre? The project manager also created an
ID
Activity Name
requisite
expedited scenario, in case the
A
Plan project
customer wishes to accelerate the
B
Develop requirements
A
development of the project.
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
Normal
Duration
(Days)
Activity
Cost
2
$
240
4
$
360
C
Design solution
B
3
$
300
D
Develop codes
C
10
$
750
E
Testing
D
6
$
540
F
Training
E
4
$
450
G
Deployment
F
1
$
200
Total:
30
$ 2,840
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Gantt Chart for the Normal
Plan
Gantt Chart is a graphical illustration that shows the project activities mapped to a series of
time. In this example, the normal plan requires 30 days.
Activity
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
A A
B B B B
C C C
D D D D D D D D D D
E E E E E E
F F F F
G
At the beginning of the project, the customer has agreed to the normal plan.
In this example, the cost is $2,840 and the duration is 30 days. The project is
scheduled to start in 30 days.
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Scenario 1: Customer Wants
to Expedite
• However, five days later, the customer called the project manager with an
urgent request. The marketing team called to want this application developed
as quickly as possible, and the customer is willing to pay 25% more.
• To manage the change, the project manager analyzed the project activities,
resources allocation, and decided to crash the project.
? Crashing is a technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least
incremental cost by adding resources.
• The project manager develop an expedited model including revised duration
and expedited cost for the project (shown on the next slide).
• Furthermore, the project manager invoked the Integrated Change
Management process (a process within the Project Integration Management
knowledge area) to manage the change. This change impacts two areas of
the project: schedule and resources.
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Scenario 1: Customer Wants
to Expedite
• Here is the expedited plan, with updated duration and activities. Two
activities, A and G, cannot be expedited as the original estimation was
very aggressive.
Normal
ID
Activity Name
A
Plan project
B
Develop requirements
C
Prerequisite
Duration
(Days)
Expedited
Activity
Cost
Duration
(Days)
Activity
Cost
2
$
240
2
$
240
A
4
$
360
3
$
600
Design solution
B
3
$
300
2
$
550
D
Develop codes
C
10
$
750
8
$
1,200
E
Testing
D
6
$
540
4
$
800
F
Training
E
4
$
450
3
$
600
G
Deployment
F
1
$
200
1
$
200
Total:
30
$ 2,840
23
$ 4,190
Note: Assume activities can only be expedited as specified with
no partial expediting.
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Scenario 1: Customer
Wants to Expedite
• The project manager also considered fast tracking, but decided the risk is too high. This is the first
time in which the project team is working with the customer, and the early experience suggests that
caution is warranted.
? Fast Tracking is another schedule compression technique in which activities or phases
normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration.
• To determine the how many days the client would save by spending 25% more, the project
manager further analyzed the project plan and develop this analysis:
Normal
ID
Prerequisite
Activity Name
A
Plan project
B
Develop requirements
C
Design solution
Duration
(Days)
Expedited
Activity
Cost
Duration
(Days)
Activity
Cost
Expedited Plan
Total
Number of
Cost Per
.
Expedited
Days Saved
Day
Cost
2
$
240
2
$
240
A
4
$
360
3
$
600
1
$
240 $
240
B
3
$
300
2
$
550
1
$
250 $
250
D
Develop codes
C
10
$
750
8
$
1,200
2
$
450 $
225
E
Testing
D
6
$
540
4
$
800
2
$
260 $
130
F
Training
E
4
$
450
3
$
600
1
$
150 $
150
G
Deployment
F
1
$
200
1
$
200
Total:
30
$ 2,840
23
$ 4,190
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Scenario 1: Customer Wants
to Expedite
• The project manager also created this table to illustrate the possibilities:
B
C
D
E
F
G
Develop requirements
Design solution
Develop codes
Testing
Training
Deployment
A
B
C
D
E
F
4
3
10
6
4
1
Total:
30
©2017 PMO Advisory LLC
• To address the customer’s request, the project
manager recommends reducing the project by
4 days but incurring a cost increase of 23%
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Scenario 2: Customer Wants to
Move More Aggressively
• However, after reviewing the recommendations, the customer called
again. This time, the marketing team revised its forecast and decided that
the project must be delivered in 20 days.
• The customer is willing to “do what it takes” to complete the project within
20 days, including paying more and accepting more risks. The client
offered to send three dedicated subject-matter-experts to co-locate with
the project team to complete this project.
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Scenario 2: Customer Wants
to Move More Aggressively
After further analyzing the project plan, the project manager believes there is
indeed a possibility – by crashing the project and fast tracking
simultaneously.
• The project manager warns the client of the high risks, but the customer
insists on 20 days and is willing to accept the risk. Furthermore, the
customer promise a bonus of $1,000 beyond the expedited cost to
motivate the project team.
• After receiving approval of the aggressive plan through the Integrated
Change Management process, the project manager is ready to execute.
The revised Gantt Chart is shown on the next page.
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Scenario 2: Aggressive Plan to
Complete in 20 Days
• The Gantt Chart below shows how the project team plan to complete the work in 20 days. Notice
the following:
? Activities BCDEF are being crashed, using the expedited schedule. This reduce the project to
23 days.
? Activities E and F are fast tracked.
•By starting Activity E early, the project plan directed the testing team to focused on the
coded that were already developed.
•By starting Activity F, training, at the same time as quality testing, the project managers
plan to use combine some of the testing activities with training.
Activity
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
A A
B B B
C C
Fast Tracking
D D D D D D D D
Crashing
E E E E
F F F
G
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Scenario 2: Aggressive Plan to
Complete in 20 Days (Continued)
• Both the customer and the project team realize the increased amount of risks by applying
both schedule compression techniques: crashing and fast tracking.
• To mitigate the risk,
? The customer has agreed to send three subject-matter-experts to be co-located with
the project team. By working next to each other, the intent is to enhance
communication and rapid problem solving.
? The project manager has also revised the project plan to make sure it is possible to:
•Start testing while develop is still occurring
•Modify the training approach. Now even as the users, especially the three SMEs
are being trained, they are also learning by actually conducting user acceptance
testing.
• The $1,000 bonus is also a strong motivator. As this is the first project between these
parties, both parties want a strong win.
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Lessons on Project Integration
Management
On projects, rarely are the knowledge areas truly isolated. In this example, all knowledge areas are
working in tandem to make the solution work:
Cost & Resources
• These are obvious. By expediting the
project, the project manager added
more resources and thus increased
the cost.
Schedule
• This is also obvious. The
project schedule is reduced
by a full 10 days.
Risk
Stakeholder
• Cleary, by implementing crashing and
fast tracking simultaneous, the project
experienced much greater risk.
Luckily, both parties came together to
actively mitigate the potential threats.
• The project manager realize the
importance of impressing a new client
and developed very detailed cost and
duration analysis to facilitate decision
making. The customer in turn also
recognize the extra mile by the project
manager and offered the $1,000
bonus.
Communication
Procurement
Scope & Quality
• The two parties were communicating
regularly. During the actual
implementation, the customer sends
three SMEs to co-locate with the
pr …
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