Find the compound that has the highest entropy , calculate Delta G, Balance the following reactions(in basic or acid solution), calculate the equilibrium
constant, Complete the nuclear equations
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1. Circle the compound that has the highest entropy. Briefly explain why.
a. Li(s) or Li(l)
b. C2H5OH(l) or CH3OCH3(l) Hint: Which molecule can hydrogen bond?
c. Ar(g) or Xe(g)
d. CO(g) or CO2(g)
e. O2(g) or O3(g)
f. NO2(g) or N2O4(g)
2. Using data in the appendix, calculate standard entropy changes for the following reactions at 25oC.
a. H2(g) + CuO(s) ? Cu(s) + H2O(g)
b. 2Al(s) + 3ZnO(s) ? Al2O3(s) + 3Zn(s)
c. CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ? CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
3. Predict whether the entropy change will be positive or negative for each reaction and state why.
a. 2KClO4(s) ? 2 KClO3(s) + O2(g)
b. H2O(g) ? H2O(l)
c. 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) ? 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
d. N2(g) ? 2N(g)
4. Use appendix to calculate ?G for the following reaction at 25oC.
a. 2Mg(s) + O2(g) ? 2MgO(s)
b. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) ? 2SO3(g)
5. From the values of ?H and ?S, predict which of the following reactions would be spontaneous at
a. ?H = 10.5 kJ/mol, ?S = 30 J/K*mol
b. ?H = 1.85 kJ/mol, ?S = -113 J/K*mol
c. If either of the reactions is nonspontaneous at 25oC, at what temperature might it become
6. Find the temperature ranges at which the following reactions with the following ?H and ?S values
would be spontaneous:
a. ?H = -126 kJ/mol, ?S = 84 J/K*mol
b. ?H = -11.7 kJ/mol, ?S = -105 J/K*mol
7. Calculate Kp for the following reaction at 25 oC.
H2(g ) + I2(g) ?? 2HI(g) ?Go = 2.60 kJ/mol
8. For the auto-ionization of water at 25oC, Kw = 1.0 x 10-14. What is ?Go?
9. a. Find some data table and calculate ?Go for the process
C(diamond) ? C(graphite)
Is the formation of graphite favored? If so, why is it that the diamonds in a diamond ring do not
10. Kp = 4.40 for the following reaction at 2000. K.
H2(g) + CO2(g) ?? H2O(g) + CO(g)
a. Calculate ?Go for the reaction.
b. Calculate ?G for the reaction when the partial pressures are PH = 0.250 atm,
PCO2 = 0.780 atm, PH2O = 0.660 atm and PCO = 1.20 atm.
11. Balance the following reactions.
a. H2O2 + Fe2+ ?? Fe3+ + H2O (in acidic solution)
Cu + HNO3 ?? Cu2+ + NO + H2O (in acidic solution)
c. CN- + MnO4- ?? CNO- + MnO2 (in basic solution)
d. Br2 ?? BrO3- + Br-
(in basic solution)
e. S2O32- + I2 ?? I- + S4O62-
(in acidic solution)
Balance the following reactions.
Mn2+ + H2O2 ?? MnO2 + H2O (in basic solution)
g. Bi(OH)3 + SnO22- ?? SnO32- + Bi (in basic solution)
h. Cr2O72- + C2O42- ?? Cr3+ + CO2 (in acidic solution)
ClO3- + Cl- ?? Cl2 + ClO2 (in acidic solution)
12 Calculate the standard emf of a Mg/Mg2+ and Cu/Cu2+ cell at 25oC. Write the balanced equation for
13 Circle which of the following reagents can oxidize H2O to O2(g) under standard conditions.
Briefly explain your answer.
k. Cl- (aq)
m. Pb2+ (aq)
n. MnO4- in acid
14 Predict whether the following reactions would occur spontaneously in aqueous solution at 25oC,
1M concentration (standard conditions). Show your work.
o. Ca(s) + Cd2+ (aq) ?? Ca2+(aq) + Cd(s)
p. 2Br- (aq) + Sn2+ (aq) ?? Br2(l) + Sn(s)
q. 2Ag(s) + Ni2+ (aq) ?? 2Ag+ (aq) + Ni(s)
Cu+ (aq) + Fe3+ (aq) ?? Cu2+ (aq) + Fe2+ (aq)
15. Circle the species in each pair which is a better oxidizing agent under standard conditions.
Briefly explain your answer!
s. Br2 or Au3+
H2 or Ag+
u. Cd2+ or Cr3+
v. O2 in acidic solution or O2 in basic solution
16. Circle the species in each pair which is a better reducing agent under standard conditions.
Briefly explain your answer.
w. Na or Li
x. H2 or I2
y. Fe2+ or Ag
z. Br- or Co2+
17. What is the equilibrium constant for the following reaction?
Mg(s) + Zn2+ (aq) ?? Mg2+ (aq) + Zn(s)
18. The Keq = 2.69 x 1012 at 25oC for a reaction. Calculate ?G and Ecello from the Keq.
Sr(s) + Mg2+(aq) ? Mg(s) + Sr2+(aq)
19. How does a nuclear reaction differ from an ordinary chemical reaction?
20. What is:
a. A positron
b. Beta particle
c. Alpha particle
d. Gamma ray
21. Complete the nuclear equations and identify X in the following reactions:
+ 11p ?
?209F + X
22. Complete the nuclear equations and identify X in the following reactions:
? 5625Mn + X
23. The radioactive decay of 206Tl to 206Pb has a half-life of 4.20 min. Starting with 5.00 x 1022 atoms
of Tl, how many atoms remain after 42.0 min.
24. Determine whether or not each nuclide is likely to be stable.
25. Predict the mode of decay for each unstable nuclide
26. A wooden boat discovered south of the Great Pyramid has a carbon-14/carbon-12 ratio that is
72.5% of that found in living organisms. How old is the boat?
(The half life of carbon 14 is 5730 years.)
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