Calculate Equivalent Readings

attached experiments 7&8 and 9&101- prphrase -thery part -procedure part2-drow graph -for the observation and calculation part3- solve- results and discussion part-conclustion
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EXPERIMENT 7 – TURBINE METER
Aim: To draw the calibration curve by plotting a graph between
actual flow discharge (Q act) and Observed flow discharge (Qobs).
Apparatus Required: Flow Bench with Turbine Meter
Theory:
Turbine flow meters measure the rate of flow in a pipe or process
line via a rotor that spins as
the media passes through its blades. The rotational speed is a
direct function of flow rate and can be sensed by magnetic pick-up,
photoelectric cell, or gears.
Flow meters types can be either volumetric or velocity. Volumetric
turbine flow meters measure flow rate in units of volumetric flow,
for example, mL/min. Velocity turbine flow meters measure flow
rate as in units of velocity, for example, ft. /sec Turbine flow
meters can be configured to either measure liquid or gas flow.
Measuring the flow of liquids and gases is a critical need in many
industrial plants. In some operations, the ability to conduct
accurate flow measurements is so important that it can make the
difference between making a profit and taking a loss. In other
cases, inaccurate flow measurements or failure to take
measurements can cause serious (or even disastrous) results.
Important parameters to consider when specifying turbine flow
meters include velocity flow rate range, liquid volumetric flow rate,
operating pressure, fluid temperature, material density, and
material viscosity. Velocity flow rate range applies only to those
turbine flow meters that are velocity flow sensors or meters. It is
the range of flow in distance/time. Liquid volumetric flow rate
applies only to those turbine flow meters that are liquid volumetric
flow sensors or meters. It is expressed as the range of flow in
volume/time.
The operating pressure is the maximum head pressure of the
process media the meter can withstand. The maximum
temperature of the media that can be monitored is usually
dependent on construction and liner materials. Depending on the
flow meter technology used, material viscosity can be an important
material factor to consider. The higher the viscosity, typically higher
the pressure drops. Pipe diameter is also important to consider,
especially when specifying specific mounting options.
Procedure:
.
i) Before switching on the mains open the bypass valve flow /
level (sump).
.
ii) Valves of collecting jar (1, 2, 3, 4) and (1, 2, 3) must be closed
and open the drainage.
.
iii) Open the air out valve and adjust the selector switch in 3rd
position.
.
iv) Switch on the mains and pump No.2, such that timer indicator
3 and digital meter glow.
.
v) Slowly close the bypass valve of pump No.2 such that the
display should go beyond 40 and up to 160 lph.
.
vi) Observe there should not be any air bubbles then close the
air put valve. Allow for stabilization of display reading.
.
vii) Close the drainage valve to the sump (1, 2, 3, and 4).
.
viii) As soon as the water level increases to 100ml in collecting
jar (1, 2, 3, and 4). Start the timer at that position.
.
ix) Stop the timer when the level of liquids reaches 1000ml and
note down the time.
.
x) Release the drainage valve to sump (1, 2, 3, and 4)
immediately to avoid over flow. Reset the time to zero
position. Close the valve (1,2,3,4) gradually of the collecting
jar for different flow rates up to 40 and note down the
reading / time.
.
xi) Release the drainage / bypass valve. Switch off the pump 2.
.
xii) Tabulate the readings and draw the calibration graph
between actual flow discharge
and observed flow discharge and finally declare the percentage
error.
Observations and Calculation:
Actual
Turbine
Flow Rate
meter
(Q act) LPH Reading LPH
Time of Collection for 900 ml of water (S)
9.5
4.26
2.4
1.68
1.13
95
64
48
42
34
10
15
20
25
30
Results & Discussion:
Conclusion:
EXPERIMENT 8 – CORIOLIS METER
Aim: To calibrate and understand the working of Coriolis meter.
Apparatus Required: Flow bench with Coriolis Meter
Theory:
Coriolis meter uses an obstruction less U-shaped tube area sensor
and applies Newton’s Second law of motion to determine flow rate.
Inside the sensor housing, the sensor tube vibrates at its natural
frequency and is driven by an electromagnetic drive coil located at
the center of the bend in the tube and vibrates similar to that of a
tuning fork.
Due to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, the amount of sensor tube
twist is directly proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid flowing
through the tube. The deflection cannot be visualized by naked
eye. Mass flow is determined by measuring the time difference
exhibited by the velocity detector signals. The time difference is
proportional to mass flow.
()()
Procedure:
.
i) Before switching on the mains make sure, if the bypass
flow/valve is fully opened
.
ii) Valves collecting tank (1, 2, 3 and 4) and valves (1, 2, and 3)
shall be closed and the drainage should be open.
.
iii) Open the air out valve and adjust the selector switch in
position 4
.
iv) Switch on the mains and Pump 2, such that timer indicator 4
and digital meter glows.
.
v) Slowly close the bypass valve of pump no.2, such that the
display should go beyond 40 up to 160lph
.
vi) Observe there should not be any air bubbles and then close
the air out valve.
.
vii) Allow for stabilization of display reading.
.
viii) Close the drainage valve to the sump (1, 2, 3, and 4).
.
ix) As soon as the water level increases to 100ml in collecting jar
(1, 2, 3, and 4), Start the timer at that position.
.
x) Stop the timer when the level of liquids reaches 1000ml and
note down the time.
.
xi) Release the drainage valve to sump (1, 2, 3, and 4)
immediately to avoid over flow.
.
xii) Reset the time to zero position. Close the valve (1,2,3,4)
gradually of the collecting jar for different flow rates up to 40
and note down the reading / time.
.
xiii) Release the drainage / bypass valve. Switch off the pump 2.
.
xiv) Tabulate the readings and draw the calibration graph
between actual flow discharge and observed flow discharge
and finally declare the percentage error
www.petro-online.com
Observations and Calculation:
Sl.No
Actual Flow
Rate (Q act)
LPH
1
9
2
4.4
15
3
2.55
20
51
4
1.64
25
41
5
1.16
30
6
0.8
35
Turbine meter
Reading LPH
10
Time of Collection for 900 ml of water (s)
90
66
35
28
Width of the tank, w Breadth of the tank, b Height of the tank,
h Volume of the tank, V Volumetric Flow rate, Q = V / t
Conversion base: 1 LPM = 1.67E-5 m3/s
Results & Discussion:
Conclusion:
EXPERIMENT 9 – STUDY THE CALIBRATION OF THE TEST
RTD SENSOR
Aim: To study the temperature measurement by RTD Test sensor
and to perform its calibration
in comparison with the master sensor.
Apparatus required: RTD TEST RIG Specifications of RTD Sensor:
Type: PT 100 3 wire Length: 10” long Sheathing:
SS304 Maximum Temperature: 200°C
Procedure:
.
i) Before proceeding with the experiment, prepare the initial
setup as explained in operation section.
.
ii) Once the initial setup is done, switch on the PID controller,
keeping the set point at first point of control as 35 °C.
.
iii) Adjust the PB value to 7.1., integral value to 25.0 (equivalent
to 250 seconds) and Derivative value to 8.0 (equivalent to 80
seconds).
.
iv) Once the temperature reaches 35 °C and remains at this
point, note this reading as Master meter reading and also
note the reading of test RTD sensor on the digital Ohmmeter.
.
v) Continue the experiment by changing/selecting the set points
in step of 5°C or 10 °C and note the master meter reading
and corresponding test RTD sensor reading on Ohmmeter.
.
vi) Tabulate these readings as follows and draw a graph of
master meter readings vs. test RTD readings, which shall
indicate the calibration curve
Observations and Calculations:
Sl.No
Master meter
reading (°C)
Test RTD
Sensor reading Equivalent readings (°C)
R, (ohms)
1
2
3
4
5
Calculations:
?=
?? – ? -0.5 (?0? + v?0 ?2-4???(??-?)
T = Calculated Temperature (°C) R0 = RTD Nominal resistance at
°C for PT 100, R0 = 100O R = Measured Resistance (O) A =
3.90802*10-3 B = -5.80195*10-7 (A, B are RTD temperature
tolerance grades)
Results & Discussion:
Conclusion:
EXPERIMENT 10 – STUDY THE CALIBRATION OF THE TEST
THERMISTOR SENSOR
Aim: To study the temperature measurement by Thermistor Test
sensor and to perform its
calibration in comparison with the master sensor. Apparatus
required: Thermistor test RIG Specifications of Test Thermistor:
Type: C 4.7 K Length: 10” long Sheathing: SS304 Maximum
Temperature: 150°C
Procedure:
.
i) Before proceeding with the experiment, prepare the initial
setup as explained in Operation section.
.
ii) Once the initial setup is done, switch on the PID controller,
keeping the set point at first point of control as 35 °C. Adjust
the PB value to 7.1., integral value to 24.0 (equivalent to 250
seconds) and Derivative value to 8.0 (equivalent to 80
seconds).
.
iii) Oncethetemperatureisstableatagivensetpoint,notethemasterm
eterreadingson PID controller and corresponding Millivolt
readings of test Thermistor on digital Ohmmeter.
.
iv) Continue the experiment for different set points and note the
meter readings and corresponding test Thermistor reading on
Ohmmeter.
.
v) Tabulate these readings as follows and draw a graph of mater
meter readings vs. test Thermistor readings, which shall
indicate the calibration curve.
Observations:
Sl.No.
Master meter
reading (°C)
Test Thermistor
Sensor reading (R)
(K ohms)
Equivalent readings (°C)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Calculations:
NTC (negative temperature coefficient) thermistors change their
effective resistance over
T is the temperature (in kelvins) R is the resistance at T (in
ohms) A, B, and C are the Steinhart–Hart coefficients which
vary depending on the type and model of thermistor and the
temperature range of interest.
Results & Discussion:
Conclusion:

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