Case study: Ethics, Professionalism and Governance

Case Study 11 ? Pico PC?s Manufacturing Company
Pico PCs has decided to begin manufacturing tiny processors for use in the manufacture of wearable
technology.
During manufacture, 64 gold wired, each much finer than a human hair, must be soldered from the
chip to the pins of the processor. Robots were trialled for the soldering, but the error rate was
unacceptable high. One single mistake in positioning a wire or soldering it, ruined the chip. The
robots were also not only prohibitively expensive. But required frequent and expensive calibration.
Kushlani, the IT Production Manager was asked to carry out trials using human technicians for the
work. The trials clearly demonstrated that humans had a much lower error rate and were less
expensive than robots, but the technicians complained that constantly staring through a microscope
at a brightly illuminated object gave them headaches and was harmful to their eyes.
She reported back to management that she believed the trial had failed.
The CEO was very disappointed, because he thought that the solution was good, and ?worth a few
headaches?. He asked Kushlani to get a professional medical opinion.
PE_Assignment1_Set A – Jan 2017
Kushlani discussed the issue with two senior doctors, who confirmed that this work could
permanently damage a person?s eyesight in as little as 5 months, and could lead to blindness in as
little as 18 months.
The company?s legal advisors confirmed that this was clearly in breach of the Work Health and
Safety Act in Australia, so they could not go ahead. The CEO was really angry.
Next morning the CEO called Kushlani into his office. Kushlani was surprised to find him quite
cheerful. The CEO said that he had discovered that there was an Island in the Pacific that does not
have health and safety laws, and so it would be quite legal for people of that island to solder the
processors. And, better still, they were willing to work for one tenth of the wages of Australians. He
said that this was a ?win win?.
What do you think that Kushlani should do?Assignment Task From what you have learned during Week s 3 and 4 of your Professional Environments Course, discuss ethical, professional and legal issues which you consider arise from this scenario. Make some recommendations of actions which could be taken to resolve the situation and/or to minimise the chance the scenario may recur. Support your answers with relevant references (as well as the Codes and Laws).Things to Consider in Your Assignment:You should list at least 3 values from the ACS Code of Ethics and up to 5 clauses from the ACS Code of Professional Conduct, you think are specifically relevant in deciding how to resolve the situation. Make sure that you refer to the most up to date ACS Codes which are available on the ACS website ? www.acs.org.au.You should also list any relevant Australian legislation that you think applies to this scenario.Your analysis, discussion and recommendations should use the framework you selected in Week 3 ? Solving an Ethical Dilemma (Chris MacDonald or Thomas Whites). Your assignment should be 400 -500 words in length (excluding your code lists, legislation list and references).You may need to undertake a small amount of research, however, most information you will need is available via the seminars and their references. Also, use a cover page ? as per the suggested template,use in-text referencing, use complete Harvard Notation, submit in ?Word? format or equivalent format that can be readily opened in MS Word, keep your formatting simple: Arial 11pt, 10pt after paragraph, single line spacing, headings in bold, maximum 2 indent levels/bullet levels. Do not use page borders, word art, page backgrounds or similar extraneous decorationYour uploaded file name should identify you as part of its name ? e.g. PE_Assignment1_William_Smith. Marking Guide Marks will be awarded using the following guidelines.15% meeting the procedural requirements, including, spelling, grammar, number of words, document formatting,30% how logically and thoroughly you identified and described professional, ethical and legal issues arising in the scenario,30% how well you developed your recommendations and supported them with relevant, correct referencing, 20% how well you convinced the reader that you understood the issues, ? 5% did the material generate interest in the reader?
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Program:
Course:
Assignment: 1
Topic:
Available:
Due:
Professional Year Program
Professional Environments
Ethics, Professionalism and Governance
Week 3 open
Week 4 close (Saturday midnight AEST)
Read the 3 Case Studies below and select ONE as the basis of your analysis and discussion.
Please indicate clearly which Case Study you have chosen
Case Study 3 ? Copyright and Intellectual Property Considerations
Courtney is a young ambitious programmer working for a small company developing software for
web-based services in the health area, with a focus on supporting remote aboriginal communities.
To further her career Courtney undertakes additional tertiary study, with support from her manager
Michael.
This study includes topics covering computer ethics, and issues related to the impact of ICT on
different communities. On her current project, Courtney develops a new user interface, which has a
strong focus on accessibility for remote communities, especially considering the type of technology
likely to be used. She also pays special attention to the use of cultural images in the interface to
avoid those which may be distressing or offensive to aboriginal users.
The new system is a great success and Courney?s contribution is recognised by her company,
through an Employee of the Month Award. The company also receives a national business award for
its contribution to the positive use of ICT in aboriginal communities.
Michael takes all of the credit for this, and Courtney receives no acknowledgement for her efforts.
Discuss briefly the ethical issues related to this case. As a result of your discussion, you should be
able to make some recommendations as to how this ethical problem may be resolved. Be sure to
support any recommendations with reasons, informed by your research and thinking on the ethical
issues identified in your discussion.
Case Study 8 ? Conflict of Interest
Harshal works for the IT section of a very large Federal government department. His role is mostly
database management and coding associated with that. He is always looking for ways to get ahead
PE_Assignment1_Set A – Jan 2017
so on his own initiative he gained accreditation as a SFIA consultant even though the Department
has not yet adopted it.
He receives a very interesting offer direct from Alice, the head of the IT Section. Alice wants him to
submit a proposal to do a full SFIA analysis of the skills of all 10 staff in the IT Section’s Business
Analysis Unit as a pilot project for bringing SFIA into the whole Section. This is great news for Harshal
because he has long been interested in moving into business analysis. The BA Unit has been
considered a very successful unit for a long time, but for some reason it’s profile has dropped
considerably recently.
Harshal ‘s proposal is accepted by the IT Head very quickly and with almost no consultation with
other staff. When Harshal meets John, the leader of the BA Unit, John immediately hands over a
schedule of first interviews with most of the BA Unit staff. However he also passes across 2
documents which appear to be SFIA matrices already filled-out for John and Freda, one of the senior
consultants. John explains that it won’t be necessary for Harshal to interview either himself or Freda.
He explains that he himself is too busy and that Freda has just come back from extended stress
leave, so it’s not really appropriate for her to be interviewed.
John is very welcoming and to Harshal ‘s surprise he adds that if his report is well-received, he will
make sure that Harshal is short-listed for any upcoming positions in the Unit, should he be interested
in applying for them.
Harshal is actually somewhat shocked by this because he did not know that John knew of his interest
in joining the unit. He also now has a problem. How can he fulfil his responsibility to interview and
document everyone in the Unit as agreed in the project brief?
Case Study 11 ? Pico PC?s Manufacturing Company
Pico PCs has decided to begin manufacturing tiny processors for use in the manufacture of wearable
technology.
During manufacture, 64 gold wired, each much finer than a human hair, must be soldered from the
chip to the pins of the processor. Robots were trialled for the soldering, but the error rate was
unacceptable high. One single mistake in positioning a wire or soldering it, ruined the chip. The
robots were also not only prohibitively expensive. But required frequent and expensive calibration.
Kushlani, the IT Production Manager was asked to carry out trials using human technicians for the
work. The trials clearly demonstrated that humans had a much lower error rate and were less
expensive than robots, but the technicians complained that constantly staring through a microscope
at a brightly illuminated object gave them headaches and was harmful to their eyes.
She reported back to management that she believed the trial had failed.
The CEO was very disappointed, because he thought that the solution was good, and ?worth a few
headaches?. He asked Kushlani to get a professional medical opinion.
PE_Assignment1_Set A – Jan 2017
Kushlani discussed the issue with two senior doctors, who confirmed that this work could
permanently damage a person?s eyesight in as little as 5 months, and could lead to blindness in as
little as 18 months.
The company?s legal advisors confirmed that this was clearly in breach of the Work Health and
Safety Act in Australia, so they could not go ahead. The CEO was really angry.
Next morning the CEO called Kushlani into his office. Kushlani was surprised to find him quite
cheerful. The CEO said that he had discovered that there was an Island in the Pacific that does not
have health and safety laws, and so it would be quite legal for people of that island to solder the
processors. And, better still, they were willing to work for one tenth of the wages of Australians. He
said that this was a ?win win?.
What do you think that Kushlani should do?
PE_Assignment1_Set A – Jan 2017
Assignment Task
From what you have learned during Week s 3 and 4 of your Professional Environments Course,
discuss ethical, professional and legal issues which you consider arise from this scenario. Make some
recommendations of actions which could be taken to resolve the situation and/or to minimise the
chance the scenario may recur. Support your answers with relevant references (as well as the Codes
and Laws).
Things to Consider in Your Assignment:
?
?
?
You should list at least 3 values from the ACS Code of Ethics and up to 5 clauses from the
ACS Code of Professional Conduct, you think are specifically relevant in deciding how to
resolve the situation. Make sure that you refer to the most up to date ACS Codes which are
available on the ACS website ? www.acs.org.au.
You should also list any relevant Australian legislation that you think applies to this scenario.
Your analysis, discussion and recommendations should use the framework you selected in
Week 3 ? Solving an Ethical Dilemma.
Your assignment should be 400 -500 words in length (excluding your code lists, legislation list and
references).
You may need to undertake a small amount of research, however, most information you will need is
available via the seminars and their references. Also,
?
?
?
?
use a cover page ? as per the suggested template,
use in-text referencing,
use complete Harvard Notation, submit in ?Word? format or equivalent format that can be
readily opened in MS Word, keep your formatting simple: Arial 11pt, 10pt after paragraph,
single line spacing, headings in bold, maximum 2 indent levels/bullet levels. Do not use page
borders, word art, page backgrounds or similar extraneous decoration
Your uploaded file name should identify you as part of its name ? e.g.
PE_Assignment1_William_Smith.
Marking Guide
Marks will be awarded using the following guidelines.
?
?
?
?
?
15% meeting the procedural requirements, including, spelling, grammar, number of words,
document formatting,
30% how logically and thoroughly you identified and described professional ,ethical and
legal issues arising in the scenario,
30% how well you developed your recommendations and supported them with relevant,
correct referencing,
20% how well you convinced the reader that you understood the issues,
5% did the material generate interest in the reader?
PE_Assignment1_Set A – Jan 2017
Guide to Moral Decision Making, © by Chris MacDonald http://www.ethicsweb.ca/guide/  
A Guide to Moral Decision Making
Chris MacDonald, Ph.D.
Revised September 25 2010
This guide is intended only as an aid. It is not a formula, and it does not
guarantee good decisions. The order of the steps is not crucial, and may vary
from one situation to the next.
A. Recognizing the Moral Dimension
The first step is recognizing the decision as one that has moral importance.
Important clues include conflicts between two or more values or ideals.
B. Who Are the Interested Parties? What are their Relationships?
Carefully identify who has a stake in the decision. In this regard, be imaginative
and sympathetic. Often there are more parties whose interests should be taken
into consideration than is immediately obvious.
Look at the relationships between the parties. Look at their relationships with
yourself and with each other, and with relevant institutions.
C. What Values are Involved?
Think through the shared values that are at stake in making this decision. Is there
a question of trust? Is personal autonomy a consideration? Is there a question of
fairness? Is anyone to be harmed or helped?
D. Weigh the Benefits and the Burdens
Benefits ? broadly defined ? might include such things as the production of goods
(physical, emotional, financial, social, etc.) for various parties, the satisfaction of
preferences, and acting in accordance with various relevant values (such as
fairness).
Burdens might include causing physical or emotional pain to various parties,
imposing financial costs, and ignoring relevant values.
E. Look for Analogous Cases
Can you think of other similar decisions? What course of action was taken? Was
it a good decision? How is the present case like that one? How is it different?
F. Discuss with Relevant Others
The merits of discussion should not be underestimated. Time permitting, discuss
1  
Guide to Moral Decision Making, © by Chris MacDonald http://www.ethicsweb.ca/guide/  
your decision with as many persons as have a stake in it. Gather opinions, and
ask for the reasons behind those opinions. Remember that your ability to discuss
others may be limited by expectations and rules about confidentiality.
G. Does this Decision Accord with Legal and Organizational Rules?
Some decisions are appropriately made based on legal considerations. If one
option is illegal, we should at least think very seriously before taking that option.
Decisions may also be affected by rules set by organizations of which we are
members. For example, most professional organizations have Codes of Ethics
which are intended to guide individual decision making. Institutions (hospitals,
banks, corporations) may also have policies that limit the options available to us.
Sometimes there are bad laws, or bad rules, and sometimes those should be
broken. But usually it is ethically important to pay attention to laws & rules.
H. Am I Comfortable with this Decision?
Sometimes your ‘gut reaction’ will tell you if you’ve missed something.
Questions to be asked in this regard might include:
1) If I carry out this decision, would I be comfortable telling my family about
it? My clergyman? My mentors?
2) Would I want children to take my behaviour as an example?
3) Is this decision one which a wise, informed, virtuous person would make?
4) Can I live with this decision?
Please feel free to use, copy, and share this Guide (for private use). If you
reprint/publish it, please let me know where.
If you find this Guide helpful, please let me know. If you have comments or
criticisms, I would value your input.
How to reach me:
Chris MacDonald
Department of Philosophy,
Saint Mary?s University,
Halifax N.S. Canada B3H 3C3
e-mail: chrismac@ethicsweb.ca
2  
Program:
Course:
Assignment: 1
Topic:
Available:
Due:
Professional Year Program
Professional Environments
Ethics, Professionalism and Governance
Week 3 open
Week 4 close (Saturday midnight AEST)
Read the 3 Case Studies below and select ONE as the basis of your analysis and discussion.
Please indicate clearly which Case Study you have chosen
Case Study 3 ? Copyright and Intellectual Property Considerations
Courtney is a young ambitious programmer working for a small company developing software for
web-based services in the health area, with a focus on supporting remote aboriginal communities.
To further her career Courtney undertakes additional tertiary study, with support from her manager
Michael.
This study includes topics covering computer ethics, and issues related to the impact of ICT on
different communities. On her current project, Courtney develops a new user interface, which has a
strong focus on accessibility for remote communities, especially considering the type of technology
likely to be used. She also pays special attention to the use of cultural images in the interface to
avoid those which may be distressing or offensive to aboriginal users.
The new system is a great success and Courney?s contribution is recognised by her company,
through an Employee of the Month Award. The company also receives a national business award for
its contribution to the positive use of ICT in aboriginal communities.
Michael takes all of the credit for this, and Courtney receives no acknowledgement for her efforts.
Discuss briefly the ethical issues related to this case. As a result of your discussion, you should be
able to make some recommendations as to how this ethical problem may be resolved. Be sure to
support any recommendations with reasons, informed by your research and thinking on the ethical
issues identified in your discussion.
Case Study 8 ? Conflict of Interest
Harshal works for the IT section of a very large Federal government department. His role is mostly
database management and coding associated with that. He is always looking for ways to get ahead
PE_Assignment1_Set A – Jan 2017
so on his own initiative he gained accreditation as a SFIA consultant even though the Department
has not yet adopted it.
He receives a very interesting offer direct from Alice, the head of the IT Section. Alice wants him to
submit a proposal to do a full SFIA analysis of the skills of all 10 staff in the IT Section’s Business
Analysis Unit as a pilot project for bringing SFIA into the whole Section. This is great news for Harshal
because he has long been interested in moving into business analysis. The BA Unit has been
considered a very successful unit for a long time, but for some reason it’s profile has dropped
considerably recently.
Harshal ‘s proposal is accepted by the IT Head very quickly and with almost no consultation with
other staff. When Harshal meets John, the leader of the BA Unit, John immediately hands over a
schedule of first interviews with most of the BA Unit staff. However he also passes across 2
documents which appear to be SFIA matrices already filled-out for John and Freda, one of the senior
consultants. John explains that it won’t be necessary for Harshal to interview either himself or Freda.
He explains that he himself is too busy and that Freda has just come back from extended stress
leave, so it’s not really appropriate for her to be interviewed.
John is very welcoming and to Harshal ‘s surprise he adds that if his report is well-received, he will
make sure that Harshal is short-listed for any upcoming positions in the Unit, should he be interested
in applying for them.
Harshal is actually somewhat shocked by this because he did not know that John knew of his interest
in joining the unit. He also now has a problem. How can he fulfil his responsibility to interview and
document everyone in the Unit as agreed in the project brief?
Case Study 11 ? Pico PC?s Manufacturing Company
Pico PCs has decided to begin manufacturing tiny processors for use in the manufacture of wearable
technology.
During manufacture, 64 gold wired, each much finer than a human hair, must be soldered from the
chip to the pins of the processor. Robots were trialled for the soldering, but the error rate was
unacceptable high. One single mistake in positioning a wire or soldering it, ruined the chip. The
robots were also not only prohibitively expensive. But required frequent and expensive calibration.
Kushlani, the IT Production Manager was asked to carry out trials using human technicians for the
work. The trials clearly demonstrated that humans had a much lower error rate and were less
expensive than robots, but the technicians complained that constantly staring through a microscope
at a brightly illuminated object gave them headaches and was harmful to their eyes.
She reported back to management that she believed the trial had failed.
The CEO was very disappointed, because he thought that the solution was good, and ?worth a few
headaches?. He asked Kushlani to get a professional medical opinion.
PE_Assignment1_Set A – Jan 2017
Kushlani discussed the issue with two senior doctors, who confirmed that this work could
permanently damage a person?s eyesight in as little as 5 months, and could lead to blindness in as
little as 18 months.
The company?s legal advisors confirmed that this was clearly in breach of the Work Health and
Safety Act in Australia, so they could not go ahead. The CEO was really angry.
Next morning the CEO called Kushlani into his office. Kushlani was surprised to find him quite
cheerful. The CEO said that he had discovered that there was an Island in the Pacific that does not
have health and safety laws, and so it would be quite legal for people of that island to solder the
processors. And, better still, they were willing to work for one tenth of the wages of Australians. He
said that this was a ?win win?.
What do you think that Kushlani should do?
PE_Assignment1_Set A – Jan 2017
Assignment Task
From what you have learned during Week s 3 and 4 of your Professional Environments Course,
discuss ethical, professional and legal issues which you consider arise from this scenario. Make some
recommendations of actions which could be taken to resolve the situation and/or to minimise the
chance the scenario may recur. Support your answers with relevant references (as well as the Codes
and Laws).
Things to Consider in Your Assignment:
?
?
?
You should list at least 3 values from the ACS Code of Ethics and up to 5 clauses from the
ACS Code of Professional Conduct, you think are specifically relevant in deciding how to
resolve the situation. Make sure that you refer to the most up to date ACS Codes which are
available on the ACS website ? www.acs.org.au.
You should also list any relevant Australian legislation that you think applies to this scenario.
Your analysis, discussion and recommendations should use the framework you selected in
Week 3 ? Solving an Ethical Dilemma.
Your assignment should be 400 -500 words in length (excluding your code lists, legislation list and
references).
You may need to undertake a small amount of research, however, most information you will need is
available via the seminars and their references. Also,
?
?
?
?
use a cover page ? as per the suggested template,
use in-text referencing,
use complete Harvard Notation, submit in ?Word? format or equivalent format that can be
readily opened in MS Word, keep your formatting simple: Arial 11pt, 10pt after paragraph,
single line spacing, headings in bold, maximum 2 indent levels/bullet levels. Do not use page
borders, word art, page backgrounds or similar extraneous decoration
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