civil engineering transpiration

i need the answers for these 10 questions the answers typed please the book we use is Traffic & Highway Engineering, Nicholas J. Gerber and Lester A. Hoel 5th Edition, E.I., 2015.I don’t have the bookalso there is a slides for the questions that can help for the answers the required chapters are 3-5-6-14 and 15i have some slides of the required chapters which are 14-3 and 6
ch03.pptx

ch06.pptx

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ch14.ppt

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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Characteristics of
the Driver, the
Pedestrian, the
Vehicle, and the
Road
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
1
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
? Become familiar with the main
components of the highway mode
? Understand the relationships among
different components
? Understand the human response process
? Become familiar with the driver and
vehicle characteristics that concern the
geometric design of the highway
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
2
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
3.1 Driver Characteristics
? Transportation engineers face with the
problem of varying skills and perceptual
abilities of drivers on the highway
? Studies have shown that these
characteristics may also vary in an
individual under different conditions
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
3
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Human Response Process
? Visual Perception
? Visual Acuity
? Peripheral Vision
? Color Vision
? Color Vision Recovery
? Depth Perception
? Hearing Perception
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Visual Acuity
? Ability to see fine details of an object
? Measured using Snellen eye chart
? Represented by the visual angle, which is the
angle that a viewed object subtends at the eye:
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
5
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Peripheral Vision
? Ability to see objects beyond the cone of
clearest vision.
? Example: Driver sees a vehicle approaching
from his/her side because of peripheral vision
? Age influences peripheral vision
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
6
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Color Vision
? Ability to differentiate one color from
another
? Deficiency of this ability (color blindness)
does not affect highway driving
significantly because other ways of
recognizing traffic information
compensate for it
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Glare Vision and Recovery
? Direct glare vision:
? Bright light in the field of vision
? Specular glare vision:
? Reflection of the bright light in the field of
vision
? Time required by a person to recover (glare
recovery):3-6 seconds
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
8
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Depth Perception
? Ability to see objects in three
dimensions and estimate speed and
distance.
? Important on two-lane highways
during passing maneuvers
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
3.2: Perception – Reaction Process
? Perception
? Driver sees the object
? Identification
? Identifies the object and understands the
stimulus
? Emotion
? Decides what action to take
? Reaction/Volition
? Executes the action decided
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
10
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Perception – Reaction Process
? PIEV (perception-reaction time) is an important
factor for braking distances
? It dictates the minimum sight distance required
on a highway and the length of the yellow phase
at a signalized intersection
? This value depends on how complicated the
situation is, driver training, environmental
conditions, age, influence of drugs or alcohol
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
3.3: Older Driver’s Characteristics
? By 2030, 20% of United States drivers will be 65
years or older. (The U.S. Administration on
Aging)
? As a person grows older
? Sensory, cognitive, and physical functioning
abilities decline
? Older drivers mostly depend on automobile,
therefore taking their needs into consideration
while designing highways is critical
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
3.4: Pedestrian Characteristics
? Pedestrian control devices include:
? Pedestrian signals
? Safety zones and islands at intersections
? Pedestrian underpasses
? Elevated walkways
? Crosswalks
? Apart from visual and hearing characteristics,
walking characteristics also play a big role on
these controls
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
3.5: Bicyclists and Bicycles Characteristics
? Bicycles are an important component of the
highway mode, especially in urban areas
? Automobile driver human factors also apply to
the bicyclist in terms of perception-reaction
? However, unlike those drivers bicyclists provide
power for the bicycle
? AASHTO defines three skill levels:
? A: Can comfortably ride in traffic
? B: Prefers bike paths and neighborhood streets
? C: Uses mainly residential streets
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
3.6: Vehicle Characteristics
? Criteria for the geometric design of
highways are partly based on the static,
kinematic, and dynamic characteristics of
vehicles
? Designing a highway involves the
selection of a design vehicle, whose
characteristics will determine criteria for
all vehicles expected to be used on the
highway
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Static Characteristics
? Size of the design vehicle determines the
design standards for several physical
components of the highway:
? Lane width
? Shoulder width
? Length
? Width
? Length and width of parking bays
? Lengths of vertical curves
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
16
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Static Characteristics
? In the U.S., federal regulations stipulate
that the overall gross weight of a group of
two or more consecutive axles to be
determined by the Bridge formula:
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Static Characteristics
? AASHTO selected general classes of
vehicles for design purposes:
? Passenger cars
?
Utility vehicles, minivans, vans, pick-up trucks and
etc.
? Buses
?
Transit buses, school buses and etc.
? Trucks
?
Single unit trucks, semitrailers and etc.
? Recreational vehicles
?
Motor homes, camper trailers and etc.
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
18
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Kinematic Characteristics
? Primary element among kinematic
characteristics is the acceleration
capability of the vehicle.
? It is important in several traffic
operations. For example:
? Passing maneuvers
? Gap acceptance
? Freeway ramp and passing lane dimensions
? Acceleration
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
19
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Kinematic Characteristics
? If we consider a vehicle moving along a
straight line from point “o” to point “m”, a
distance “x” in a reference plane “T”,
position of the vector of vehicle after time
“t” can be expressed as:
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
20
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Example Minimum Turning Path:
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
21
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Dynamic Characteristics
? Several forces act on a vehicle while
in motion:
? Air resistance
? Grade resistance
? Rolling resistance
? Curve resistance
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
22
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Air Resistance
Vehicle has to overcome the resistance of the
air in front of it as well as the force due to the
frictional action of the air around it. This force
can be estimated by:
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
23
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Grade Resistance
? When the vehicle moves up a grade, a
component of the weight of the vehicle
acts downward on the plane of the
highway.
? This creates a force acting in the
direction opposite to the motion
direction
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
24
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Rolling Resistance
? These forces are mainly due to
frictional effects on moving parts of
the vehicle
? They also include the frictional slip
between the pavement surface and
the tires
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Rolling Resistance
? Rolling resistance force for
passenger cars can be determined
from:
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Curve Resistance
? When a passenger car is maneuvered to
take a curve, external forces act on the
front wheels of the vehicle
? This resistance depends on:
? Radius of the curve
? Gross weight of the vehicle
? Velocity at which the vehicle is moving
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
27
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Power Requirements
The engine power required to overcome the
resistive forces is:
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
28
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Braking Distance
? Action of the forces on a moving vehicle
and the effect of perception-reaction time
are used to determine important
parameters related to the dynamic
characteristics of the vehicle.
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
29
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Braking Distance
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Minimum Radius of a Circular Curve
? When a vehicle is moving around a
circular curve, there is an inward radial
force acting on the vehicle
? This is usually referred to as the
centrifugal force
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
31
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Minimum Radius of a Circular Curve
? When a vehicle is moving around a circular
curve, there is an inward radial force acting on
the vehicle
? This is usually referred to as the centrifugal force
and can be determined by:
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
32
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Minimum Radius of a Circular Curve
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
3.7: Road Characteristics
? Sight Distance
? Stopping sight distance(SSD): Minimum sight
distance required for a driver to stop a vehicle
after seeing an object in the vehicle’s path
without hitting that object
? Decision sight distance: When the stimulus is
unexpected, longer SSDs are usually required
? Passing sight distance: Minimum sight
distance required on a two-lane, two-way
highway that will permit a driver to complete a
passing maneuver without collision
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
34
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Summary
? The most important characteristic of the driver is
the driver response process
? The actual distance a vehicle travels before
coming to rest is the sum of the distance traveled
during the perception time of the driver and the
distance traveled during the actual braking
maneuver
? Static, kinematic, and dynamic characteristics of
the vehicle are also important because they are
used to determine the minimum radii of horizontal
curves, acceleration speeds and resistance
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
35
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Fundamental
Principles of
Traffic Flow
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
1
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
? Become familiar with the different
elements of traffic flow
? Understand how the different types of
traffic shock waves are formed
? Become familiar with the fundamental
principles of gap and gap acceptance
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
2
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
6.1 Traffic Flow Elements
? Flow:
? Equivalent hourly rate at which vehicles pass a
point on a highway during a period less than 1
hour
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
3
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Traffic Flow Elements
? Density/Concentration (k)
? Number of vehicles traveling over a unit length
of highway at an instant in time
? Speed (u)
? Distance traveled by a vehicle during a unit of
time
? Time mean speed is the arithmetic mean of the
speeds of vehicles passing a point on a highway
during an interval of time
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
4
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Traffic Flow Elements
? Time Headway (h)
? Difference between the time the front of a
vehicle arrives at a point on the highway and
the time the front of the next vehicle arrives at
that same point
? Usually expressed in seconds
? Space Headway (d)
? Distance between the front of a vehicle and the
front of the following vehicle
? Usually expressed in meters
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
5
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Traffic Flow Elements
? Time-Space Diagram:
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
6
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
6.2 Flow-Density Relationships
Flow = Density X Space Mean Speed
Each of the above variables depends on several
other factors including:
? Roadway characteristics
? Vehicle characteristics
? Driver characteristics
? Environmental factors
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
7
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Fundamental Diagram of Traffic Flow
? When the density on the highway is 0, the flow is also 0
? As the density increases, the flow decreases
? When the density reaches its maximum (jam density) the
flow must be 0
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
8
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Mathematical Relationships Describing
Traffic Flow
? Macroscopic Approach: Considers traffic streams and
develops algorithms that relate the flow to the density
? Greenshields Model: linear relationship between speed and
density
? Greenberg Model: fluid-flow analogy
? Model Application
? Regression Analysis: minimizing the squares of the differences
between the observed and the expected values
? If a dependent variable y and an independent variable x are
related by an estimated regression function: y=a+bx
? Microscopic Approach (Car-Following Theory)
? Considers spacings between consecutive vehicles and speeds
of individual vehicles
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
9
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
6.3 Shock Waves in Traffic Streams
? The figure below describes the phenomenon of backups
and queuing on a highway (bottleneck condition):
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
10
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Types of Shock Waves
? Frontal Stationary: Occurs when the capacity suddenly
reduces to zero (i.e.: closed lanes because of an accident)
? Backward Forming: Formed when the capacity is
reduced below the demand flow rate. Results in an
upstream queue at the bottleneck (i.e.: signal indication on
an interchange becomes red)
? Backward Recovery: Formed when the demand flow rate
becomes less than the capacity of the bottleneck (i.e.:
signal indication on an interchange becomes green)
? Rear Stationary and Forward Recovery: Occurs when
the demand flow rate upstream of a bottleneck is first
higher than the capacity of the bottleneck and then the
demand flow rate reduces to the capacity of the
bottleneck. (i.e.: peak hours in a tunnel)
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
11
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Shock Waves
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
12
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Velocity of Shock Waves
Example:
? uw: shock wave moving speed at the density separation
line
? k1: higher traffic density
? k2: lower traffic density
? u1: space mean speed of vehicles in traffic with density k1
? u2: space mean speed of vehicles in traffic with density k2
? q1(flow rate) = k1 x u1
? q2(flow rate) = k2 x u2
q2 ? q1
uw ?
k 2 ? k1
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
13
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Shock Wave by Slow Traffic
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
14
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
6.4 Gap and Gap Acceptance
? So far we considered traffic flow in a single stream
? Another important aspect is the interaction of vehicles
? Be familiar with the following measures:
? Merging: Vehicle in one traffic stream joins another stream
?
?
?
?
?
moving in the same direction (i.e.: ramps)
Diverging: Vehicle leaves the traffic stream
Weaving: Vehicle first merges into a stream and crosses that
stream, then merges into a second stream in the same
direction
Gap: Distance between the rear bumper of a vehicle and the
front bumper of the following vehicle
Time Lag: Difference between the time a vehicle merges into
a main stream reaches the point of merge and the time a
vehicle in the main stream reaches that same point
Space Lag: Difference between the distance a merging
vehicle is away from a reference point and the distance a
vehicle in the main stream is away from the same point
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
15
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Gap Acceptance
? A driver who intends to merge must evaluate the
available gaps to determine which gap (if any) is
large enough to accept the vehicle.
? Driver feels that the merging maneuver can be
completed safely to join the new stream.
? This phenomenon is called gap acceptance.
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
16
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Gap Acceptance
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
17
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
6.5 Introduction to Queuing Theory
? One of the greatest concerns to engineers is the
congestion that exists on urban highways,
especially during peak hours
? The queues occur on expressway on-ramps and
off-ramps,
signalized
and
unsignalized
intersections and on arterials
? Mathematical algorithms are used to analyze
queuing:
? Deterministic Analysis: Assumes that all the traffic
characteristics of the queue are deterministic and
demand volumes and capacities are known
? …
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