civil engineering Transportation

i have an homework in class transportation the book we use is Traffic & Highway Engineering, Nicholas J. Gerber and Lester A. Hoel 5th Edition, E.I., 2015.I don’t have the bookthe homework questions is from this book Chapter 14 questions are: 14-1, 14-3, 14-5 and 14-15the answers typed
ch14.ppt

chapter_14_problems.pdf

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Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Highway Surveys
and
Location
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
1
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
? 4 phases of highway location process and
related issues
? Learn how to apply ground survey and
remote sensing methods
? Understand how to obtain and interpret
aerial photographs
? Advanced Scanning techniques
? Mass diagram to minimize earthwork
costs
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
2
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
14.1 Principles of Highway
Location
? Basic principle of highway location is to
produce a system that provides for an
efficient flow of traffic
? Minimal disruption to historic, archeological,
and environmental sites
? Highway location process:
? Office study of existing information
? Reconnaissance survey
? Preliminary location survey
? Final location survey
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
3
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Phase 1: Office Study
? Examination of all available data from various
sources
? Engineering reports, Maps, Aerial photographs,
Charts
? Learn following characteristics
? Engineering: topography, geology, climate
? Social and demographic: land use/zoning
? Environmental “wildlife; air, noise, and water
pollution
? Economic: Costs for construction
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
4
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Phase 2: Reconnaissance
? Objective is to identify several feasible routes
? Aerial photography is widely employed to
consider factors such as:
? Terrain and soil conditions
? Serviceability
? Crossing of other transportation facilities
? Directness of route
? Environmentally sensitive areas
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
5
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Phase 3: Preliminary Location
? Economic Evaluation
? Evaluation of each possible route is considered
? Environmental Evaluation
? Highway construction has a significant impact
on surroundings
? Federal legislations set environmental
requirements through impact statements:
?
?
?
Detailed description of alternatives
Short/long term studies
Positive/negative studies
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
6
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Phase 4: Final Location Survey
? Detailed layout of the selected route
? Horizontal/vertical alignments are determined
? Positions of structures and drainage channels
? Trial-and-error process by the designer for
engineering and aesthetic factors
? Computer aided design has greatly facilitated
highway design
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
7
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
14.2 Highway Survey Methods
? Involves measuring and computing horizontal
and vertical angles, heights, and horizontal
distances
? Used to prepare base maps with contour lines
? Surveying techniques split into three
categories:
? Ground Surveys
? Remote Sensing
? Computer Graphics
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
8
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Ground Surveys
? Basic location technique for highways
? Total Station
? Is used for
measuring
angles, distances,
and elevation
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
9
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Digital Survey Advancements
? Survey Data Collectors
? Devices that connect to any survey instrument
and allows for more accurate three-dimensional
surfaces to be created
? Multilayered Information
? Digital formats offer a greater deal of flexibility
? Global Position System Surveys (GPS)
? Allows accuracy within 2cm resolution
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
10
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Remote Sensing
? Is the measurement of distances and
elevations by using devices located above the
earth such as airplanes and satellites
? Most common is photogrammetry which
utilizes aerial photography
? Successful implementation depends on terrain
? Difficult terrain include
? Thick forest
? Deep canyons/tall buildings
? Photographs with uniform shades
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
11
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
14.3 Highway Earthwork and
Final Plans
? Final element in the locations process is to
establish the horizontal and vertical
alignments of the highway project
? Elements of the final process
? Highway grades and terrain
?
?
?
Earthwork Volumes
Ordinates of mass Diagram
Overhaul payments
? Preparation of highway plans
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
12
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Highway Grades and Terrain
? Terrain of the land is most significant in the
selection of highway location
? Primary factor when considering grade line is
the amount of earthwork involved.
? Selecting grade line as close to natural ground
level will reduce requirements
? Grade line is dictated by expected floodwater
level
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
13
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Computing Earthwork Volumes
? With a certain grade line chosen there is a
certain amount of earthwork involved.
? The amount of earthwork involved is
determined by taking cross sections 50ft
apart.
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
14
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Types of Cross Sections
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
15
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Computing Ordinates of the
Mass Diagram
? Mass Diagram is a
series of connected
lines that depicts
the net
accumulation of cut
or fill between any
two stations
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
16
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Computing Overhaul Payments
? Contractors are compensated for the cost of
earthmoving.
? Free Haul
? The contract price will include a stipulated
maximum distance that earth will be moved.
? Overhaul
? If the contract distance is exceeded than the
contract stipulates a unit price add-on
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
17
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Preparation of Highway Plans
? After final location is determined designers
need to provide plans and specifications for
the facility.
? Instructions under which the highway is
constructed
? Includes preparation of engineers’ estimates
and contractors’ bids
? Plans provide all the details necessary for
proper construction
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
18
Traffic & Highway Engineering, 5th Edition
Garber & Hoel
Summary
? The selection of a suitable highway
location requires information obtained
from highway surveys
? Ground methods
? Electronic equipment/computers
? Four phases of highway location process
? Computation of earthwork
© 2015 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.
19
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