Critical Thinking 4 – Healthcare Information Systems

Develop a system implementation process that
can be applied to any complex information system that the healthcare
organization intends to adopt. Include how these systems are selected,
evaluate who needs to be on the implementation team and why. Identify the
roles needed for the completion of a successful project. Provide a
project plan and how the organization will manage this change.Your paper should meet the following
requirements:·Be 4-6
pages in length, not including the title and reference pages.·Include
3-5 references, in addition to the textbook. Remember, you must support your
thinking/opinions and prior knowledge with references; all facts must be
supported; in-text references used throughout the assignment must be included
in an APA-formatted reference list.·Be
formatted according to APA Formatting and Requirements.Review the grading
rubric, which can be accessed from the module folder. Reach out to your
instructor if you have questions about the assignment.APA Writing Format!Need?s a title page
Font – Use a 12-point Times
New Roman!
Spacing – Double space all
text including the reference list and block quotes on all Assignments.
All margins should be set to
1″ on each side of the paper.
Page numbers go in the upper
right corner in the header.
Headers:Page
1 Running head: YOUR TITLE IN
CAPS
1Page 2?
YOUR TITLE IN
CAPS
2The running head goes in the upper left
corner and is in all capital letters. The words “Running head:”
appear only on the cover page.
No Blue and underling in
references (Remove the hyperlink)
References should be on a
separate page********Always good to
break up your paper with subheadings
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Content, Research, and Analysis
Meets Expectation
Approaches
Expectation
Below
Expectation
Limited Evidence
Requirements
15 to 13
PointsIncludes all
of the required
components, as
specified in the
assignment.
12 to 10
PointsIncludes
most of the
required
components, as
specified in the
assignment.
9 to 7
PointsIncludes
some of the
required
components, as
specified in the
assignment.
6 to 4
PointsIncludes few
of the required
components, as
specified in the
assignment.
Content
15 to 13
PointsDemonstrates
strong or adequate
knowledge of HIEs
or EHRs; correctly
represents
knowledge from the
readings and
sources.
12 to 10
PointsSome
significant, but not
major, errors or
omissions in
demonstration of
knowledge HIEs or
EHRs.
9 to 7 PointsMajor
errors or omissions
in demonstration of
knowledge
concerning HIEs or
EHRs.
6 to 4 PointsFails
to demonstrate
knowledge of the
materials.
Content, Research, and Analysis
Meets Expectation
Approaches
Expectation
Below
Expectation
Limited Evidence
Critical Analysis
25 to 21
PointsProvides a
strong critical
analysis and
interpretation of the
information given,
and provides an
assessment of each
system.
20 to 16
PointsSome
significant, but not
major, errors or
omissions in
analysis and
interpretation.
15 to 11
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or omissions in
analysis and
interpretation.
10 to 6 PointsFails
to provide critical
analysis and
interpretation of
the information
given.
Synthesis and
Evaluation
15 to 13
PointsDemonstrates
strong or adequate
synthesis and
evaluation of course
concepts in HIEs or
EHRs.
12 to 10
PointsSome
significant, but not
major, errors or
omissions in
synthesis and
evaluation.
9 to 7 PointsMajor
errors or omissions
in synthesis and
evaluation.
6 to 4 PointsFails
to demonstrate
synthesis and
evaluation.
Content, Research, and Analysis
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Sources /
Examples
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PointsSources or
examples meet
required criteria and
are well chosen to
provide substance
and perspectives on
the issue under
examination.
Approaches
Expectation
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8 to 7
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examples meet
required criteria,
but are less than
adequately chosen
to provide
substance and
perspectives on the
issue under
examination.
6 to 5
PointsSources or
examples meet
required criteria,
but are poorly
chosen to provide
substance and
perspectives on the
issue under
examination.
Limited Evidence
4 to 3
PointsSource or
example selections
and integration of
knowledge from
the course are
clearly deficient.
Mechanics and Writing
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Expectation
Approaches
Expectation
Below Expectation
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Evidence
Demonstrates
college-level
proficiency in
organization,
grammar and
style.
10 to 9
PointsProject is
clearly
organized, well
written, and in
proper format as
outlined in the
assignment;
strong sentence
and paragraph
structure; few
errors in
grammar and
spelling.
8 to 7 PointsProject is
fairly well organized and
written, and in proper
format as outlined in the
assignment;reasonably
good sentence and
paragraph structure;
significant number of
errors in grammar and
spelling.
6 to 5 PointsProject
is poorly organized
and does not follow
proper paper
format;inconsistent
to inadequate
sentence and
paragraph
development;
numerous errors in
grammar and
spelling.
4 to 3
PointsProject is
not organized or
well written, and
is not in proper
paper format;
poor quality
work;
unacceptable in
terms of
grammar and
spelling.
Demonstrates
proper use of
APA style
10 to 9 Points
8 to 7 Points
6 to 5 Points
4 to 3 Points
Mechanics and Writing
Meets
Expectation
Project contains
proper APA
formatting.
?
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Approaches
Expectation
Few errors in APA
formatting.
Max Points for Content, Research, and Analysis80
Max Points for Mechanics and Writing20
Total Points Possible100
Below Expectation
Limited
Evidence
Significant errors in Numerous errors
APA formatting.
in APA
formatting.
Bridging Operational, Strategic and Project Management
Information Systems for Tactical Management Information
Provision
Renata Petrevska Nechkoska1,2, Geert Poels1 and Gjorgji Manceski2
1
Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
2
Faculty of Economics ? Prilep, University St. Clement Ohridski, Bitola, Macedonia
renata.petrevskanechkoska@ugent.be
geert.poels@ugent.be
gmanceski@t-home.mk
Abstract: Tactical Management is a distinctive managerial function that needs to be delineated both in the managerial and
information systems sense. This research of literature investigates current types of managerial information systems in
order to evaluate the various manners tactical management is addressed. Ongoing research supports us to pursue a goal of
properly defining Tactical Management, its characteristics and distinctiveness from the Operational, Strategic and Project
Management; but also its connection points and overlapping collaboration areas with these managerial functions. This
ought to provide proper basis for recognizing the information system requirements for tactical management and shed light
on what should and can be done differently, in order to align the tactical management business profile and needs with the
information provisioned by managerial information systems. Given that Tactical Management needs adaptability to
changing context (organizational and environmental); is facing the complexity of issues of different nature to be dealt with;
communicates with widest scope of stakeholders, entities, processes and developments to be informed about; faces a
variable set of diverse incoming and outgoing information flows whose mismatch needs to be addressed; and last but not
least, should be able to perform system design, prior process design and management. This research reaches several
important findings in the direction of under-addressing of tactical information needs by current types of managerial
information systems; ingestion or assimilation of the tactical managerial level of decision-making by operational or
strategic management; attempts to automatize the handling of mismatch of incoming and outgoing information; strive for
real-time information environments; divided tendencies towards providing adaptability or predictability to the
management; diverse ideas for context capturing and treatments of tactical management as process or system. The
implicit purpose of the research is to attract attention to tactical management, its importance that can bring substantial
competitive advantage to the businesses, and the incremental potential tactical management will realize when being
accordingly supported by the information systems of tomorrow.
Keywords: tactical management, sense-and-respond framework, adaptability, information systems, requirements
engineering
1. Introduction
?Tactics play a crucial role in determining how much value is created and captured by firms? (CasadesusMasanel et al. 2009). It is important to define and explore it in details, in order to be able to point out its
managerial distinctiveness as well as similarity with the operational, strategic and project management; and
the mutual connecting points and dependencies. There is hard time behind doing the tactical management
job, trying to coordinate, translate and/or align operations/strategy, details/summaries,
management/employees, clients/company, manual/automatized information systems, human, technical,
business, ? aspects of work. The translation and alignment of the mismatch of all these signals, especially
observed from the point of view of the person, is highly complex, diverse and changeable, and should be
addressed properly. In the continuing challenges for sustainable information systems, Loucopoulos et al.
(Loucopoulos et al., 2006) observe the aspects of ecological complexity ? perceiving the double sided nature of
the companies and the information systems as complex socio-technical systems; product complexity; project
management ? for getting the wrong requirements and not focusing on the outcome of and information
system engineering and implementation; and education. The successful performance of the tactical
management function differentiates the success of the company throughout the time, and it is person- and
company- specific. Defining and embedding processes and structures in the organization that enable both
business and IT people to execute their responsibilities in creating value from IT-enabled business investments
(De Haes and Van Grembergen, 2015) is a current tendency on the side of the researchers and practitioners,
also supported by standardization (such as ISO 38500 ? the International Standard for Corporate Governance
ISSN 1566-6379
146
©ACPIL
Reference this paper as: Petrevska Nechkoska R., Poels G. and Manceski G., ?Bridging Operational, Strategic
and Project Management Information Systems for Tactical Management Information Provision? The Electronic
Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume 18 Issue 2 2015, (pp146-158), available online at
www.ejise.com
Renata Petrevska Nechkoska, Geert Poels and Gjorgji Manceski
of IT, ISO 31000 ? for Risk Management (ISO, 2015)). This motivation is fueling numerous theoretical
contributions and business solutions ? however the connection points are sporadic, especially when the entire
organization or the widest stakeholder structure is observed (Van Grembergen et al., 2015).
This research of literature aims to point out current Information Systems contributions in terms of concepts,
approaches, artifacts and implementations with regards to Operational, Tactical, Strategic and Project
Management, through the lens of Tactical Management distinctive needs ? with the aim to reveal the tactical
management specific information system needs and to make visible the junctures where tactical management
bridges with operational, strategic and project management. Our standpoint is that tactical management is
distinctive from other managerial functions with the:
?
High need for adaptability to changing context (organizational and environmental)
?
Complexity of issues of different nature to be dealt with
?
Widest scope of stakeholders, entities, processes, developments to be informed about
?
System design approach, prior Process flow
?
Variable set of diverse incoming and outgoing information flows that can?t always be predefined, and
whose mismatch needs to be addressed
Hence, the tactical management need for information systems is very specific, and can?t be satisfied only with
cascading goals, reports and automatized processing logic. It needs theoretical specification, relevance
confirmation by real-business research, and special provision by the information systems. The direction is
towards individualized extraction and combination of inputs, dynamic processing logic, immediate
environmental and organizational context capture and customizable outputs in terms of information. It also
needs continuous revising of the context to be able to sustain towards an outcome in changing context ? in
order to capture earlier the relevant impulses and have a mechanism for proper response (Welsh et al., 2011).
We are in favor of ?heterogeneous requirements engineering? (Lyytinen et al., 2006) in order to avoid social or
technological reductionism in sustainable addressing the tactical management function with information. In
terms of business pursuit for an ?end? (strategic guidelines, KPIs, targets, goals), it is generally a ?given?
variable. In terms of operations, the prescription of business processes, the pursuit for efficiency and
optimization, gives throughout the time (year(s)) certain rigidity and repetitiveness in their existence.
However, in terms of tactical management, there are numerous and various in nature specific aspects to be
taken care of, while pursuing a goal, with somewhat fixed operational inputs, in terms of alternative paths and
adaptations to a very dynamic and generally uncertain (Schwabe, 2014) and/or unpredictable environment.
In the highly dynamic business world, one should ?know earlier? the most quiet peripheral signals that may
shape the future of the work ? but that is possible only if one points a radar towards them. From this narrative,
we would like to point out the tactical manager?s duty – to continuously properly position the sensing of
information (Sense), and align the mismatch of information received (Interpret) processes and actions
(Decide), with some reasoning and maneuvers to translate them in order to provide and control the right path
to fulfillment (Act) ? SIDA loop (in the Sense-and-Response Framework, (Haeckel, 2004)). This SIDA loop is
perceived as the perpetual engine to adaptability, if continuously run to revise the context (both organizational
and environmental). Such capturing of context is of utmost importance for the lens of this research ? with the
aim not to suffer from the discrepancy between design-time and run-time (Zdravkovic, 2013) states of the
socio-technical system being managed. The SIDA loop is also enabling more precise mapping of the
Information System needs for tactical management, that differ in manner of obtaining, frequency, content,
and many other aspects.
We see the tactical management as a very important and flexible crossroad that should be able to trace a
number of alternative paths for the existence of any business. This specific nature of tactical management
does need specific addressing with Information Systems and with Managerial Concepts. The organization of
the paper is as follows: firstly, we are delineating tactical management from the other managerial functions;
after which, brief definition of the concepts used as baseline, the research strategy and criteria according
which the subject papers have been filtered, are explained. The analysis performed upon the research
categories and interpretation of results and conclusions are given in the last section.
www.ejise.com
147
ISSN 1566-6379
Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume 18 Issue 2 2015
2. Tactical Management Definition and Characteristics
We are introducing the managerial background of the Tactical Management in order to point out how the
business foundation of tactics is paving the way for proper Information System requirements and appropriate
provisions.
One definition of tactics, even though modestly present in literature, stated by Merriam-Webster dictionary, is
as follows: (a) the science and art of disposing and maneuvering forces in combat; (b) the art or skill of
employing available means to accomplish an end; (c) a system or mode of procedure?; deriving from Latin
?tactica?, from Greek ?taktika? meaning ?fit for arranging, to arrange, place in battle formation? (MerriamWebster). When removing the military context, the important words in this definition are ? disposing ?
positioning, influencing, persuading, ruling ; maneuvering; skill ? managerial; employing available means ?
using and capturing the current context; to accomplish an end ? to reach a goal; a system; mode ? approach;
arranging and re-arranging.
In our working definition we perceive tactical management as the managerial function on How to achieve
what is expected by utilizing what is given and following certain governing principles in the current context of
the organization and environment.
The elements of the definition can be rearranged with reference to the other managerial functions:
?
How to achieve (tactics)
?
what is expected (strategy)
?
by utilizing what is given (operations)
?
and following certain governing principles (strategic guidelines)
?
in the current context of the organization and environment (tactics)
As it is visible from the definition, the tactical management is expected to maneuver with numerous ?givens? ?
that may change and are changing. The context is also dynamic and to some extent unpredictable, be it the
immediate environment, or the organizational context ? the purpose, priorities, governing principles,
expectations. The socio-technical system being managed is dynamic and unpredictable. We are recognizing
that the department, the team, the organization it is a Complex Adaptive System (CAS) (Holland, 1996) that a
manager needs to guide towards a goal, which is specific and unpredictable (Janssen, 2015), to begin with.
These requirements imply that Tactical Management should have the adaptability as integrated characteristic
in the behavior of the manager and in the information system design, in order to perform successfully,
throughout time.
The current managerial literature for strategic management is diverse and abundant. The main concepts
integrated in the literature are effectiveness, organizational alignment, governance, competitive advantage.
Strategic managers are assisted with conceptual frameworks and contributions such as the the Balanced
Scorecard (Kaplan et al., 2007), Triple Bottom Line (Elkington, 1997), the Performance Prism (Neely et al.,
2002), Skandia?s Navigator (Edvinsson, 1997), Intangible Assets Monitor (Sveiby, 1997), The Tableau de Bord
(Epstein et al., 1997) (Bourguignon et al., 2004) (Pezet, 2009), The Performance Measurement Matrix (Keegan
et al., 1989), the Strategic Measurement and Reporting Technique Pyramid (Lynch et al., 1991), The Results
and Determinants Framework (Fitzgerald et al., 1991), The Input-Process-Output-Outcome Framework (Brown,
1996), Objectives and Key Results, the Performance Wheel (McNair et al., 2009) and numerous others. These
theoretical approaches offer strategic mapping, balanced measurement systems, financial and non-financial
dimensions of organizational performance, qualitative and quantitative information, and appropriate
scorecards and even dashboards that enable key indicator monitoring and decision making.
The operational management is also receiving valuable attention with managerial as well as Information
System contributions. In the managerial literature, the key elements are efficiency and business processes. The
non-exhaustive list incorporates managerial methods and techniques such as Six Sigma, Total Quality
Management, Lean Six Sigma (Tennant G., 2001), Statistical Process Analysis, Statistical Process Control, Agile
(Meyer, 2014), and others.
www.ejise.com
148
©ACPIL
Renata Petrevska Nechkoska, Geert Poels and Gjorgji Manceski
The tactical management dilemmas for key concepts in managerial literature are effectiveness vs. efficiency,
outcomes vs. outputs, system design vs. process design. There is scarcity of managerial methods and
techniques related to tactics ? and, this investigation aims to prove that the same situation reflects in the
support for tactical management in terms of information systems, too. On the side of the tools and techniques,
actively used are Network Planning, Realistic Scheduling, Accurate Estimating, Work Breakdown Structure,
Product and Project Lifecycle. Tactical Management is mostly supported in Project Management literature ?
with the well-established concepts of PMBOK (Project Management Institute, 2004), Scrum, Prince 2, Agile
Project Management, Management of Value and others. However, the tactical management as continuous
function has distinctive characteristics from the project management function, so to some extent the project
management literature is addressing but not completely covering the tactical management needs.
The intersections of the Tactical Management function with the operational, strategic and project
management functions (discussed in our definition), stress the junctions where tactical management connects
these functions in the socio-technical system of an organization. The distinctiveness of the Tactical
Management function from the operational, strategic and project management functions (discussed in the
Introduction), points out …
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