Current Event Analysis

Based on 6 articles and the chapters of the book provided, summarize 6 events around the world using the following structure:1. List the title, author, and source (with URL) of an article pertaining to some recent or current event. APA FORMAT2. A summary of the article, including the issue or event that is under discussion, and the author’s argument (if they are making one).3. An explanation of how the subject matter of the article relates to any of the geographic themes or concepts from this course, with references to specific terms or examples from the textbook. Basically, prove that you can think about a given event or news story like a geographer would.The second and third components should each require at least a paragraph to complete (for a total of 1.5 page per article). No need to have in-text citations for Part 2 as long as you correctly cite it in Part 1. For Part 3 – USE THE BOOK (CHAPTERS) PROVIDED, relate the idea from the article to a concept in the book with a citation. For example “The article related to the concept X mentioned in Chapter 7 of the book in a way…” or “this article is related in its nature to concept X (Chapter 8)”THE ARTICLE HAS TO BE PUBLISHED IN JULY 2017 OR LATER.Use only these sources of articles: The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal, or respected publications like The Economist, The Atlantic, or National Geographic. DO NOT USE ANY OTHER SOURCES OR BOOKS.I WILL ATTACH THE REST OF THE CHAPTERS LATER.
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Table of Contents
Contents
1
What Is Human Geography?
Introducing Human Geography
¦ Where Geographers Click: Careers in
Geography
Nature and Culture
Cultural Landscapes and Regions
2
4
4
5
10
Thinking Like a Human Geographer
Place
Space
Spatial Diffusion
Spatial Interaction and Globalization
Geographic Scale
¦ What a Geographer Sees: Cartographic
Scale
¦ Video Explorations: Teeth Chiseling
12
12
14
16
17
20
Geographical Tools
Remote Sensing
Global Positioning System
Geographic Information Systems
23
23
26
27
21
23
MUSTAFA OZER/AFP/Getty Images
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2
Krzysztof Dydynski/Lonely Planet Images/Getty Images
Globalization and Cultural
Geography
34
Globalization
Contemporary Globalization
Global Flows of Capital
Cultural Impacts of Globalization
Homogenization
Polarization
Glocalization
36
36
37
40
42
42
43
The Commodification of Culture
Advertising, Commodification, and Cultural
Practice
Sports, Representation, and Commodification
The Heritage Industry
World Heritage
¦ Where Geographers Click: UNESCO
World Heritage List
44
Cultural Geographies of Local Knowledge
Local Knowledge
Geographies of Traditional Medicine
¦ Video Explorations: Leeches for
Curing Illness
Cultural Ecology and Local Knowledge
¦ What a Geographer Sees: Qanats
50
51
51
45
47
48
48
50
52
54
56
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3
Population and Migration
64
Population Fundamentals
Population Distribution and Density
Fertility
Mortality
Quality of Life
¦ Video Explorations: AIDS
66
66
67
71
72
73
Population Composition and Change
Population Pyramids
Age-Dependency Ratio
¦ Where Geographers Click: U.S.
Census Bureau International Data Base
Sex Ratio
Rate of Natural Increase
Demographic Transition Model
73
73
75
75
75
76
77
Population–Environment Interactions
Malthusian Population Theory
Beyond Malthus
Epidemiological Transitions
78
78
79
80
Migration
Migration Principles
Internal Migration
International Migration
¦ What a Geographer Sees: Economic
and Sociocultural Transnationalism
Immigration to the United States
81
82
82
86
David McLain/Aurora Photos, Inc.
86
91
4
Courtesy Alyson Greiner
Geographies of Language
98
Languages in the World
Types of Language
Languages by Size
Language Families
100
101
103
103
Language Diffusion and Globalization
Linguistic Dominance
Language Dynamics
Pidgin and Creole Languages
Lingua Francas
Language Endangerment and Diversity
¦ Video Explorations: Enduring Voices
Expeditions
107
110
111
111
113
114
Dialects and Toponyms
Dialect Regions
¦ Where Geographers Click: Dictionary
of American Regional English
African American English
Chicano English
¦ What a Geographer Sees: Toponyms, or
What Is in a Name?
Standard Dialects
Toponyms
119
119
119
122
122
123
124
124
125
Contents??xxv
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6
© avneesh kumar/Demotix/Demotix/Demotix/Corbis
5
Geographies of Religion
130
Religion in Global Context
¦ Video Explorations: Santeria
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Hinduism
Buddhism
Sikhism
132
132
134
134
135
137
138
139
Religious Hearths and Diffusion
Religions of the Semitic Hearth
¦ Where Geographers Click: Pew Forum
on Religion & Public Life: U.S. Religious
Landscape Survey
Religions of the Indic Hearth
140
140
Religion, Society, and Globalization
Sacred Space
Tradition and Change
Religious Law and Social Space
Globalization of Renewalism
¦ Video Explorations: Self-Stabbing
143
144
150
151
152
152
Religion, Nature, and Landscape
Geopiety
Religion and Landscape
¦ What a Geographer Sees: Deathscapes
154
154
155
156
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Geographies of Identity: Race,
Ethnicity, Sexuality, and
Gender
162
Race and Racism
What Is Race?
How Has Racism Developed?
164
164
164
Geographies of Race and Racism
Race and Place in Vancouver’s Chinatown
Geographies of Apartheid
168
168
170
What Is Ethnicity?
Defining and Characterizing Ethnicity
Ethnicity, Race, and Censuses
¦ What a Geographer Sees: U.S. Census
Geography
¦ Where Geographers Click: American
Factfinder
172
172
173
Ethnicity in the Landscape
Ethnic Interaction and Globalization
Other Ethnic Imprints
Ethnic Conflict
Environmental Justice
178
178
181
181
183
Sexuality and Gender
¦ Video Explorations: Taboo Sexuality:
Eunuchs
Sexuality, Identity, and Space
Geography and Gender
184
174
177
184
184
185
142
142
Pavel Rahman/©AP/Wide World Photos
11/11/13 10:20 AM
7
8
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio
Political Geographies
194
Key Concepts in Political Geography
The Development of the State and
Its Sovereignty
Nations and States
Imperialism and Colonialism
196
Geographical Characteristics of States
Boundaries
¦ What a Geographer Sees: The Making
of a Boundary on Hispaniola
Territorial Extent and Configuration
Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces
¦ Video Explorations: Estonia—Identity,
Religion, and Politics
Separatism and Devolution
203
204
197
199
201
206
207
208
208
209
Internationalism and Supranational
Organizations
The United Nations
The European Union
211
211
212
Global Geopolitics
The Geopolitical Tradition
The Heartland Theory
Cold War Geopolitics
Contemporary and Critical Geopolitics
Globalization and Terrorism
214
214
215
216
216
218
Electoral Geography
Reapportionment and Redistricting
Gerrymandering
220
220
220
Political Landscapes
Landscapes of Central Authority
Political Iconography
¦ Where Geographers Click: CAIN Web
Service: Political Wall Murals in Northern
Ireland
223
223
224
Urban Geographies
Cities and Urbanization
What Are Cities?
Urban Settlements
Urbanization
Urban Hierarchies and Globalization
232
232
233
234
238
Urban Structure
Urban Land Use
Urban Structure in North America
¦ Where Geographers Click: Library of
Congress Panoramic Maps Collection
Urban Structure Outside North America
¦ What a Geographer Sees: Spatial
Imprints of Urban Consumption
242
242
243
Urban Dynamics
Public Policy and Residential Change
Urban Redevelopment
¦ Video Explorations: Trastevere
Urban Poverty and the Informal Sector
Urban Planning
250
250
250
252
253
256
246
246
247
225
Alexandre Meneghini/©AP/Wide World Photos
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230
Contents??xxvii
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9
Geographies of Development
262
What Is Development?
Economic Indicators
Sociodemographic Indicators
Environmental Indicators
Development and Gender-Related Indexes
Environment and Development
¦ Where Geographers Click: Human
Development Reports
264
264
267
270
270
275
Development and Income Inequality
The Gap Between the Rich and the Poor
Factors Affecting Income Distribution
Globalization and Income Distribution
277
278
280
281
Development Theory
The Classical Model of Development
Dependency Theory
World-System Theory
The Neoliberal Model of Development
Poverty-Reduction Theory and Millennium
Development
¦ What a Geographer Sees: Poverty
Mapping
¦ Video Explorations: Solar Cooking
282
282
283
284
286
275
287
288
290
10
Joe Raedle/Newsmakers/Getty Images, Inc.
Changing Geographies
of Industry and Services
296
Types of Industry
298
Primary Industry
298
Secondary Industry
300
¦ Where Geographers Click: Worldmapper 300
Evolution of Manufacturing in the Core
Factors Affecting the Location of Manufacturing
Fordism
Fordist Production
¦ What a Geographer Sees: A Commodity
Chain
303
303
304
305
Evolution of Manufacturing Beyond the Core
Newly Industrialized Economies
Export-Processing Zones
Offshoring
309
310
311
313
306
Services
316
Deindustrialization, Globalization, and Growth in
Services
316
Types of Services
317
¦ Video Explorations: Essaouira, Morocco 317
Services, Gender, and Postindustrial Society
319
Behrouz Mehri/AFP/Getty Images
xxviii??Visualizing Human geography
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11
Agricultural Geographies
326
Agriculture: Origins and Revolutions
Origins of Agriculture
The First and Second Agricultural Revolutions
¦ Video Explorations: Moken
The Third Agricultural Revolution
328
328
329
329
330
Agricultural Systems
Subsistence Agriculture
Commercial Agriculture
Spatial Variations in Agriculture
335
336
340
344
Agriculture, the Environment,
and Globalization
¦ What a Geographer Sees: The Shrinking
Aral Sea
Sustainable Agriculture
Globalization and Agriculture
¦ Where Geographers Click: Food and
­Agriculture Organization
Global Food Crises
Getty Images/FlickrSelect/marin.tomic
346
346
347
349
349
350
12
Oliver Berg/dpa/Landov LLC
Environmental Challenges
356
Ecosystems
Ecological Concepts
Environmental Degradation
Common Property Resources
358
358
360
360
Nonrenewable Energy Resources
Oil and Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclear Energy
362
362
367
369
Renewable Energy Resources
Biomass Energy
Hydropower
Solar and Wind Energy
Geothermal Energy
¦ Video Explorations: Alternative Energy
370
371
372
373
374
375
Global Environmental Change
The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
Land-use and Land-cover Change
¦ What a Geographer Sees: Environmental
Change
¦ Where Geographers Click: Earth Trends
Targeting Greenhouse Gas Reduction
¦ Video Explorations: Carbon Farming
376
376
378
Appendix A: Understanding Map Projections
388
Appendix B: Answers to Self-Tests and Ask
Yourself
394
Glossary
396
References
Index
406
417
379
382
382
382
Contents??xxix
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PROCESS DIAGRAMS
Multi-part visual presentations that focus on a key concept or
topic in the chapter
A series or combination of figures and photos that describe
and depict a complex process
Chapter 1
The scope of
geography
Remote sensing of
post-earthquake
damage
A GIS for studying
disease incidence
Chapter 1
Understanding hierarchical diffusion
Geography InSight
THE PLANNER
Chapter 2
The diffusion of
acupuncture
Diamonds are a good example of a natural resource that gains value through
commodification, marketing, advertising, and globalization.
Top diamond-producing countries
Value of diamonds produced
(billion dollars)
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0
0
Botswana
Russia South Africa Angola
Canada
Chapter 3
Demographic
transition model
Top diamond-consuming countries
United
States
Japan
India
China
Turkey
United
Kingdom
c. Leading diamond producers and consumers
The geography of diamond production differs
considerably from the geography of diamond consumption.
Diamonds are mostly marketed in nonproducing countries
(green). The United States has no commercial diamond
production, yet the country has by far the greatest demand for
diamond jewelry. (Source: Data from KPMG, 2006.)
b. Diamond-related conflict
Sheku Conteh lost his hand during the conflict
period in Sierra Leone. Because it is difficult to trace the
origins of a diamond, the Kimberley Process Certification
Scheme was developed to solve the problem of conflict
diamonds. However, difficulties enforcing the certification scheme mean that conflict diamonds still exist.
d. Japanese newlyweds
Rare was the Japanese bride who wore
a diamond engagement ring a few decades ago. But Japan’s economic recovery after World War II generated increased consumerism, and marketing promoted diamonds
as symbols of modernity, status, and purity.
Today, Japan is the second-largest diamond
jewelry market after the United States.
Itsuo Inouye/©AP/Wide World Photos
Schalk van Zuydam/©AP/Wide World Photos
3.5
Percent of diamond sales
Candace Feit/The New York Times/
Redux Pictures
a. Diamond mining and conflict
Diamonds are extracted from underground mines,
surface mines, and river alluvium. “Diamond diggers” sift alluvium in Sierra Leone. Diamonds fuelled civil wars in several
African countries.
Chapter 2
Diamond production
and consumption
Chapter 3
Population densities
Population pyramids
Diamond production
and consumption
Chapter 4
Nonspoken
languages
Geographies of
language diffusion
Language
endangerment
Word usage and dialect regions in the U.S.
46 CHAPTER 2 Globalization and Cultural Geography
Chapter 4
Understanding
language
vitality and
endangerment:
The example of
Yuchi
THE PLANNER
Every state is divided into congressional districts, with each represented
by a single congressperson. To ensure equality among a state’s districts,
each representative is to speak for an equal number of people. If the
population of a voting district changes, redistricting may become
necessary to create districts of equal population. Arizona provides a
good example of the reapportionment and redistricting processes.
Congressional districts based on 2000 census
The map shows the eight congressional districts that were
created following the 2000 census. They had equal populations of 641,329 people at the time.
Population growth and
reapportionment
By the 2010 census, Arizona’s
population had increased 25%,
to 6,392,017. As a result of this
growth, the state gained one
House seat through reapportionment. The population growth was
unequally distributed among the
districts, as shown in the table.
(Source: Data from Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission.)
Redistricting
Because the state’s population growth was spatially uneven, Arizona
needed to redistrict. Each of the newly created congressional districts contained
710,224 people. Each congressional district has the same number of people but a
different ethnic mix. These pie charts show how the voting age population varies in four of
the districts. (Source: Data from Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission.)
Chapter 5
Sanctification
Chapter 6
The interaction
between race and
place
Chapter 5
Islam’s Five Pillars of Practice
Chapter 7
Reapportionment and redistricting in the United States
Chapter 6
The rise and fall of apartheid
Chapter 8
How changes in transportation influence urban form
Slum formation
Chapter 7
Café para todos? A model of integration in multinational Spain
Chapter 8
Food deserts
Hybrid city
Chapter 9
Environment, tourism, and development in Costa Rica
Chapter 10
Categories of service activities
Chapter 11
The Green Revolution
Change in the Corn Belt
PROCESS DIAGRAM
INSIGHT FEATURES
221
Chapter 9
Classical model of development
Chapter 10
Manufacturing value added and profit captured in an iPad
Chapter 11
Four-course crop rotation
Shifting cultivation
Chapter 12
Understanding mountaintop removal
Chapter 12
Shale oil production
xxx??Visualizing Human geography
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Second Edition
Visualizing
Human geography
Greiner_FM_i-xxx+1_hr.indd 1
10/8/13 11:12 AM
1
What Is Human Geography?
Geography, Inquiry, and Seeing
the Light
C
an you find your hometown or city
on this image of the Earth at night?
­Bigger cities and more urbanized or builtup areas shine the brightest. Japan appears
very brightly lit because the country is highly
urbanized and has a high density of commercial and industrial activity. Try to find the
trans-Siberian railroad in Russia or interstates in
the United States to see how night lights reveal
human activity.
Why do the spaces of illumination vary from one
continent to another? What inferences can you make
about well-lit places and settlement patterns, wealth,
or environmental modification? Geographers ask these
and similar kinds of questions. Embedded within
such questions are concepts relating to location,
place, space, region, scale, distribution, and interconnectedness. Thus, geographical inquiry has its
roots in a fundamental curiosity about the world.
Greiner_c01_002-033hr.indd 2
However, there is more to
geographical inquiry than simply
­asking questions. Geographers also step back
when studying a topic or phenomenon and examine
relationships between data in order to generate new
insights about how the world works. In this way, geographical inquiry and analysis contribute to the development of geographical theory—­knowledge that
advances our understanding of the social, ­spatial,
regional, and ecological facets of our world.
Simply stated, this book is designed to introduce
you to geographical inquiry and theory through a
perspective that emphasizes people and the spatial
variation in their activities around the world. This
chapter introduces human geography and illustrates
how geographers approach their work, including
some of the tools they use.
6/25/13 2:52 PM
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introducing Human Geography 4
¦ Where Geographers Click: Careers in Geography
• Nature and Culture
• Cultural Landscapes and Regions
Thinking Like a Human Geographer 12
• Place
• Space
• Spatial Diffusion
• Spatial Interaction and Globalization
• Geographic Scale
¦ What a Geographer Sees: Cartographic Scale
¦ Video Explorations: Teeth Chiseling
Geographical Tools 23
• Remote Sensing
• Global Positioning System
• Geographic Information Systems
Chapter Planner
?
? Study the picture and read the opening story.
? Scan the Learning Objectives in each section:
p. 4 ? p. 12 ? p. 23 ?

? Read the text and study all visuals.
Answer any questions.
Analyze key features
?
?
?
?
?
Geography InSight, p. 6 ?
p. 24 ?
p. 29 ?
Process Diagram, p. 16
What a Geographer Sees, p. 21
Video Explorations, p. 23
Stop: Answer the Concept Checks before you go on:
p. 11 ? p. 23 ? p. 29 ?
End of chapter
?
?
?
?
Data courtesy Marc Imhoff of NASA GSFC and Christopher Elvidge of NOAA
NGDC. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC
Greiner_c01_002-033hr.indd 3
Review the Summary and Key Terms.
Answer the Critical and Creative Thinking Questions.
Answer What is happening in this picture?
Complete the Self-Test and check your answers.
??3
6/25/13 2:52 PM
Introducing Human Geography
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Describe the scope of geography and its main
branches of study.
2. Outline the four main geographical approaches
to the relationship between nature and culture.
3. Explain how geographers study landscapes and
regions.
Where Geographers
CLICK
Careers in Geography
© DNY59/iStockphoto
W
e are going to let you in on a little secret:
Geography majors go places—in their careers, that is. They also have a lot of fun in
the process. This is quite likely because geography is a discipline that encourages people to find a
topic or region they are passionate about and explore its
many different dimensions. Are you interested in music?
Music geographers are needed to understand the globalization of hip-hop as well as its local variations. If you
are a sports fan, sports geographers help identify optimal
locations for stadiums, golf courses, and other athletic
facilities. If your passion is nutrition or health, medical
geographers help track and limit the spread of epidemics and study ways to improve people’s access to medical care. See Where Geographers Click to learn more about
­careers in geography.
Some nongeographers rather naively thought that
globalization would make geography irrelevant. Globalization, they claimed, made the world smaller, more accessible, and therefore, easier to know and understand.
Meanwhile, geographers politely noted that globalization was not a new phenomenon and that geography
had, to the contrary, taken on even greater relevance.
For example, understanding the consequences of global
climate change on different countries, agricultural production, and coastal populations demands geographic
awareness. Similarly, we cannot solve the problem of poverty until we know better its geographic dimensions—
where it o …
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