Design Project Mechanical Engineering

I want All these Steps to be Covered word limit should be 5000 or above FIND the ATTACHMENT and Follow the Guidlines TOPIC NAME : T-roll outSince the beginning of the human mind and looking for what makes his life go easily, whether inside or outside his home. One of the important things is the table. Almost everywhere there most be a table. In house, office, workshop even outside wherever there are people. Today people are looking for a multi- use table with better features. So we decided to make a table with more advantages and we called it “T-roll out”.This advancement venture is a portable table; it can be utilized wherever with a normal surface by simply open it whiten a back formed project. The T-roll out can be utilized as a part of multi undertaking substitution it made out of wood and metal joint which influence it to light and simple to convey and can be fitted in the storage compartment of any automotive car. The purpose of this project is to specify the general population and making them comfortable when they are heading off to family journey or even can be utilized as an additional table when are having a family barbecue.The temporal period:After our study of the project and expected time period for the project design and after distribution of work and work steps we will need at minimum 55 days.The cost:We calculated the cost of materials used in the project manufacturing and the total cost of the project will be from 15 to 20 OR approximately.We expect the project to become popular in customer environment as Oman is a tourist country and there is a lot of internal tourism in the country. The project serves two categories of society lover’s trips and lovers of family gatherings. The project is a tool that facilitates the process of organizing the preparation of food, entertainment games and hold external meetings. Also, we expect its success because it is easy to carry, water prove table, lightweight. Easy to store and doesn’t need much storage space.Action steps:• Draw a diagram and outline of project design and arithmetical equation.• Combine the component, requirements and tools required for the project.• Distribute the work equally the the project members.• Collection of parts after the completion of each member of work entrusted to him.• Ensure all measurement is properly fitted.• Coasting with waterproof coasting.• Test and test and test the project
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AN EXAMPLE FORMAT FOR DESIGN PROJECT REPORTS
[ADAPTED FROM ASME GUIDELINES FOR STUDENT DESIGN COMPETITION]
TITLE
(TIMES NEW ROMAN, 12, BOLD)
Team Name (Times New Roman, 12)
First Author (Times New Roman, 12)
Second Author (Times New Roman, 12)
Third Author (Times New Roman, 12)
…continue to list all authors / team members
Date (Times New Roman, 12)
Abstract (Times New Roman, 12, justified, placed on title page)
The report should start with an abstract of approximately 100 words, summarizing the objective,
contents, results, and conclusions of the report as specifically as possible.
The heading of the Abstract should be italic. Update the abstract as more sections of the report are
competed.
[Note: The purpose of the design report is to describe and justify the final design (or for the
intermediate reports the current status of the design). The audience is primarily decision makers
(technical and business project managers) in your company and internal technical staff. The style
(based on guidelines in Style Guide [Shipley and Associates, 1987] and Write to the Top
[DiGregorio, 1995] should follow these guidelines:
1) Take the active voice (use first person nouns and direct, forceful verbs);
2) Use pronouns when recommending something, drawing conclusions, or conveying
decisions;
3) Write the way you talk – make it easy for the reader to get your point;
4) Keep most sentences and paragraphs short.
Formatting Guidelines: The entire body text of the report should be Times New Roman, 12, with
1 inch margins. Major headings should be numbered consecutively, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, etc, typed in bold
face with a font size of 16. Sub-headings should be numbered consecutively, 1.1, 1.2, etc, typed in
bold face with a font size of 14. Finally, sub-sub-headings should also be numbered consecutively,
1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc., typed in bold face with a size 12 font face. It is not recommended to go beyond
three levels of headings.
1.0 Introduction (Times New Roman 16, Bold, left)
Use the introduction section to provide some background information on the overall design
problem domain. This introductory information should come from your literature search – Library,
Internet, trade magazines, etc. Key points to cover:
• Set the context: Help the reader understand general information about the problem or need
area, including any necessary definitions, statistics, etc. Use pictures and visual images as
much as possible.
• Explain the purpose: why is this work important?
• Set the scope: How far can you or will you go to solve the problem?
• State the objectives: In short statements or a bullet list, identify the specific objectives of your
work – things that can be assessed at the end of the project to determine if you were successful.
Important Note: All sources that are not your own ideas must be referenced.
For your reports, please use the parenthetical references: author-date system. A sample
reference list addressing each of the five main types of information sources is given at end. These
include: websites (Swanson, 1999), journals (Muriru and Daewoo, 2002), books (Zacharia and
Daudi, 2001), conference proceedings (Peters et al., 2001) and patents (Wen-Cheng, 1994). For
more information on ethical standards for publications (for the example of ASME journals), see
http://journaltool.asme.org/Help/AuthorHelp/WebHelp/JournalsHelp.htm#Guidelines/Ethical_Standards.htm.
1.1 Initial Needs Statement (Times New Roman, 14, left)
Provide a brief paragraph describing the initial needs statement – the needs statement itself is
usually given to the design team. Please also include some initial discussion of the need statement,
linked to the introductory material.
2.0 Customer Needs Assessment
This section describes the iterative FOCUS process for defining the customer (360 degree
perspective), developing appropriate interview and observation guides, collecting data, and
converting it to customer requirements statements (customer needs). Please show/describe the
iterative nature of the process to illustrate how the project was impacted by customer input. This
section should include descriptive text and several tables and figures, including:
1. An initial customer needs list obtained from interviews and observations (refer to Table 1).
Note that all table captions are placed on top of the tables. Please note that all tables are
numbered consecutively. Please make sure that a table is not split between two pages.
Move the table to a location where it can fit. If the table is too big to fit, split the table into
two separate tables.
2. A table listing the hierarchal design objective list, that has been augmented with constraints
and functions (refer to Table 2). Note that the constraints and functions are formatted
differently for easy identification.
3. Include the most relevant copy of your interview guide and observation guide in the
Appendix, and reference it from this section.
1
Table 1. Initial Customer Needs List Obtained from Interviews and Observations (Times
New Roman, 12, Bold, Centered)
2
Table 2. Hierarchal Customer Needs List (With Weighting factors)
(Times New Roman, 12, Bold, Centered)
2.1 Weighting of Customer Needs
This section should begin with a brief introduction on the importance of weighting, and then
provide a description and/or tables that show how the weights were calculated. The resources for
making decisions discussed in class would be a good tool to use here. Figure 1 illustrates the use
of one method, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), to create a weighted hierarchal customer
needs list. It is very important to include figures and tables to show how the decisions were made,
not just what the decisions are.
Like tables, all figures are numbered consecutively. Unlike tables, however, figure captions are
typically placed at the bottom of the figure. This section should build on and make reference to the
weighted hierarchal customer needs list.
3
Portable
User Fl.
Flexible
Durable
Portable
User Fr.
Flexible
Durable
Total
Weighting
1.00
3.00
0.33
1.00
0.33
1.00
0.20
0.33
3.00
5.00
1.00
3.00
1.00
3.00
0.33
1.00
5.33
12.00
1.87
5.33
0.22
0.49
0.08
0.22
Figure 1. Example of AHP Pair wise Comparison Chart to Determine Weighting for Main
Objective Categories
3.0 Revised Needs Statement and Target Specifications
Using the initial problem statement and the knowledge gathered from the customer needs, describe
a revised needs statement that provides a more concise description of the design problem.
Clearly define the target specifications and the design criteria that define the problem (generated
from the customer requirements and engineering standards). Include the initial justification for the
specifications and the metrics (how “meeting the specs” will be measured), referring to customer
requirements and benchmarking results as appropriate. Also describe how the specifications were
checked with the customer to ensure they meet their needs.
4.0 External Search
This section should include information gathered from numerous sources about the design
problem and the product, process, or system that is at the center of the design problem. Focus
primarily on the information that is pertinent to the revised needs statement and target
specifications. Sources should include library, internet, magazines, patents, observations of actual
products, discussions with “experts”, etc.
You should also perform a patent search to determine the key technologies used in similar
designs. Focus on utility patents (looking at function) and not cosmetic patents (focusing on
artistic design).
Evaluate the patents and information sources, and clearly state what impact they have on the
development of your project.
Also, summarize your business opportunity, and make reference to your “Business Opportunity
Statement” in the Appendix.
4.1 Benchmarking
This section should identify all commercially available products, processes, or systems that
attempt to address all or a significant part of the needs statement that your project is addressing.
Create a benchmarking table that compares numerous applicable features. Note that not all
4
systems will have all features. The results should be prefaced with an introductory paragraph and
then neatly summarized in a table (see Table 4). In tables, you may reduce the font size to 10 point
to allow inclusion of more information per table. Recall a single table should not be split over
multiple pages.
This section might also include:
1. Figures/pictures of the benchmarked products, systems (if available)
2. Tables listing specs and metrics for benchmarked products, including their performance
with respect to the target specifications (if applicable)
3. Sketches clearly indicating dimensions and all relevant features that could be of use in your
design. For example, the number, size and location of screw holes.
Table 4. Benchmarking of Products
Feature
Size
Weight
Cost
Flexibility
And so on…….
Systems 1
System 2
System 3
System 4
See the “Intro to Target Specifications” presentation for more information on benchmarking
products and metrics. As in the other sections, show some details that illustrate project
development but focus on the information that is pertinent to the revised needs statement and
target specifications.
4.2 Applicable Patents
Each team member should provide at least one applicable patent, and write an evaluation
that describes what impact this patent or the ideas therein have on the development of your project.
The overall section must describe the results of a thorough patent search in your product area.
4.3 Applicable Standards
Search governmental and industry sources for applicable standards, rules, regulations, etc., and
record them here. Make sure to consider health and safety, environmental regulations,
governmental policies, etc. Also evaluate them and state what impact they have on the
development of your project.
4.4 Applicable Constraints
Determine what internal (space, budget, expertise,…) and external (market, environment, health
and safety,…) constraints are applicable and record them here. Also evaluate them and state what
impact they have on the development of your project.
5
4.5 Business Opportunity
Include a short overview here, and reference the Business Opportunity Statement which should be
included in the Appendix. Guidelines for the statement are in
http://www.ent.ohiou.edu/~me470/SnrDesign06_07/me470/Businessopportunitystatement.htm .
5.0 Concept Generation
In this section describe the processes used to generate creative alternative conceptual
designs and do an initial screen for feasibility. Document numerous (>3) feasible alternatives, and
discuss the continuing influence of the customer in the design process.
5.1 Problem Clarification
Use tools and analytical models to clarify the problem, such as the “Power Flow” Model for
Design Concepts, the black-box model or the energy-material-signal model (EMS).
5.2 Concept Generation
Briefly describe the process used for concept generation, making note of processes used to
enhance creativity and to maximize the number of different system-level and subsystem-level
concepts considered. For concept generation various techniques can be used (e.g., brainstorming,
C-sketch, TRIZ, etc.). A morphological chart (Figure 2) may help to organize subsystem concepts
for each function.
Figure 2. Morphological chart
6
Include sufficient detail to show the important results of the concept generation process, including
(as applicable) brainstorming lists, mind-mapping charts, affinity diagrams, sketches/drawings of
concepts (hand sketches or CAD drawings approximately scaled, including users in operating
position(s)), etc.
Include some discussion of features that may serve as “delighters” – unique or unexpected features
that could distinguish your product.
5.3 Initial Screening for Feasibility and Effectiveness
Describe the method of concept screening (for possible methods, see
http://www.ent.ohiou.edu/~me470/SnrDesign05_06/me470/Conceptselection_MITmodified.pdf)
Include appropriate evaluation of the alternatives to judge feasibility relative to the specifications
and criteria. Document the feasibility of numerous (>3) feasible alternatives.
6. Concept Selection
6.1 Data and Calculations for Feasibility and Effectiveness Analysis
Include appropriate Free Body Diagrams (FBD), calculations, simulations, research and other
analysis that can be used to more rigorously judge feasibility and effectiveness relative to the
specifications and criteria. For example, a vehicle design project would require numerous FBDs,
with calculations that show the power requirements to achieve the max speed specification, the
torque requirements for the acceleration and gradeability specifications, the energy storage
requirements (amp-hour capacity for batteries, fuel tank size,…) for the range specification, etc.
6.2 Concept Screening
Describe and show the results of processes used to get feedback from the “customer” with respect
to your concepts, the process used to screen the concepts (system-level and subsystem-level if
appropriate) and definitions of what feasibility and effectiveness mean with respect to the concept
screening, the results (with justification) of the concept screening including how concepts were
combined and refined.
6.3 Concept Development, Scoring and Selection
Describe the process used to develop and evaluate the final concepts, and describe in detail the
concept selected for further refinement, including detailed sketches with the user in operating
position(s). See the Concept Evaluation and Selection Presentation for more information.
Remember that the goal is not selection but development of the best concept, so combining and
refining concepts is highly encouraged. Concept scoring is normally done with Pugh Charts (or
other decision-making tools). Explain the scoring method used in the decision matrix. Show
detailed feasibility and effectiveness analysis for the selected concept relative to all design
specifications.
7
7.0 Final Design
Discuss details of the design refinement process and the final detailed design. Start with a system
level description that flows down to the subsystem and component level.
The project must include both thermal and mechanical design aspects, so make sure that both
aspects of your project are described.
It is suggested that you use FMEA to organize the discussion of how the critical design areas were
identified and what methods were used to develop a safe and effective final design. Describe how
you did the FMEA and what the results were, and make reference to actual FMEA worksheets
included in the appendix.
Show highlights of the key analysis that was done to justify design decisions, and include the
results and conclusions from the analysis in the body of the report (place the details of any
significant analysis in the appendix).
For all significant design decisions (items identified by FMEA to be important decisions), provide
clear and complete justification that includes all aspects of the decision (to demonstrate that a good
design process was followed to achieve a good decision).
Acceptable / Supported decisions include most of the following considerations
Considerations
Impacts / Effects (First, do no
harm. Immediate and long term,
intended and unintended, local
and global impacts of products
and production on the
environment and society)
Professional and ethical
standards (Decision and
Justification show good judgment
and integrity)
Function (Research, precedent
and vendor info show it should
meet the design specifications)
FMEA (A failure modes and
effects analysis or similar
technique is properly used to
evaluate the overall system failure
modes and hazards and to
prioritize risks and focus the
design effort.
In-Process (Design
Refinement) Level
Completed Decision Level
Considered for the overall
project, and is impacting
production and part-level
decisions.
All aspects considered and
hard choices and tradeoffs
are made as required to limit
impacts.
Demonstrates a
commitment to
professional standards.
Demonstrates a commitment
to professional standards.
Complete and up-to-date
Complete and up-to-date
All Hazards identified and
most significant items
evaluated.
All significant hazards
evaluated and RPNs
decreased to acceptable
values.
8
All critical load cases and
failure locations identified
and analysis completed
and validated for most
critical locations.
Simulations begun with
estimated parameters.
Design for safety on a
system level is complete.
Examples of avoidance
and protection are
presented.
A comprehensive approach
is documented that shows
reduction of all hazards
(product and production) to
low risk.
Most significant items
have been analyzed for
value and a process is
used for vendor selection.
All significant items have
been analyzed for value.
Good vendor selection
process.
Customer (360 degree Customer
Input solicited, evaluated and
appropriately used.)
Significant input has been
incorporated from various
external and internal
customers
Usability, marketability and
other customer input
incorporated from all
significant external and
internal customers
DFMA (All aspects of
Manufacturing and Assembly
Considered, including
manufacturability of design
features, use of manufacturing
features, machinability of
materials,…)
Manufacturability and
assembly of most
significant items has been
analyzed and improved to
appropriate levels.
Manufacturability and
assembly of all significant
items has been analyzed and
improved to appropriate
levels.
Testing (Mock-ups and
experiments used for information
and validation)
Most mock-ups complete
and used appropriately
for product development.
Other tests are planned.
Mock-ups and tests were
used appropriately for
numerous aspects of product
development.
Other (Creativity and initiative
are evident in the decision
process; Good planning and
organizing are demonstrated,
including use of decision making
tools [Pareto analysis, decision
matrices and other prioritizing and
organizing tools]; Impacts on
design criteria are considered)
Some other
considerations are
evident.
Most other considerations
are evident.
Design Analysis (Sufficient and
Correct Analysis for part sizing
and material selection to avoid
failure; Simulations demonstrate
performance of major subsystems
in critical operating modes.)
Safety (All aspects of project and
product safety considered
continuously throughout the
design process. Design for Safety
terminology & approach used.)
Economics / Value (Cost/benefit
analysis is used to evaluate value,
not just immediate cost. A vendor
selection process is followed and
documented.)
Analysis completed and
validated for all critical
locations. Simulation
completed with
experimentally validated
parameters.
7.1 How does it work?
In the best way you can, please explain how your design works. Focus on system-level operational
details (how the user would operate the system), but include some technical information that
describes how the product actually works. Include instructions for maintenance and service, and
any assembly steps that must be completed by the customer. This section should be
understandable to the target customer, and should be able to serve as product literature (operating
manual).
9
7.2 How is it manufactured and assembled, and what does it cost?
In either a narrative or step-by-step style, discuss the manufacturability and cost of the final
design:
• A reasonably detailed manufacturing and assembly plan (with pictures and/or figures) must be
developed that details how the product will be manufactured (in lots of 5000/yr) and that
estimates the per unit production cost (including labor, materials, overhead,…) at that
production volume. [Use the recommended cost estimation procedure discussed in class, or an
equivalent method]
? …
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