Discussion Assessment

Assessment QuestionThe conflicts and exploration of the early 19th century helped shape the philosophies and morale of the nation. Explain how events like the War of 1812 and exploration towards the West by the United States may have impacted the sense of what it was to be “American” during this period.Your response must be at least 200 words in length.___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Discussion Board QuestionHow can the influence of Dolley Madison in the age of Republican motherhood be compared to events or society today?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Please be original on both assignments…..professor does not want any cited or references.
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UNIT V STUDY GUIDE
Jefferson’s America
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
5. Identify the impact foreign aggression had on American civilian morale.
5.1 Recognize attributes related to the foreign influence on early American society.
5.2 Describe the political conflicts impacting the growth of the United States.
7. Discuss the evolution of American philosophies or ideals.
7.1 Identify catalysts causing the changing face of American views.
7.2 Explain the shifting perspectives of United States citizens from European to American values.
7.3 Identify significant personalities affiliated with the early American nation.
Course/Unit
Learning Outcomes
5.1
5.2
7.1
7.2
7.3
Learning Activity
Unit V Lesson
U.S. History reading passages
Unit V Assessment
Unit V Lesson
U.S. History reading passages
Unit V Assessment
Unit V Lesson
U.S. History reading passages
Unit V Assessment
Unit V Lesson
U.S. History reading passages
Unit V Assessment
Unit V Lesson
U.S. History reading passages
Unit V Assessment
Reading Assignment
Throughout this course, you will be provided with sections of text from the online resource U.S. History. You
may be tested on your knowledge and understanding of the material listed below as well as the information
presented in the unit lesson. Click on the link(s) below to access your material.
Click here to access this unit’s reading from U.S. History. The chapter/section titles are also provided below.
Section 8.3: Partisan Politics
Section 8.4: The United States Goes Back to War
Section 10.1: A New Political Style: From John Quincy Adams to Andrew Jackson, pp. 274-277
Section 11.1: Lewis and Clark
Section 11.2: The Missouri Crisis
HY 1110, American History I
1
Unit Lesson
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title
Jay’s Treaty was an agreement passed during the closing years of the Washington administration that
attempted to guarantee a lasting peace with the still formidable and neighboring British. However, this idea for
lasting peace led the nation into a new political divide.
In tone, this “agreement” was overwhelmingly supportive to the British and directly affected American
economic potential. From this arose a steep political divide that threatened to tear the new nation apart. On
one side were the Federalists, focused largely in the North and supporting industry, British interests, and
elites controlling the government (not to be confused with the ratification group of the same name a decade
prior). Those who did not support Jay’s Treaty formed a competing party under the leadership of Jefferson
and Madison, called the Democratic Republicans. In the 1796 election, George Washington’s Vice President
and Federalist John Adams was elected the second chief executive just in time for the nation’s first national
crisis.
Republican Motherhood
With America being so new to European culture (in comparison to the mainland), it was culturally still a blank
slate that opened itself to new cultural opportunities and ideas. Chief among these ideas was a revolutionary
spirit known as “Republican Motherhood,” briefly discussed in the last unit. The prevailing idea behind this
was of women as the moral and supportive core of the American family. Women were the key cog that kept
church attendance consistent, the home livable, the family fed, and the men supported. For many families,
especially among the higher class, women were not expected to work, fight, or make social waves. This ideal,
which had originated many decades before and would last roughly until the early twentieth century, found its
peak directly before, during, and after America’s Revolutionary period. Many parallels have been made to the
idea of Republican Motherhood and the limited opportunities for women of the time to be able to escape from
perceived social walls.
Interestingly, however, even with the steep limitations on women during this period, the young nation would
prove to successfully foster a generation of female leaders to whom the United States owes a great
reverence. Most schools today teach a general history of the founding fathers, and occasionally even include
some noted women, such as Betsy Ross. Her legend, even though historically scrutinized, was highly
sensationalized near the nation’s centennial. It was intended as a motivator for young girls and women.
Fittingly, this was during the revival of the women’s suffrage movement.
There is evidence, however, of a great tradition of American women
who emerged during this pivotal part of the nation’s history. With good
reason, one of the most celebrated figures is Abigail Adams, wife of
the new President John Adams. Abigail’s correspondence with her
husband John during and after the war and throughout the Presidential
Administration provides for historians an intimate look into the
unfiltered realities of the perils of the chief executive and also to his
often forgotten efforts to secure European support during the war.
Abigail Adams
In addition, Abigail Adams would become a source of civility and
reason during the feud that would erupt between John Adams and their
longtime close family-friend-turned-political-rival, Thomas Jefferson.
The study of history is often most clear from a secondary point of view,
and in an age before cameras and phones, having such wonderful
resources is an essential part of the national record. As this unit
progresses into the following topics, it should be noted that letters such
as Abigail’s, among other sources introduced in the readings, were
quite beneficial in capturing the tone and emotion of these events.
They are a staple to the national collection.
(Stuart, 1828)
Troubled Administration
The end of the American Revolution gave many on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean the understanding of a
French-U.S. alliance based on a common enemy. With the signing of this new policy, that alliance did not stop
just on paper. Less than two years after Jay’s Treaty was signed, the French were sending privateers
HY 1110, American History I
2
(essentially pirates hired as mercenaries) to intercept American ships and seize
goods
bound GUIDE
for England.
UNIT
x STUDY
Federalists saw these actions as a declaration of war.
Title
Adams, trying to hold the nation together, opted instead on continued negotiation. He sent three negotiators
to Paris who were unceremoniously refused entry and an appearance before anyone in authority—a direct
symbol of retaliation. France instead sent three negotiators to the U.S. with the goal of aggressively trying to
barter funds upwards of $12 million from the U.S. treasury to buy back their civility. These negotiators, known
only as “X, Y, and Z,” were granted a response similar to that received by the American negotiators. Furious
commissioners alerted Adams to the French attempt to secure a bribe.
Upon hearing news of this incident, known simply as the “XYZ Affair,” Republicans were not able to justify the
French actions, and the Federalists demanded a war. By 1798, twenty American warships were parked in the
French Caribbean, and though war was not declared, this was clearly an invitation to hostilities. The tense
standoff would become dubbed the “Quasi-War” in reference to its informal status. It would result in massive
collections by the U.S. of French vessels.
Stateside, the battle was in print. Papers in support of the Republicans publicly attacked U.S. actions and
Adams’ leadership. In the North, aggressive and violent retaliation to these papers was not uncommon. On
both sides, there was genuine fear that war would break out—not between the U.S. and France, but among
the American people. So divided were these tensions that political measures were taken to calm the print.
The Sedition Act was the 1798 censoring of seditious (insurrection against established government or order)
content from public eyes. In addition, the borders were closed to select immigrants to America.
The two Alien Acts strikingly increased the amount of time required to gain citizenship and gave the President
the power to deport immigrants without trial if he deemed them a threat. It was clearly evident that these were
directed attacks. The Federalists argued that they were intended to halt potential French terror, but the real
victims were the Republicans who were out-muscled in the executive, judicial, and legislative branches. In
addition to the Federalist grip on the executive branch, their demands for a trial on the basis of the Bill of
Rights were ignored in court and failed to pass in Congress. Those in power wanted to squash any potential
threat and return the nation to a one-party system by any means possible.
The last Republican voice left was on the state level: Kentucky and Virginia. These two major agricultural
states would man the helm for the Republicans, taking resolutions directly to the federal government, arguing
that the states have the right to nullify the Constitutionality of federal laws. Although a failure in stopping the
Alien and Sedition Acts, this debate between the powers of federal and state were not taken lightly. Largely
due to Adams’ limited enforcement of the Sedition Act and outright refusal to go to war, those who did speak
out were not punished, and this question over power would reemerge again later.
In January 1799, the French, unwilling to fight both their longtime rival British and the U.S., confirmed an end
to hostilities and welcomed American ambassadors back to Paris. Adams had avoided a war the U.S. did not
want against an ally he did not want to lose, but at great cost.
His party, now firmly in the hand of the outspoken Hamilton, was furious with his refusal of hostilities, and the
Republicans, having been silenced, threatened, and outright attacked, had not forgiven their treatment during
the scare. Perhaps worst of all for Adams, the actions of the Federalists against the common man only
decreased their support. Vice President Jefferson, having four busy years to accelerate the anger of his
supporters, and still little responsibilities in the capitol, did Adams no favors–Adams had lost his re-election
before it was even held. Jefferson won soundly, a victory he dubbed the “revolution of 1800,” and his
inaugural address famously became a call to the nation to reunify, just under a different leader. Little did
Jefferson know, his sentiments would become real, even as America continued to evolve.
Jefferson Inaugurated
“We are all republicans, we are all federalists.” – Thomas Jefferson
In the short history of the young nation, there were a few odd occurrences. First, a republic born out of war
had not, in its first twelve years, officially been involved in a formal conflict (the War for Independence ended
under the Articles of Confederation, and the Quasi-War was never officially declared).
HY 1110, American History I
3
Second, and even more surprising, Jefferson constituted the third leader from UNIT
a thirdx distinct
STUDYplatform
GUIDE (party),
and both exchanges of power, though passionate, were bloodless. In his first public
Title comments at his
inauguration, Jefferson, however, would make it clear that one of his main goals echoed Washington and
Adams in that the nation was at its strongest when it was unified. Jefferson saw how quickly his party had
toppled their opposition, and he knew he would need to reach across the aisle to be successful.
Still working on the balloting process, there was some concern over if the incumbent Federalist candidate
Adams was even on every ballot, but it was unlikely that was the only reason he was not reelected. The man
to become Jefferson’s Vice President, Aaron Burr, also a Republican, had a reputation for being high-strung
and potentially corruptible. Even for a Federalist-dominated Congress, he was a dangerous choice to lead the
unsteady republic. Jefferson had proven to be a seasoned politician, but was practical in his action and
speech. He knew that his greatest support was from the common agrarian man, and his frugal tendencies
while in office made him appealing to that demographic, which had often been overlooked by the previous
administration.
Landmark Administration
Jefferson had two early goals. First, he wanted to balance the budget to avoid the potential for corruption that
Alexander Hamilton had proposed during their time in his cabinet. Second, as part of his frugality and
unification of the nation, he (pressured by the now Republican Congress) encountered a series of events that
would lead to the first landmark decision by the Supreme Court.
In the case of Marbury v. Madison, Jefferson would refuse the appointments of numerous last-minute
appointees by Adams in the twilight of his administration. Marbury, one of the refused appointees, would sue
for his position.
Chief Justice John Marshall, often considered the greatest justice to ever serve on the nation’s highest court,
himself a Federalist and appointee by Adams, would make the decision. What he decided, however, would
come as a shock to many. He found that while Marbury was entitled to the position, the court did not have the
legal right to overrule the executive decision. Though an immediate loss for the Federalists, this decision was
ingenious and would guarantee some degree of longstanding Federalist influence in the government. Not only
had the judicial branch nullified an executive order (by Adams), but Marshall had secured the process of
judicial review. This means that only the court, led and dominated by pro-centralizing and Federalist figures,
could interpret the law, and with this power, it became a substantial influence in the checks and balances
system.
Unlike his predecessors, Jefferson was unable to keep the U.S. out of a formal conflict. The monarch of
Tripoli, who had control over a popular trading spot along the Barbary Coast in West Africa, demanded
“tribute” for safe passage—essentially a bribe. Jefferson refused to pay this extortion, leading to the capture
of 300 American sailors who had run aground and burned their frigate, the USS Philadelphia, to keep the ship
out of Barbary hands. The incarceration of these men led to a direct U.S. attack on the African king’s navy.
Even after the successful recovery of these men, random attacks continued until 1815 when the U.S. Navy,
under the direction of President Madison and Captain Decatur, overwhelmed the kingdom with superior power
and demanded an end to the demands for tributes and reparations from previous encounters. Though this
incident was an unwanted show of force to resolve a political matter, perhaps Jefferson’s most notable
accomplishments were as much patience as planning. History remembers Jefferson as a diplomat, not as a
soldier, and never would that prove more true than how he would successfully expand the world influence of
the U.S., both figuratively and geographically.
Louisiana Purchase
By 1801, the U.S. was using the Mississippi River as a major shipping hub for goods from territories as far
north as Canada and as far inward as the Great Lakes. This land, formally controlled by Spain, but
realistically in the hands of Native American tribes since the French exodus after the Seven Years’ War, was
essential for U.S. commerce, especially the southernmost port of New Orleans.
Spain could not afford to defend this region from the ever-increasing western expansion threat of the U.S.,
and in a show of political compromise, sold its North American holdings back to France, now under the control
of Napoleon Bonaparte. France had never lost its interests in an American empire. However, during its
revolutionary years, the French could ill-afford to station any formal assault against either Spain or the U.S.
HY 1110, American History I
4
Spain simply requested a sturdier buffer between the U.S. and Spain’s CentralUNIT
American
and GUIDE
Western
x STUDY
territories, and France was eager to rebuild its forces closer to its sugar plantation
Titleholdings in Haiti. A series
of unexpected events would begin to unfold, providing the U.S. with a never-expected outcome.
Jefferson was always fascinated with the American West, even remarking openly to his trusted advisors about
his interest in mapping the Western territories. When he received notice of the sale, or more appropriately,
when the Port of New Orleans was closed to further American shipments, Jefferson immediately sent
negotiators to Paris as the first rumblings of war filled Congressional chambers. This call for war, mostly from
the remaining Federalists, did serve a purpose—if Napoleon, a military general, could not be persuaded by
money, perhaps the hint of an escalated conflict would change his mind.
Robert R. Livingston was the chief negotiator sent to Paris to organize this sale, but this was a tricky
proposition. Jefferson, a fervent constitutionalist, did not interpret the Constitution as providing the executive
office the right to purchase land. He knew that if the New Orleans port remained closed, however, that war
was likely to erupt and American commerce would suffer. It was for this reason that he felt the transaction
was justified.
Upon arriving in Paris, Napoleon was not interested in selling his newly acquired territory. Early settlements
along the Mississippi River had already provided a French presence in North America, and he was eager to
expand. Tragedy struck, however. An outbreak of Yellow Fever made quick work of that settlement, and a
slave uprising in sugarcane-rich Haiti removed the strongest French presence in the Caribbean. Faced with
the potential for war over a land that was now diminished in value, Napoleon had no choice but to sell and
use the profits to prepare for rising hostilities with longtime foe, Britain. The final cost would be $15 million, a
far cry from the original offer of $2 million for the port alone. Without the official approval of Jefferson (as it
would have taken several weeks), with this exchange and some careful negotiation about the Western border,
the U.S. doubled in size overnight.
Even though Jefferson was
openly enthusiastic about
the potential for growth, he
too was a strict
Constitutionalist, and the
purchase of land,
especially to this extent,
was not defined in the
powers of the executive
branch. While his initial
offer for the port could be
justified as a measure to
ensure that the nation
avoided a war for which
they were unprepared, the
final sale far exceeded
such justification. As the
deal was done, the
precedent was set, and
there was little pressure
from the RepublicanThe map above shows the outline of the land acquired through the Louisiana Purchase.
dominated Congress to
(Bond, 1912)
retract the sale.
Interestingly, this purchase
would have few immediate consequences, but in the years following would be instrumental in further
expansion throughout the world in what many would argue as being almost imperial ambitions.
Still, in the wake of the sale, Jefferson jumped at this turn of events and immediately sent out Meriwether
Lewis and William Clark to lead an expedition to map this new territory. The pair’s tasks included scouting for
future development, potential hostilities, and shipping routes to the West. With the aid of Sacajawea, a Native
American linguistics prodigy, the expedition reached the Pacific Ocean in 1807 and returned in 1808. Future
expeditions would follow into different parts of the new territory, prompting formal gatherings with less than
HY 1110, American History I
5
permanent treaties. The Osage nation that was immediately friendly with the American
President,
would
UNIT x STUDY
GUIDE
eventually become the first tribe forced to settle in present-day Oklahoma.
Title
Westward Expansion and Exploration, 1803-1807.
(Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.)
1807 would also prompt yet another milita …
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