As a school counselor, you will be expected to demonstrate your effectiveness to many different stakeholders. For this assignment, you will have the opportunity to highlight the outcomes on academic gains from your counseling program using the evidence-based intervention you selected and described in the assignments in Unit 3 and Unit 6.For this assignment, imagine you have successfully implemented your evidence-based intervention. It is your job to communicate the outcomes of your program to your stakeholders or advisory council (Dollarhide & Saginak, 2017, p. 196).You will demonstrate your ability to inform your team via multiple mediums. Imagine that your group meets online and you need to incorporate images, screenshots, videos, Excel spreadsheets, documents, pre- or post-assessments, and so forth to enhance your presentation and clearly illustrate the benefits of your selected intervention.Explain how your academic-based goal was selected based on the school wide program plan needs assessment. Use a logic model to open the discussion.Justify the selected evidence-based intervention as a component of acomprehensive school counseling program.Discuss the results of the intervention and propose future actions to sustain the intervention.
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drill down disaggregate
Logic Model Template
Source: Adapted from Dimmitt, C., Carey, J. C., & Hatch, T. (2007). Evidence-based school counseling: Making a difference with data-driven practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Retrieved from the companion
website for Facilitating Evidence-Based, Data-Driven School Counseling: A Manual for Practice by Brett Zyromski and Melissa A. Mariani. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com.
Running head: NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND GOAL SETTING
Needs Assessment and Goal Setting
October 29, 2017
Dr. Monica Mack
NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND GOAL SETTING
Needs Assessment and Goal Setting
The steps that are required to find a school wide program plan include, the establishment
of a school wide planning team, clarifying a reform vision, creating a campus profile, identifying
sources of data, and the establishment of data analysis (Zimmerman, Albert, & Manuel, 1992).
Finding the school wide program needs a well-structured team with relevant knowledge in
organizing and overseeing the entire needs assessment process. Therefore, the first step is to
come up with the team that will conduct the given organization and the supervision process. The
second step is to ensure that the established team factor a proper clarification of the vision for
reform. The clarification process is aimed at identification of the relevant areas that must be
addressed in appreciably concurring a positive change within the institution. The main intention
of the positive change is to ensure a collective vision with an improved student achievement.
The third stage, which involves the creation of a promising school profile is the center of
the needs assessment process. Here, the team needs to give a suggestion on the critical area.
Therefore, there must be a concrete understanding of the current position of the educational
institution, among all the staff members (Locke & Gary, 2002). The concrete team understanding
of the institutional position will consequently aid in the identification of the existing gap between
the current position and the position of the educational institution after the reform process. The
fourth stage focusses on the identification of both the quantitative and qualitative data sources
(Whitaker, 2015). Here, relevant quantitative sources such as the students enrollment accounts,
their rates of dropout, the rates of graduation, and results from the students achievement must be
NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND GOAL SETTING
used. Qualitatively, the team must also focus on such data sources as the relevant written survey,
observations of classrooms, or perhaps, focus groups. Finally, the last step involve data analysis
process in which the team is mandated to analyze the relevantly gathered data from the forth step
with regard to the progress that has been made in institutional position.
In regard to the location of the school plan or relevant data relating to the school plan, I
would prefer to use the school website in gathering relevant information concerning the school
activities as well as its future strategic plans. In most cases, especially in a well-structured
institution, the position or the situations of the institution are normally well-structured within the
school website for accessibility in case the need arises (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright,
2003). Even though some of the contents are always secured for data security purposes, the
accessibility of the institutional planning will be achieved through a proper analysis of the
gathered information. Therefore, the first process that I would utilize in locating the school plan
in to access the school website. The school website will guarantee several information
concerning the position of the institution as well as the gaps that exist and the relevant data
regarding the strategic plan exhibited by the institution in filling the existing gap. Here, all the
relevant information would be analyzed in coming up with a general plan of the educational
The best practices for designing and maintaining Comprehensive School Counselling
Programs (CSCPs), involve assessing the current position of the institution, identification of the
gap existing within the institution, establishing the CSCP, and finally maintaining the CSCP by
coming up with relevant policies that will perfectly guide the established CSCP (Carey &
Martin, 2015). The assessment of the actual position of the institution will aid in understanding
the progress that the institution has put in place in handling its counselling matters. The position
NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND GOAL SETTING
will also aid in understanding the gaps that exists in the current and the previous attempts that the
institution possesses in terms of the counseling activities. Upon understanding the position of the
educational institution as far as its counselling attempts are concerned, it is thus, relevant to
come up with a constructive and comprehensive CSCP. However, the established CSCP can only
be maintained through concretely established policies that regulate the conducts of all the
relevant parties concerned with regard to the counseling process within the educational
Demographic and Population Data
68% of the expected turnout
92% of the expected turnout
A level, B level, Pass, Fail
The school position, as can be depicted from the demographic and population data, is an
evident that indeed the school is experiencing a low enrollment turnout. Among the enrolled
students, only 92% turn out to complete the course. Moreover, the social economic response is
rate a ratio of 3:4. Meaning, for every four economically able students, only three are able to
socialize freely. Given the racial balance within the educational institution, it is evident that a
three quarter of the total population comes from a single racial community. Therefore, given the
provided statistical data achieved from the institution, it is clear that indeed there is a low social
life driven by economic imbalance, racial imbalance, and perhaps poor institutional management
(Hannon, 2016). As a result, the three major data-driven school improvement goals that would
perfectly aid in handling the situation include social economic balance, racial balance, and
NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND GOAL SETTING
generally, an appreciable enrollment and attendance management. The given goals are selected
as the primary target based on their influence on the psychological and the performance nature of
the students within the institution.
NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND GOAL SETTING
Carey, J. C., & Martin, I. (2015). A review of the major school counseling policy studies in the
United States: 200-2014.
Hannon, M. D. (2016). Professional development needs of urban school counselors: A review of
the literature. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision 8(2).
Locke, E. A., & Gary, P. L. (2002). Building a practical useful theory of goal setting and task
motivation: a 35-year odyssey. American psychologist, 57(9), 705.
Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2003). Gaining Competitive
advantage. Irwin: Mc Graw-Hill.
Whitaker, R. G. (2015). The relationship between school counselor belief regarding the ASCa
national Model components and implementation of a comprehensive school counseling
program . (Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University).
Zimmerman, B. J., Albert, B., & Manuel, M. (1992). Self motivation for academic attainment:
The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational
Research Journal, 26(3), 663-676.
Running head: SCHOOL COUNSELING
School Counseling Intervention and Evaluation
November 19, 2017
Need for Evaluation
Comprehensive school counseling programs (CSCPs) have become one of the foundations of
the school education process because of the expanded roles and responsibilities with which
school counselors are increasingly being entrusted in the USA. Counselors are expected to
work closely with the student community not only to improve their mental wellbeing and
academic performance, but also a host of related outcomes such as safety, social skills, career
progression, and broad career development (Gysbers, 2013, p. 283). The program calls for
collaboration between counselors and all stakeholders in education to achieve these results.
Considering the critical role in educational outcome that the CSCP is expected to
play, the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) has comprehensively evaluated
the factors that affect the implementation of the program and evidence based performance of
counselors. Administrative support has been identified as one of the primary factors since
knowledgeable administrators can create the management framework and commit the
organizational resources that counselors need to succeed while performing their myriad roles
(Dodson, 2009, p. 480). In addition, the ASCA and educators have also researched the
impacts of these factors in the school counseling interventions that have been implemented so
far and whether such interventions are justified in terms of results achieved. Freeman et al.
(2016, p. 41) reported that interventions were found to lower the occurrence of office
discipline referrals and improve attendance rates across all grade levels, but their effect on
academic achievements was unclear. Therefore, there is a need for evidence based
examination of the intervention programs that are designed in CSCPs. It is only a critical
evaluation of various aspects of interventions that will allow counselors to judge the
effectiveness of their practices and to adopt suitable strategies that prove beneficial for
Implementation of an Intervention
One of the aspects that a school counseling intervention is expected to improve is attendance
rate of students, because these rates in turn influence other aspects of the school system such
as discipline, class performance, and internalization of course content. Therefore, I decided to
implement a counseling intervention to try and improve attendance. The intervention was
performed in a middle school and in the eighth grade, which had a total of 72 students. I used
two methods: individual counseling and incentives. I met each student on a weekly basis for a
period of two months (8 weeks) and discussed with them the importance of regular class
attendance. I also inquired whether any student faced impediments that would result in
missing a class or a school day, and tried to find solutions to alleviate such circumstances. I
devised a number of incentives and discussed my plans with students so that their
involvement levels would increase and they would also feel empowered. We decided that
attendance of students would be regularly monitored and incentives would be given out every
two weeks, on the last school day of the week. We agreed that regular attendance was
essential for receiving any incentive, and that attendance printouts for the previous two weeks
of all 72 students in the grade would be posted to the school notice board. The top three
performers would receive different incentives, such as one homework pass or a treat or a
ticket to a movie of choice. In order to document the effectiveness of the intervention I
collected attendance data of each student over a one-month period prior to, and attendance
data over a one-month period immediately after the intervention. Grade point averages
(GPAs) in a given set of subjects prior and after intervention were also recorded. In addition,
I collected demographic data of the students. The data was analyzed using statistical tools
such as the t test.
Evaluation of the Intervention based on Selected Data
Demographic details, attendance data and grade point averages are shown in the Excel file. A
total of 72 students were served by the intervention program. They consisted of 27 females
and 44 males. The class had 13 African-American students, four Asian students, six Hispanic
students, and the rest 48 white students. Out of all the students, eight were identified to
belong to an economically disadvantaged background.
The attendance records of the students were perused before the intervention and for
each student the number of days of attendance over a period of 30 school days were noted.
The average attendance of all the students before intervention was calculated to be 24.1 with
a standard deviation of 2.1. The average attendance of all the students after intervention was
calculated to be 25.6 with a standard deviation of 1.7. The average attendance, therefore, was
found to have increased by a small result after the intervention. Since standard deviation is a
measure of variation in data, it was also noted that there was less variation in attendance after
the intervention (Brase & Brase, 2012, p. 612). The mean GPA for all students was calculated
to be 2.99 prior to the intervention with a standard deviation of 0.15, while the mean GPA
after intervention was calculated to be 3.29 with a standard deviation of 0.16. Therefore, it
was observed that there was a notable increase in mean GPA of the class, although the spread
of GPAs increased marginally.
In order to determine whether the increase in attendance and GPA was significant,
separate t tests were performed. Both tests were performed at the 95% confidence level. For
the first paired samples t test involving attendance, the null hypothesis was that there was no
increase in average attendance before and after the intervention. The test result was found to
be significant (p < .001), therefore, it was concluded that the intervention had a significant effect on attendance on average. For the second paired samples t test the null hypothesis was 4 SCHOOL COUNSELING that there was no increase in average GPA before and after the intervention. The test result was significant (p < 0.001), therefore, it was concluded that the intervention had a significant effect in terms of GPA obtained. Therefore, the intervention program was found to have effectively improved education achievements of the class based on evidence. At the end of the program some of the students were selected randomly and they were briefly interviewed as to their opinion of the intervention. They indicated that most of the students perceived the program to be beneficial for them, they had participated enthusiastically in the incentives scheme, and they looked forward to discussing their attendance and grade related issues during the individual discussion sessions. Therefore, it may be concluded that the general perception of the students was positive and that the intervention program proved beneficial for them. 5 6 SCHOOL COUNSELING References Brase, C. H. and Brase, C. P. (2012). Understandable Statistics: Concepts and Methods, 10th Ed. Massachusetts: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. Dodson, T. (2009). Advocacy and impact: A comparison of administrators' perceptions of the high school counselor role. Professional School Counseling, 12(6), 480487. Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach, D. B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., & Horner, R. (2016). Relationship between school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports and academic, attendance, and behavior outcomes in high schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(1), 41-51. Gysbers, N. C. (2013). Career-ready students: A goal of comprehensive school counseling programs. The Career Development Quarterly, 61(3), 283-288. ... Purchase answer to see full attachment
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