Draft Research Proposal

I have to write a draft of my research proposal on the water conflict in the countries of Jordan and Yemen. It should be no longer than 10 pages. I have started some of it, although I am having difficulty coming up with a thesis. here is the format of the proposal: I will upload the references.Introduction The research problem (existing research on the problem, deficiencies in the literature, relevance of study for audiences) The purpose or study aim of the project and reasons or rationale for a mixed methods study The research questions and hypotheses (quantitative questions or hypotheses, qualitative questions, mixed methods questions) Philosophical foundations for using mixed methods research Literature review (optional review quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies) Methods A definition of mixed methods researchThe type of design used and its definition Challenges in using this design and how they will be addressed Examples of use of the type of design Reference and inclusion of a diagram of procedures Quantitative data collection Quantitative data analysis Qualitative data collection Qualitative data analysis Mixed methods data analysis procedures Validity approaches in both quantitative and qualitative research Researcher’s resources and skills to conduct mixed methods research
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Introduction
Considering the relevance that water plays in our society, it is easy to understand that it is a
universal necessity and a necessary resource for survival. In this sense, water is essential to be
able of producing and processing food and several examples can be found throughout the history
where great famines have been associated with especially dry years. Additionally, water is used
in industrial, household and community environments.
Furthermore, and as the population and economy keep growing the water demand
increases. Considering it is a limited resource, though, this results in a significant threat to
biodiversity. Thus, challenges such as pollution, climate change, and inefficient water use further
aggravate the problem of accessibility to clean water supplies and decrease water security.
Taking the above into account, the management and availability of clean water is a global
problem. It has been an ongoing human-environmental issue due to society failing to meet basic
human and environmental needs and ineffective regulations.
Jordan and Yemen are two of the most water-deprived countries in the world and
both lack effective water management practices. Studies have found that there is a power
imbalance between stakeholders in terms of support or opposition of water demand management
(WDM) plans for both countries. It is shown that stakeholders that hold more power oppose
changes to the plan and groups seeking change have less power (Allan et al, 2012).
In addition, both countries have a weak government, making it difficult to address water
issues. However, Yemen and Jordan have developed short and long-term solutions to their water
crisis, including shifting their agriculture practices, changing their water prices, urban water
sector restructuring and building community partnerships (McPhail, Ueda & Ward, 2000; Denny
et al, 2008).
The research enlightens on the methodologies applied by the two nations and methods that
could allow them to improve their water management activities in the years to come. (what
methodologies can be used?) thesis….?
The goals of my research is to..
2
purpose of this study is to analyze the water crisis in Jordan and Yemen and the role
stakeholders, NGO’s and the government have on governing safe water standards. Special focus
is placed on the review of case studies on politics, agriculture, human attitudes, customs, as well
as published papers related to limitations in water supply stability and the importance of public
engagement in ensuring a high-water security. In addition, policies related to funding safe water
supply and water resource management, and sustainable are revised.
Background on the water crisis of Yemen
3
This paper studies the water management practices and challenges in the countries of
Jordan and Yemen. It is important to note that both countries face water scarcity and have a
continuous high population growth rate. In addition, the dry climate greatly affects their surface
water and agriculture practices. Given these factors, it causes the countries to rely on
groundwater as the main supply for agriculture and domestic use.
Setting
The research is carried out in Sana’a, Yemen and Amman, Jordan. These two cities were chosen
as the interest areas of research, because they are one of the driest and water scarce areas in the
Middle East. Amman, Jordan receives an annual rainfall of 350mm with the average temperature
of 16.6°C (en-climtae-data.org). Sana’a, Yemen’s average annual rainfall is 265mm and an
average temperature of 16.2°C (en-climate-data.org). Both countries have very warm and dry
summer months, thus resulting in no rainfall. Amman, Jordan receives the most rainfall in
January and Sana’a, Yemen in August. However, the city of Sana’a is a BWk climate according
to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification (en-climate-data.org). BWk, meaning the country is
so dry, it will not support agriculture in this area.
Mixed Methods Research
The research is analyzed using the mixed methods approach. Interviews and observations
are conducted amongst fifty farmers and homeowners from each city. The interviews and
questionnaires were conducted in Arabic, due to it being the primary language of both countries.
The demographics measured for homeowners are: household income, age (21-60), gender,
marital status, occupation and household size. The following questions are asked to homeowners:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Do you think the quality of your drinking water is safe?
What is the primary water supply used in your home?
Do you use a secondary water supply source (i.e. bottled water)?
Do you have effective plumbing and filtration system?
How often and at what rate do you pay for water services?
Do you have a reliable storage space for your water, if so where?
What domestic purposes is the water used for and how often?
Next farming practices were observed, and farmers were interviewed. The demographics
measured for farmers are: age, gender and farm size (hectares). The farmers interviewed were
chosen using the stratified sampling method as well. The following questions are asked:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
How does groundwater affect your crop growth in comparison to surface water?
How can your irrigation practices be improved?
Do you receive financial and technical assistance when needed?
Is your groundwater treated, if so what method of water treatment is used?
What type of threats affect the groundwater and your farming methods?
How often do you pump for groundwater?
Has the use of groundwater changed the way your crops have been produced?
4
The low and high averages of financial cost relating to water services were collected from the
quotes provided from the interview. In addition, the low and high average amount of financial
assistance farmers receive. Field sampling was used to measure the pH levels, conductivity
turbidity, temperature (in Fahrenheit) and the total volume of groundwater (in gallons) used for
irrigation from water wells. The amount of time it takes for farmers to collect groundwater from
the wells was conducted by direct observation.
Secondary data was collected and analyzed from published, peer-reviewed journals. This
includes the influence of stakeholder, NGO participation and political control in the water
management practices of Jordan and Yemen. This includes water policies, the support and
opposition of water demand practices and power relations of both countries.
5
References
Climate-Data.org. (2015, August 09). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://en.climatedata.org/location/3171/
Climate-Data.org (2015, August 09). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://en.climatedata.org/location/6326/
Allan, T., Aulaqi, N., Jabarin, A., Laamranis, H., & Zeitoun, M. (2012). Water demand
management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests. The Geographical
Journal, 178 (1), 54-66.
McPhail, A., Ueda, S., & Ward, C. (2000). Water Resources Management in Yemen.
Contribution to the CDR Yemen, 1-40.
Denny, E., Donnelly, K., McKay, R., Ponte G., & Uetake T. (2008). Sustainable Water
Strategies for Jordan. International Economic Development Program Gerald R. Ford
School of Public Policy University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1-27.

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