English Composition II (also known as Research/Argumentative Writing)

This course emphasizes the use of writing essays and a research paper (also known as an argumentative paper), along with library research and documentation techniques. This course is meant to improve your writing and critical thinking skills for college and the workplace.APA format
Check out and read the Internet Resources for Unit 1 from COURSE MATERIALS.Complete I:1.List 5 topics you might consider writing about with a sentence or two about what your thesis statement might be for each topic. To generate topics, you may use journal writing, freewriting, listing, or clustering to generate topics. Review Chapter 3 in your textbook.2.Take 2 of the topics from the list and write 2 paragraphs about what you already know about the topic and why you considered it as a research paper.3.Using the SQ3R method, read the paper, “Water Woes in Walkerton,” from Chapter 2, pages 26-29 of your textbook. Make a formal outline of the paper and copy it into the space provided.Complete II:A. Past Tense – In the space provided, re-write these sentences in the past tense to make them correct4.She had not spoke to the teacher yet.5.Architects are studying how the college environment affects students.6. Lots of natural daylight also helps when studying.7.I didn’t believe what she said.8.The problems cause by gambling have gotten worse.9.I use to like to go hiking.10.She opens her door and sets down her groceries.11Every summer I take a trip to Nashville.12.His drumming show receives a standing ovation at the State Fair.13.It takes courage to admit it when you make a mistake.14. B. Re-write the following paragraph in the space provided and put in the proper pronouns.Journal Entry:Nora Johnson is a Habitat for Humanity volunteer. ___ helped in the building of three houses. ___ job consisted of nailing trim work and painting window frames. ___ suggested that Valerie and Marla join ___ on one of the projects. ___ both decided it was a good idea, and volunteered too. ___ all believe that Habitat for Humanity is making a difference in ___ community. Nora encouraged a friend of ___ to join as well. Now ___ all volunteer. ___ are one big happy Habitat for Humanity family!15. Start a Journal for your writing. For your first entry, summarize the process you used to come up with the 5 topics you might write about. Comment on which ones may be the best fit for you to write about and why.
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Bethel University
Prof. Marcia Dickerson
English II | Composition
Argumentative Writing
Argumentative Writing Information Sheet
In its simplest form, the classical argument has five main parts:
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The introduction, which warms up the audience, establishes goodwill and rapport
with the readers, and announces the general theme or thesis of the argument.
?
The narration, which summarizes relevant background material, provides any information the
audience needs to know about the environment and circumstances that produce the argument,
and set up the stakes?what?s at risk in this question.
?
The confirmation, which lays out in a logical order (usually strongest to weakest or most obvious
to most subtle) the claims that support the thesis, providing evidence for each claim.
?
The concession and refutation, which looks at opposing viewpoints to the writer?s claims,
anticipating objections from the audience, and allowing as much of the opposing viewpoints as
possible without weakening the thesis.
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The summation, which provides a strong conclusion, amplifying the force of the argument, and
showing the readers that this solution is the best at meeting the circumstances.
Argumentative writing involves one of three types of appeals:
?
?
?
Logos ? appeals to logic
Ethos ? appeals to ethics
Pathos ? appeals to emotions
Vocabulary ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Proposition: T or F in an argument, but not alone. Can be a premise or conclusion. Is not equal to
a sentence.
Premise: Proposition used as evidence in an argument.
Conclusion: Proposition used as a thesis in an argument.
Argument: A group of propositions of which one is claimed to follow from the others.
Induction: A process through which the premises provide some basis for the conclusion.
Deduction: A process through which the premises provide conclusive proof for the conclusion.
Argument Indicators:
?
?
?
?
should
must
ought
necessarily
Premise Indicators:
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
since
because
for
as
inasmuch as
for the reason that
first …
Conclusion Indicators:
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
therefore
hence
thus
so
consequently
it follows that
one may infer
one may conclude
1
Bethel University
Prof. Marcia Dickerson
English II | Composition
Argumentative Writing
When dealing with persuasive writing, it will be helpful for you to outline the argument by premises and
conclusions. It is easy to spot logical error by looking at the structure of the argument.
The 7 Cs of Argumentative Writing: Converse, Convey, Consider, Concentrate, Concretize, Convince, &
Conclude (see ?7 Cs of Argumentation? Handout)
Logic ?
Logic is a formal system of analysis that helps writers invent,
demonstrate, and prove arguments. It works by testing
propositions against one another to determine their accuracy.
The most famous logical sequence, called the syllogism, was
developed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle. His most
famous syllogism is:
Premise 1: All men are mortal.
Premise 2: Socrates is a man.
Conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
Logical Fallacies Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Fallacies can be
either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that
supports their claim. Avoid these common fallacies in your own arguments and watch for them in the
arguments of others.
Fallacies fall into two major categories:
Fallacies of Relevance
— Premises are irrelevant to the conclusion.
Fallacies of Ambiguity
— Ambiguous, changeable wording in the propositions
Essay Format: “Power Offense” There are several ways to format an argumentative essay; however, below is what I expect your essay to
follow.
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Introduction
Thesis as the last line of the Introduction
Pro #1
Pro #2
Con #1
Con #2
Pro #3 (save the best for last)
Conclusion
-2
ENG102 | UNIT I – INTERNET RESOURCES
Please explore the following list of internet-based resources, which will be useful to you in Unit 1:
?
Purdue Owl
This is a very useful site that is a wonderful go-to resource for any aspect and stage of the writing
process. Visit the site’s homepage, and explore all of the useful tools this site has to offer,
including exercises in brainstorming, outlining, and grammar.
Website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
For this unit, I recommend visiting the following pages on the Purdue Owl site:
Choosing a Topic: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/658/03/
Where do I Begin: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/658/05/
Prewriting: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/673/01/
Prewriting Questions: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/673/02/
How to Outline: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/544/02/
Reverse Outlines: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/689/01/
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Dartmouth Writing Center
This blog post will help you expand your thinking about coming up with a topic for your
research paper.
Website: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~writing/materials/student/ac_paper/topic.shtml
?
Poets & Writers Magazine
This is a very handy resource for folks who take writing a little more seriously.
For this unit, watch the following video — a lighthearted approach with some useful reminders
of how to keep creative ideas flowing:
Website: http://www.pw.org/content/29_ways_to_stay_creative
© M. Dickerson, 04.2015
Complete
Rubric
?A? 75-68
?B? 67-60
?C? 59-53
?D? 52-45
?F? 44-0
Articulates
Subject
Matter
Competency
Shows serious
contemplation
of readings
Indicates reading
was completed
Relies solely on
Read Section
Addresses some of
the questions?
implications
Addresses
questions without
discussing
implications
Suggests reading
assignment was
scanned, but not
read carefully
Gives little
indication that the
reading
assignment was
completed
60%
Source Use
and APA
Format
15%
Contains
original
thought that
demonstrates
superior
understanding
Meets or
exceeds
requirement
for source
count, includes
external
research
Nearly flawless
APA format
Meets requirement
for source count
Meets requirement
for source count
Minimal APA
format flaws
Several APA
format flaws
Very good
integration of
research sources
Average
integration of
sources
Contains minor
errors that do not
diminish meaning
Contains several
proofing errors
Superficially
addresses
questions
Sources used, but
minimum
requirements not
met
Answers vaguely
relevant to
questions
Sources not used
Significant APA
format errors
Poor adherence to
APA guidelines
Source
integration
validates
writer?s points
Quality of
Writing
25%
Clear,
articulate, and
persuasive
Correct
grammar,
punctuation,
and spelling
Meets or
exceeds
minimum word
count
requirements
Timing
10 pts per
day
deduction
Submitted on
time
Assignment is
disorganized and
hard to follow
Minor mechanical/
document errors
Contains
mechanical/
document errors
Meets or exceeds
minimum word
count requirements
Meets minimum
word count
requirements
Fails to meet word
count requirements
Submitted on time
Submitted on time
Submitted on time
2
Multiple grammar
and punctuation
errors
Contains multiple
errors
Answer very
difficult to read and
understand
Fails to meet word
count requirements
Not submitted by
the deadline.
1
English Composition
Name
Institution
Instructor
Course
Date
2
I was born in Knoxville, TN. I am a Christian and very committed to serving the Lord. I
am currently a mother of one handsome son, and I have also raised many other children within
my community. I attended National College and successfully graduated as a Medical Office
Specialist. I currently run my own cleaning service, which I named Anointed Cleaning Service.
Also, I have worked with many children and successfully completed Childcare Development at
the Area Vocational Technical School in Nashville, TN. I have also worked with Kentucky and
Tennessee mini builders at the Pentecostal Assembly of the World. I am also a Sunday school
teacher for children at my church.
One particular element that I have learned about myself as a writer in English 101 is that
I am a good public speaker and that I possess good public speaking skills. However, I am hoping
to improve my public speaking skills in this class. Also, I want to improve my written
communication skills and problem-solving skills, for instance, conflict-solving skills to enable
me to work with young kids who are aspiring or current gang members.
G
O
I
N
S
,
Y
V
O
N
N
E
8
5
8
4
B
U
? Literacy is not a luxury, it is a right and a
responsibility. If our world is to meet the challenges
of the twenty-first century, we must harness the
energy and creativity of all our citizens.?
?Bill Clinton
2
Part 1 : P ro ces s
wavebreakmedia ltd, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
WRITE
part
1
G
O
I
N
S
,
Understanding
the ReadingWriting
Connection
Y
V
O
N
N
When you write, you are sending a message into the
E
world. But here?s the thing: before you could write, you
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
1
Learning Outcomes
needed to read. And your writing needs a reader, if it is to
be something more than static words on a page or a screen.
Whether it?s a poem or a novel, a tweet or an essay, a blog
8
or a lab report, reading and writing work symbiotically?in
a close relationship where one depends on the other. 5
In your college work (and even beyond), you?ll 8
do plenty
of reading and writing, and COMP: Write aims to help
4 you improve both of these abilities in its attention to the writing process,
B
its presentation of student and professional essays, its instruction in
U its focus on
different forms of writing, its attention to research, and
grammar. However, this first chapter looks directly at the readingwriting connection so that you can begin to strengthen those ties in
your own work.
Now more than ever, reading and writing involve not only words
but also visual images. For that reason, this chapter also asks you to
pull visuals into view as part of the reading-writing connection.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Use the SQ3R reading strategy.
Read actively.
Respond to a text.
Summarize a text.
Effectively analyze images.
Think critically through writing.
C h a p t e r 1 : U n d e r s ta n d i n g t h e R e a d i n g – W r i t i n g C on n e c t io n
3
Use the SQ3R
reading strategy.
Question
Survey
The first step in SQ3R is to preview the material. Check
for clues to each part of the rhetorical situation:
Rhetorical Situation
Sender
(Creator)
Message
(Subject Purpose)
Medium
(Form)
Receiver
(Audience)
Context
(Environment)
Read about the author. Then read the title and the
opening and closing paragraphs to get a sense of the
main points. Glance at all other pages, noting headings, topic sentences in paragraphs, boldface type, illustrations, charts, maps, and other cues to the content and organization.
Benefits: Surveying helps you (1) focus on the writer?s message, (2) identify its organization, and (3)
anticipate how the text will develop.
4
Part 1 : P ro ces s
¦ Read any questions that accompany the
reading. Look at the end of the reading or in
a study guide.
¦ Turn headings into questions. If a subhead
says, ?The Study,? ask, ?How was the study
conducted??
¦ Imagine test questions for major points. If
G the reading draws conclusions about self-conO trol, ask, ?What conclusions does the author
draw about self-control??
I

S
,
Ask the journalist?s questions: Ask who,
what, where, when, why, and how? Whose attitudes are changing? What are their attitudes?
Where is the change strongest? When is it
occurring? Why is it happening? How?
Y
VBenefits: Asking questions keeps you actively
thinking about what you are reading and helps you
Oabsorb information.
N
N
Read
E you encounter facts and ideas, ask these questions:
As
What does this mean? How do the ideas relate to each
other and to what I know? What?s coming next?
8 Keep track of your answers by taking notes, annotating the text, mapping, or outlining. (See pages 5?7
5 more on these active-reading techniques.) Read
for
8
difficult
parts slowly; reread them if necessary. Look
up
4 unfamiliar words or ideas, and use your senses to
imagine the events, people, places, or things you are
B
U
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Obviously, reading a novel, a textbook, and a Web
page are all different activities. Nevertheless, all college reading assignments can be approached systematically, especially when your goal is to absorb and
engage the text. One strategy for critical reading,
especially of information-rich texts, is called SQ3R:
Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review. Here is
how SQ3R works.
Falconia, 2011 / Used under license from Shutterstock.com
1
As you survey, begin to ask questions that you hope to
answer as you read.
Benefits: Engaging actively with the text in this way
will draw you deeper into the world of the writing.
You?ll trigger memories and make surprising connections.
Benefits: Research shows that reviewing within 24
hours helps considerably to move information from
your short-term memory to your long-term memory. You will also improve your memory if you create
a network of associations with the information you
want to remember, if you link the memory to two
or more senses, or if you reorganize the material
while still retaining the substance with accuracy.
Recite
After finishing a page, section, or chapter, recite the
key points aloud. Answering Who? What? When?
Where? Why? and How? questions is a quick way of
testing yourself on how well you understood what youG
read. You can also recite the key points by listing themO
or writing a summary (see pages 8?9).
I
Benefits: Reciting tests your comprehension, drivesN
the material deeper into your long-term memory,S
and helps you connect the content with what you
,
already know.
Review
Y
As soon as you finish reading the material, double-V
check the questions you posed in the ?question? stageO
of SQ3R. Can you answer them? Glance over any notesN
you made as well. But don?t stop there if the reading is
N
especially important. You will remember the material
much better by spacing out your reviews; spend a fewE
minutes reviewing each text over the next few days.
Consider the following helpful memory techniques:
¦ Visualize the concepts in concrete ways.
Example: If a text discusses a study about
self-control, imagine a television panel discussing the topic.
¦ Draw diagrams or develop clusters.
Example: See the cluster on page 7.
¦ Put the material in your own words.
Example: See the summary on page 9.
¦ Teach it to someone.
Example: For a study about self-control,
explain the main points to a friend or relative?in person, on the phone, or by e-mail.
8
5
8
4
B
U
Read actively.
2
Truly active reading is a kind of mental dialogue with
the writer. Use these strategies to read actively:
¦ Pace yourself. Read in stretches of thirty to
forty-five minutes, followed by short breaks.
¦ Anticipate. When you break, think about
what is coming next and why.
¦ Read difficult parts aloud. Or take turns
reading aloud with a partner.
¦ Take thoughtful notes. Find a note-taking system that works for you. (See pages
347?348). This is especially true for research
projects.
¦ Annotate the text. Mark up the text (if you
own it) or a photocopy. Underline or highlight
key points. Write a ??? beside puzzling parts.
Write key words in the margin and add personal observations.
Read, annotate, and respond to a text.
The following article first appeared in June 2, 2010, in a
monthly column in the Fast Company newsletter. The
author, Dan Heath, is also coauthor (with his brother)
of the best-selling business books Made to Stick and
Switch. He is currently a consultant to the Policy Programs at the Aspen Institute. Read the following article, using SQ3R and active-reading strategies.
¦ Use acronyms or rhymes.
Example: ?i before e except after c.?
C h a p t e r 1 : U n d e r s ta n d i n g t h e R e a d i n g – W r i t i n g C on n e c t io n
5
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
reading about. Imagine talking with the writer. Express agreement, lodge complaints, ask for proof?and
imagine the writer?s response or look for it in the text.
1
2
3
You hear something a lot about change: People
won?t change because they?re too lazy. Well, I?m here
to stick up for the lazy people. In fact, I want to argue
that what looks like laziness is actually exhaustion.
The proof comes from a psychology study that is absolutely fascinating.
The Study
So picture this: Students come into a lab. It smells
amazing?someone has just baked chocolate-chip
cookies. On a table in front of them, there are two
bowls. One has the fresh-baked cookies. The other has
a bunch of radishes. Some of the students are asked to
eat some cookies but no radishes. Others are told to eat
radishes but no cookies, and while they sit there, nibbling on rabbit food, the researchers leave the room?
which is intended to tempt them and is frankly kind
of sadistic. But in the study none of the radish-eaters
slipped?they showed admirable self-control. And
meanwhile, it probably goes without saying that the
people gorging on cookies didn?t experience much
temptation.
Then, the two groups are asked to do a second,
seemingly unrelated task?basically a kind of logic
puzzle where they have to trace out a complicated
geometric pattern without raising their pencil. Unbeknownst to them, the puzzle can?t be solved. The scientists are curious how long they?ll persist at a difficult task. So the cookie-eaters try again and again, for
an average of 19 minutes, before they give up. But the
radish-eaters?they only last an average of 8 minutes.
What gives?
6
Part 1 : P ro ces s
8
5
8
4
B
U
4
5
6
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. …
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