Essay Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change

– Choose a health topic and create an
intervention to address that issue. In your outline essay you should identify
the health issue, the target audience, describe the intervention, and any
expected outcomes. The foundation of the intervention must be based on one of
the following theories Health Belief Model, Ecological Model, or Transtheoretical
Model and Stages of Change.- Also I will provide an example of that and the example is about HIV (don’t copy or take the same example)
___ecological_model_.pptx

_health_belief_model_.ppt

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Essay Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

_health_belief_model__cont_d.pptx

_transactional_model_.ppt

example__hiv_.docx

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Health Science:
Human and Social
Dimension
Dr. M. L. Holt
Lecture Three
Morgan State University
Let’s Review
Ecological Model
The microsystem’s setting is the direct
environment we have in our lives.
The mesosytem involves the relationships between the
microsystems in one’s life
The exosystem is the setting in which there is a link between
the context where in the person does not have any active role,
and the context where in is actively participating.
The macrosystem setting is the actual culture of an
individual.
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological framework
cont.
Ecological Model
Social Exclusion
Social Exclusion
A dynamic, multidimensional process driven by unequal power
relationships
Exclusion process operates along four main dimensions
Economic
2. Political
3. Social
4. Cultural
1.
? At different levels including individual, household, group, community,
country and global regional levels.
http://www.who.int/social_determinants/knowledge_networks/final_reports/sekn_final%20report_042008.pdf?ua=1
Psychological Health
Psychology
The study of the thinking or mental (cognitive) process that
influence human behavior
Involves the ability to deal effectively with psychological
challenges in life
The qualities of ones psychological health often affects the
other components of health such as social, spiritual, and
physical health
Physiology
The study of body functions and psychology
Self Esteem
A key component of personality that influences an individuals
thoughts, actions, and feelings
High Self Esteem
A high degree of independence
Are satisfied with themselves
Accept challenges and work well with others
Low Self Esteem
Have difficulty making decisions
Resist changing their behavior
Resent any form of criticism, even if it is constructive
Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale
Question
1.
On the whole, I am satisfied with myself
2. * At times, I think I am not good at all
3. I feel like I have a number of good qualities
4. I am able to do thinks as well as most other
people
5. * I feel I do not have much to be proud of
6. * I certainly feel useless at times
7. I feel that I’m a person of worth, at least on
a equal plane with others
8. * I wish I could have more respect for myself
9. * All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a
failure
10. I take a positive attitude toward myself
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale
Scoring [Questions with * (2,5,6,8,9)]
SA = 0
A=1
D=2
SD = 3
Scoring
SA = 3
A=2
D=1
SD = 0
Score – 15-25 is the normal range. Lower than 14 in the low self esteem range
Physiological Illness
Psychosis
a severe type of mental illness characterized by disorganized thoughts
and unreal perceptions that result in strange behavior, isolation,
delusions, and hallucinations
Delusions
inaccurate or unreasonable beliefs that often result in decision making
errors
Hallucinations
false sensory perceptions that have not apparent external cause, but they
are real to the psychotic individual
Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Condition characterized by uncontrollable chronic worrying
and nervousness
Phobia
A intense or irrational fear of an object or a situation
Panic Disorder
Features panic attacks, unpredictable episodes of extreme
anxiety, and loss of emotional control
Anxiety Disorders cont.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
occur after you have gone through an extreme emotional
trauma that involved the threat of injury or death
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and
repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or
behaviors that make them feel driven to do something
(compulsions)
Impulse Control Disorders
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Characterized by short attention span and/or
hyperactivity-impulsivity that results in serious social
impairment
Problem Gambling
Mood Disorders
Major Depressive Disorder
Persistent and profound sadness, hopelessness, helplessness,
and feelings of worthlessness; lack of energy; loss of interest in
activities
Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression)
Unusual shifts in mood, energy, and physical activity levels,
and ability to carry out daily task
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Persons become depressed around mid-fall and late fall and
their depression ends in late winter and early spring
Eating Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
Severe psychological disturbance in which an individual
refuses to eat enough food to maintain a healthy weight
Bulimia Nervosa
Characterized by a craving for food that is difficult to satisfy
Binge Eating Disorder
a pattern of eating excessive amounts of food in response to
distress such as anxiety or depression
Other Disorders
Schizophrenia
People who experience extreme disorganized thought
processes, including hallucinations and delusions
Suicide
The deliberate ending of one’s own life
Questions???
CHAPTER 3
The Health Belief Model
Historical Perspectives
• Early 1952: U.S. Public Health Service hired G.
Hochbaum to study the reasons for low
participation in TB screening programs
• Geoffrey Hochbaum, along with Stephen Kegels
and Irwin Rosenstock, proposed the basic
health belief model (HBM) in the late 1950s
• Expanded in the 1980s by Becker
• Based on general principles of value
expectancy—desire to avoid sickness (value),
belief in availability of preventive tools
(expectancy)
Constructs of the HBM
Constructs of the HBM
• Perceived susceptibility: Belief of a person
regarding the possibility of acquiring a
disease or harmful state as a result of a
particular behavior
• Define population at risk (apply descriptive
epidemiology)
• Personalize risk (discussion, role play,
simulation, case study)
• Consistent with actual risk (apply analytical
epidemiology)
Constructs of the HBM (cont’d)
• Perceived severity: Belief of a person regarding
the extent of harm that can result from the
acquired disease or harmful state as a result of a
particular behavior
– Specify consequences of the risk and the
condition (lecture, discussion, self-reflection,
case study, case narration, video presentation)
© photos.com
Constructs of the HBM (cont’d)
• Perceived benefits: Belief of a person
regarding the usefulness of the methods
suggested for reducing risk or seriousness of
the disease or harmful state resulting from a
particular behavior
– Define action to take (clear steps, specific
demonstration, re-demonstration)
– Clarify the positive effects to be expected
(discussion, lecture, self-reading, video
presentation, computer-aided presentation)
Constructs of the HBM (cont’d)
• Perceived barriers: Belief of a person
regarding actual and imagined costs of
performing the new behavior
• Reassurance (one-on-one counseling, case
study, discussion, active listening)
• Correction of misinformation (lecture, video
presentation, role play)
• Incentives (tangible and intangible aids,
verbal encouragement, case accounts)
• Assistance (providing services,
transportation)
Constructs of the HBM (cont’d)
• Cues to action: Precipitating force that
makes the person feel the need to take
action
– Provide how-to information (lecture,
demonstration, re-demonstration, role play)
– Employ reminder system (buddy system, log,
diary, Post-it notes)
Constructs of the HBM (cont’d)
• Self-efficacy: Belief or confidence to
perform a behavior
– Provide training in small steps
(demonstration, re-demonstration)
– Progressive goal setting (self-reflection, diary)
– Verbal reinforcement (one-on-one
counseling)
– Reduce anxiety (stress management
techniques)
Health Science:
Human and Social
Dimension
Dr. M. L. Holt
Lecture Five
Morgan State University
S
Health Belief Model
S Contains several primary constructs that predict why
people will take action to prevent for, screen for, or to
control illness conditions; these include
S Susceptibility
S Seriousness
S Benefits and barriers to behaviors
S Cues to action
S Self efficacy
Health Belief Model cont.
CHAPTER 6
Theories of Stress and Coping
Stress
• Stress is the response of
– Body
– Mind
– Behaviors
• As a result of
– Encountering environmental events (stressors)
– Interpreting these events
– Making judgments about controlling or
influencing these events
Let’s Review
Transactional Model
• Primary appraisal
• Am I OK or am I in trouble?
• Judgment based on past; knowledge about
oneself, about event; influence on others
• Secondary appraisal
• How much control do I have over the
threat?
Transactional Model (cont’d)
• Coping
• Application of means identified
• Reappraisal
• Determining whether the original stressor
has been negated
Types of Coping
• Problem-focused coping
– Based on one’s capability to think and alter
the environmental event or situation
• Emotion-focused coping
– Based on focusing inward on altering the way
one thinks or feels about a situation or an
event
Problem-Focused Coping
• Examples of this strategy at the thought
process level include:
– Utilization of problem-solving skills
– Interpersonal conflict resolution
– Advice seeking
– Time management
– Goal setting
– Gathering information about what is causing
one stress
Problem-Focused Coping (cont’d)
• Examples of this strategy at the behavioral
or action level include activities such as:
– Joining a smoking cessation program
– Compliance with a prescribed medical
treatment
– Adherence to a diabetic diet plan
– Scheduling and prioritizing tasks for
managing time
Emotion-Focused Coping
• Examples of this strategy at the thought
process level include:
– Denying the existence of the stressful
situation
– Freely expressing emotions
– Avoiding the stressful situation
– Making social comparisons
– Minimization or looking at the bright side of
things
Emotion-Focused Coping (cont’d)
• Examples of this strategy at the behavioral
or action level include:
– Seeking social support
– Use of exercise
– Relaxation
– Meditation
– Support groups
© Photos.com

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency

Order your essay today and save 15% with the discount code ESSAYHELP