explain the meanings of terms diversity and conflict

The supplementary for BUSN is the a1000 word essay where you need to: Explain the meanings of the terms ‘diversity’ and ‘conflict’ and their relevance in the context of the workplace and society. (GA 2)Analyse relevant theories to explain the relationship between workplace diversity and conflict and the principles of their effective management in a socially responsible manner. (GA 2, 3, 4) Demonstrate appropriate information gathering, collaborative teamwork and multi literacies. (GA 8)Make sure that you address all relevant issues with references that have been published from 2013 onwards. Older sources will not be counted. Your essay needs to have a minimum of 8 academic references. Please submit on turnitin – the site is in your archived list and a turnitin link has been set up. As this is a supplementary Rita and I cannot provide you with any further detail but to say as a starting point go back and read what diversity and conflict is – understand the terms then analyse using relevant theories.


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BUSN 304: Working with
Diversity and Conflict
An Introduction and
Conceptual Framework
– Workshop 1
Rita D’Arcy
4 August 2017
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Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Workshop Details
3 hours over a 12 week period
Friday 12 noon – 3pm
You should anticipate undertaking 150 hours of
study for this unit, including class attendance,
readings and assignment preparation.
Note: Change of Workshop Date
No class on Friday 15 September. Replaced with
Friday 29 September (during Vacation Week).
Face to Face Consultation Times:
Friday 11:30am-12noon & 3pm-3:30pm
Level 6, 8-20 Napier St
Please email me regarding consultation
2 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Lecturer Details
Rita D’Arcy (FCPHR) – Rita.DArcy@acu.edu.au
Founder and Principal Consultant – Particularly People
Industry Background
? Over 20 years industry experience within local and global organisations across private, listed, NFP and Government organisations
and consulting for the prior nine years
? Member of a number of professional associations including a proud Fellow Certified Practitioner AHRI, Fellow Chartered Member
CIPD, Graduate Member AICD, Member AIM, Member Women on Board and Member AITD.
? Professional advisory roles include:
? AHRI – State Councillor & VP Membership NSW and Certification Program Facilitator
? Committee for MB-009 Human Resources Management Standards through Standards Australia and on the working
group for HR competencies of the ISO/TC 260 HRM
? PWC Skills for Australia Project Working Group on Emotional Intelligence in Business Studies
? Committee member of the Business Services Industry Reference Committee for the Australian Industry Skills Committee
? Master of Leadership (Major in Change Management)
? Master of Organisational Development and Strategic Human Resources Management
? Bachelor of Business (Major in Human Resources and Industrial Relations Law, Sub-Major, Law)
? Graduate Diploma, Company Directors Program – Australian Institute of Company Directors
? Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (TAE40110) – TAFE
? Diploma in Personnel Management – TAFE
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Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Unit Outline
4 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Unit Topics
Unit focuses on the relationship between diversity and conflict and on the positive
outcomes associated with their effective management
Key theories and concepts of both areas are explored as they relate to both the
workplace and the wider society.
Topics covered include:
• types of diversity,
• valuing diversity,
• the nature of conflict
• the principles, strategies and benefits associated with the effective management
of both.
The unit aims to develop knowledge and awareness of how the appropriate
management of conflict and the adoption of exemplary diversity management practices
act as a form of corporate social responsibility in an increasingly globalised world.
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Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Due date

Week 4
Friday 5 pm
1,000 words
Critical Analysis
Week 8
Friday 5 pm
1,500 words
Week 12
Friday 5 pm
2,000 words
Assessment source on LEO:
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Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Introduction – What makes a successful
7 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
How to become a good manager?
A good manager needs to combine:
• like scholars, managers must adopt an ethical learned approach to diversity,
always aiming to “do the right thing”;
• like farmers, they must respect their employees’ unique characteristics; and
• like artisans, they must introduce creative solutions as they strive for
excellence in diversity management.
These qualities, combined with the last principle
• ambition to utilize diversity to promote business goals and profitability for the
lay the groundwork for sound management. These interactive qualities: vision,
ethics, respect, creativity, business goal orientation, and striving for excellence
8 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
• Difference or unlikeness. A diverse workplace includes
people from different races, ethnicities, age groups and
sexes who have dissimilar cultural beliefs and values.
Diversity management
• A process of managing employees’ differences and
similarities so that individuals can achieve maximum
personal growth and can contribute positively to
organisational goals.
9 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Approaches to Diversity Management
Three main levels:
• individual
• group
• organisational.
Four types of diversity organisations
have been identified:
• negative
• minimalist
• compliant
• comprehensive and proactive.
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Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Four major philosophical principles to Diversity
the differences and similarities of individuals need to be managed
the identification of its dimensions needs to be addressed and applied
at each level of an organisation diversity,
management must involve managing an all-inclusive mixture of
differences and similarities involving every person in the workplace,
management needs to involve the process of ‘inclusion’ in the process
of developing a new workplace culture.
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Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Phenomena associated with Diversity
1. Stereotyping
Categorising people using
generalisations that are often based on
2. Prejudice
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Refers to people’s attitudes towards
members of other groups that are based
on faulty, incorrect and invalid
Office | Faculty | Department
Where have you
seen this play out?
Law and Business
Workforce Diversity
• is not about differences between people that make them
unique; it is about being susceptible to negative
employment consequences as a result of one’s belonging
to certain social categories or groups.
What are some of those negative
employment consequences?
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Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Types of Diversity
• narrow, category-based definitions (e.g., gender, racial, or
ethnic differences)
• broad, category-based definitions (e.g., a long list of
categories including such variables as marital status and
• definitions based on a conceptual rule (e.g., variety of
perspectives, differences in perceptions and actions)
14 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Categories of Diversity
Diversity has been categorised in three dimensions:
• demographic (e.g. gender, ethnicity, age)
• psychological (e.g. values, beliefs, knowledge)
• organisational (e.g. occupation tenure, hierarchical level).
Researchers have differentiated diversity using:
• observable attributes (e.g. ethnic background, age, gender)
• non-observable attributes (e.g. personal values)
• functional characteristics (e.g. knowledge, skills).
15 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
The challenge of managing diversity in the
global context
Is due to:
• Today’s global economy
• Global demographic trends
• Growing demand for equal rights for disenfranchised
workers, older workers, workers with disabilities, and
sexual orientation minorities.
16 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Tensions posed by global workforce trends
• Consistently low and unbalanced birth rates and increased
longevity around the world.
• All the more-developed countries will need even larger
waves of immigrants just to sustain their current ratio of
workers to retirees.
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Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Global demographic trends
• Increased immigration and migrant workers
• More women in the workforce
• Greater economic disparity
18 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Global legislative and public policy trends
• Most democratic and some non-democratic have instituted legislation
and public policies to ban job discrimination against women and
members of minority groups to ensure fair treatment of all employees.
19 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Public Policy in Australia
Federal Level
State Level
Age Discrimination Act 2004
• Australian Capital Territory – Discrimination
Act 1991
• New South Wales – Anti-Discrimination Act
• Queensland – Anti-Discrimination Act 1991
• South Australia – Equal Opportunity Act 1984
• Tasmania – Anti-Discrimination Act 1998
• Victoria – Equal Opportunity Act 2010
• Western Australia – Equal Opportunity Act
• Northern Territory – Anti-Discrimination Act
Australian Human Rights
Commission Act 1986
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
Racial Discrimination Act 1975
Sex Discrimination Act 1984
Fair Work Act 2009
20 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
• Direct Discrimination occurs where a person is treated “less favourably” than
another person in the same or similar circumstances, on grounds that include
one or more of the above grounds.
• Indirect Discrimination occurs when an unreasonable requirement, condition
or practice is imposed and persons with an attribute associated with one of
the above grounds cannot comply with the condition or practice, whereas a
greater proportion of persons without the attribute can comply.
• Discrimination or adverse action for prohibited reasons does not have to be
calculated, intentional or even conscious.
21 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Diversity: How to define?
• The definitions of diversity, as well as the field as a whole have
been dominated by US centric research, and conclude that “the
diversity field itself is not very diverse.” (Jonsen, Maznevski, and
Schneider, 2011. p.35)
• Common categories of diversity are age, gender or race
• In the Netherlands, for example, “when you say ‘diversity’, the
Dutch ear will hear ‘ethnic difference’” (Essed & de Graaff, 2002)
22 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Diversity Iceberg
over time
Most visible
At the
core but
23 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Conceptual rule in defining diversity
• Linda Larkey (1996), one of the first to use a conceptual rule, defined
diversity as (a) differences in worldviews or subjective culture,
resulting in potential behavioral differences among cultural groups;
and (b) differences in identity among group members in relation to
other groups.
• The basic assumption is that members of a given culture are likely to
share a set of symbols, values, and norms that are at the root of their
common worldviews and behaviors (Baugh, 1983; Collier and
Thomas, 1988; Hirst, can Dick & van Knippenberg, 2009; Triandis,
24 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
A solution to a global definition of diversity
• The logical solution to the problem of finding a global definition for
diversity that can be relevant in different cultural and national
contexts is to define diversity by:
a) The process of generating distinct categories – groups with a
perceived common denominator in a specific national or cultural
context, and
b) The consequences of belonging to these groups – the potential
harmful or beneficial impact on employment and job prospects
25 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Workforce Diversity Challenge
The success management of an
increasingly diverse workforce is
amongst one of the most
important global challenges.
• The problems of managing today’s diverse workforce, however, do not
stem from the heterogeneity of the workforce itself but from the unfortunate
inability of corporate managers to fully comprehend its dynamics, divest
themselves of their personal prejudicial attitudes, and creatively unleash
the potential embedded in a multicultural workforce.
• Defining the term in such a way that will provide a common meaning across
national boundaries to enable effective communication.
26 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
• The experience of social exclusion transcends national boundaries
• Around the world, individuals and groups who “do not belong” to the
mainstream are excluded from job opportunities, information
networks, team membership, human resource investments, and the
decision making process.
27 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
The Inclusive Workplace Model
The inclusive workplace is defined as one that:
• Values and utilizes individual and intergroup differences within its
• Cooperates with, and contributes to, its surrounding community
• Alleviates the needs of disadvantaged groups in its wider
• Collaborates with individuals, groups, and organizations across
national and cultural boundaries
28 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
The Inclusion Workplace Model
• A continuum of the degree to which individuals feel a part of critical
organizational processes, such as access to information,
connectedness to coworkers, and ability to participate in and
influence the decision-making process (Mor Barak, 2000b, 2011; Mor
Barak & Cherin, 1998; Mor Barak et al., 2006)
29 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Workshop Activity
Discuss the question in small groups and present your ideas
What does diversity mean to you? What are the dimensions of
diversity? Consider your workplace and any other personal experiences
in identifying dimensions of diversity.
Identify the dimensions of diversity in your workforce and your
Do you think the similarities and/or differences in dimensions between
workforce/employees and customers affects the business? Why or why
not and how (Time 20 minutes)
Watch the video and discuss the questions below in groups:
30 |
Office | Faculty | Department
What have you learnt? What should we start and stop doing in our
workplaces (Time: 15 minutes)
Law and Business
Video aim: This video teaches the value of keeping an
open mind, focusing on common goals, and accepting
each other for who we are.
31 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Key Points
• Diversity management is about developing new and better
organisations that value difference.
• Successful management of an increasingly diverse workforce is
among the most important global challenges.
32 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Any Questions?
See you next week!
33 |
Office | Faculty | Department
BUSN 304: Working with
Diversity and Conflict
Workplace and Social
Context – Equality and
Fairness in the Workplace
– Week 2
Rita D’Arcy
11 August 2017
1 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
2 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Global progress on diversity
• How far have we come globally in valuing
3 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Diversity Legislation Around the World
The U.N.’s International Bill of Human Rights is the closest to a universally agreed upon
document regarding human and worker’s rights.
2012 – 164 countries
4 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Anti-Discrimination legislation in Australia
The Australian Parliament has passed laws that aim to protect people from certain types of discrimination in
public life and from breaches of their human rights by Commonwealth departments and agencies. They
include the:
• Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986
• Age Discrimination Act 2004
• Disability Discrimination Act 1992
• Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport
• Disability Standards for Education
• Disability (Access to Premises – Buildings) Standards
• Racial Discrimination Act 1975
• Sex Discrimination Act 1984
5 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Discrimination in employment
Discrimination in employment occurs when:
a) individuals, institutions, or governments treat people differently
because of personal characteristics, such as race, gender, or
sexual orientation rather than their ability to perform their jobs;
b) these actions have a negative impact on access to jobs,
promotions, or compensation.
6 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Unlawful discrimination in the workplace
Unlawful workplace discrimination occurs when an employer takes
adverse action against a person who is an employee or
prospective employee because of the following attributes of the
7 |
marital status
family or carer’s responsibilities
sexual orientation
political opinion
physical or mental disability
national extraction or social origin
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Lorna Jane
8 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Where an investigation finds that the employer has (or had)
discriminatory practices that are linked to adverse actions for
employees or prospective employees, the Fair Work Ombudsman
may take enforcement action.
9 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Adverse Action
Adverse action can include action that is unlawful if it is taken for a discriminatory
reason. The Fair Work Act 2009 (FW Act) describes a number of adverse actions.
Adverse action taken by an employer includes doing, threatening or organising
any of the following:
10 |
dismissing an employee
injuring an employee in their employment
altering an employee’s position to their detriment
discriminating between one employee and other employees
refusing to employ a prospective employee
discriminating against a prospective employee on the terms and conditions
in the offer of employment.
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
What is not considered unlawful discrimination?
• Treating someone differently is not necessarily unlawful
• Some different treatment such as general performance
management may not be an unlawful discrimination issue.
• In terms of the FW Act, an action is only considered adverse action
if it occurs due to one or more of the above attributes (race, sex,
age, disability, etc).
• If this is not the basis of the action, it may not be considered an act
of unlawful discrimination.
11 |
Office | Faculty | Department
Law and Business
Example 1:
Example 2:
• Sally is employed at an advertising
firm. Recently, Sally applied for a
promotion for a vacant Account
Manager position. During the
interview, Sally mentions to the
Manager that she is pregnant and
plans on taking her entitlement to
parental leave. Although Sally is
highly qualified for the job, her
Manager tells her that she did not
receive the promotion because she
would be taking her parental leave.
• Paul is a marketing employee
who made several errors on his
last project. To try and address
this, Paul has been placed on a
performance management
plan to develop his skills.
However Paul continued to
make errors while on the plan.
As such, Paul’s daily duties
have been changed while he
was undergoing further
12 |
Office | Faculty | Department
which is
lawful and
which is
Law and Business
Remedies and Penalties
Under the FW Act, there are a number of remedies and penalties for adverse
action on discriminatory grounds.
The maximum penalty for contravention of the unlawful discrimination protections
is $63,000 per contravention for a corp …
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