FIFTH SUBMISSION OF A PAPER SECTION: Call-to-Action & Conclusion So far you’ve written the first section of your paper: the introduction and the statement of background. For this assignment you will submit the next section of your paper: the “call-to-action” and the “conclusion.” These section is defined in detail below. Call-to-Action Once youve made you case for the importance of the problem you have investigated, and have taken care of the opposing view or views, now what? Any real problem needs a solution or some kind of response. This section is where you offer what you have learned is a reasonable response to the problem. So this section is essentially the part where you offer something to readers that should be done. It’s important here to be specific. If your solution is, as an example, “parents need to take greater control of their children’s use of smart phones,” what you need to do is suggest howparents are supposed to do this. It’s easy to say parents should do this, but kids, when they want something, resist parents’ demands. So what do you suggest parents do? This is of course, an example. You’ll need to decide for yourself what the best solution (or, if there is no clear solution, what the best response should be, because, after describing the problem and convincing readers there is a problem, telling readers to give up just can’t be right! Conclusion This section of the paper, a single paragraph usually, is where you not only 1) remind readers of the most important points of your own argument, but also 2) tell them why this subject you’ve written about is so important. In other words, the conclusion of a paper answers the question “so what?” Be sure you do this in your own conclusion. (Please note: it might be, with your paper, that the opposing views are not focused on the problem youve tackled but rather on the solution you propose. For instance, no one may argue that bullying is bad, but they may disagree that you call to action is a problem, say, if you propose that jail terms are the best way to solve bullying, well, surely you will have views opposed to yours. So it might be that your paper will have the Call to Action, then the Concession and Refutation, and then the Conclusion. This structure would work too.) Heads Up!: A good conclusion answers questions such as “so what?” and “who cares?” Graff & Birkenstein in They Say, I Say suggest ways to address these questions. Make sure you use their techniques in your conclusion to answer these questions for your own paper. Due Now Use a separate document (you’ll be combining the sections later in the term) submitting the call-to-action and the conclusion — aim for about an additional ONE to TWO pages. What you turn in here must contain: 1) at the top, please post your central thesis. 2) in the text, include correct in-text citations. 3) be sure to include a relevant Works Cited page at the end. If you use only one source, then your Works Cited page will have one source. So be sure to revise the citations to show the database and URL so I can look them up myself. DO NOT COPY FROM GOOGLE. ATTACH ALL WEBSITE LINKS. USE COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF PHILADELPHIA LIBRARY DATABASE. I’LL ATTACH THE LINK HERE: https://www.myccp.online/library SECOND SUBMISSION OF A PAPER SECTION: first part of the ConfirmationEffects of video game to the users (boys)Central thesis: Playing violent video games could cause various negative effects on the boys who are actively playing on it, in the way that they would become more aggressive and it is also a danger in mind and it would damage the brain. It is interesting that although there are many studies on the subject, there is still controversy, although scientists are reading the same information. Analyzing the available data, the APA considers that immediately after being exposed to violence in the media (including video games), a tendency of aggressive characteristics. They said that those who play violent video games are desensitized, and instead of caring about other people and having compassion, they become bad and even hurt people, including family members. The other, who has also seen changes in the boys who play violent video games, interpret them in another way. In my own point of view, I’d say that, unlike people who kill others in the real world, the changes in these guys are superficial and transient. They call them “minor acts of aggression”. They compare them to a little boy sticking his tongue out to another. According to Anderson and Douglas, “the interesting thing is that neither of the two scientists leaves their children to play violent video” (299). Violent video games are the order of the day. It seems that the more bloody or cruel they are, the more successful they are. They say that this violence makes young people end up doing the same things on the street, becoming increasingly “ferocious”. In my personal experience, I found out that video games really affect the mind of users especially those boys because it would create different crimes committed by those who are addictive in this kind of games. Much has been talked about this topic, and much is going to talk because it is a subject that draws much attention taking into account the amount of violent games that are generated today and a number of violent crimes that occur in the world lately. Some say that many of them are caused because the minds of young people are influenced by the violence of the games and that this moves them to take what they see on the screen to real life. There has also been a lot of talk about this because of the number of times this topic appears in TV series or movies, and of course, if the TV says it, it is true (as many people think). The researchers found in subjects who did not play violent video games, a normal delay in the Stroop test and an expected increase in areas of the brain related to emotion. On the other hand, the results of the brain images of the players of violent video games revealed at the beginning of the investigation a normal brain activity, but after 2 weeks of playing violent video games, they exhibited less activation in the cerebral areas related to emotion (Park, p. 154). In my own observation, I would say that the players of violent video games, after a week, showed a decline in activity in the areas that regulate attention and concentration. The researchers say that the brain changes unveiled in the study are similar for adolescents with sociopathic disorders, and their results support previous studies that demonstrated the negative effects of video games in the short term, which have been used in court cases by parents. and tutors to control violent video games in teenagers. I’d say that the participants who used the violent game showed more aggressiveness against their opponents in the retaliation part of the study than the participants who used the non-violent game,” the authors of the recent study noted. Violent video games were less “cooperative” than other children during play period.ReferencesAnderson, Craig A., and Douglas A. Gentile. “Violent Video Game Effects on Aggressive thoughts, feelings, physiology, and Behavior.” Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals (2014): 229.Park, Alice. How Playing Violent Video Games May Change the Brain. The Ste Cell Hope for Children. (2011): 154.THIRD SUBMISSION OF PAPER SECTION: remainder of the “Confirmation”Central thesis: Effects of video game to the users (boys)Playing violent video games has the potential to cause various negative effects on boys, a specific emphasis being on the aggression these boys exhibit. In elongated hours of play time on the violent video games, the games can cause brain damage to the kids unconsciously affecting their attention span and emotional responses.It is interesting that although there are many studies on this subject, some still ongoing, controversial findings are made. Like any other form of addiction, violent video games become an addiction over time potentially ruining a part of the human brain, especially among developing brains, which is what the young boys have. The violent video games are a threat to the behaviors of the boys the moment they become an addiction because the brain actively yearns to process and feed on the violence in the video games.Analyzing the available data, the APA considers that immediately after being exposed to violence in the media, including video games, a tendency of aggressive characteristics is exhibited. They said that those who play violent video games are desensitized, and they become bad and even hurt people, including family members. In my opinion, I would say that the violent video games cause the brain of the boys to take up certain behaviors which essentially exhibit aggression, with a sense of lack of empathy. Aggression strongly kicks in when the loss of empathy has occurred in the boys. The other, who has also seen changes in the boys who play violent video games, interpret them in another way. In my own point of view, I’d say that, unlike people who kill others in the real world, the changes in these boys are superficial and transient. They call them “minor acts of aggression”. They compare them to a little boy sticking his tongue out to another. According to Anderson and Douglas, “the interesting thing is that neither of the two scientists leaves their children to play violent video” (299).The leading played video games are violent in nature, and the violent the games, the quicker they fly off the shelves. They say that this violence makes young people end up becoming increasingly “ferocious”. In my opinion, I discovered that video games affect the mind of users because of the sense of addiction. Soon after winning a game, the boys are too entangled in experiencing the same pleasure, pushing aside the element of violence into their subconscious mind. In such cases, the brain picks up all elements of the violent games, and slowly into the lives of the boys, the behaviors in the scenes of the games are depicted in real life. Usually, the symptoms start with minor acts of aggression like throwing tantrums upon correction, to greater acts like breaking items in anger.Christopher J Ferguson says the potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists stating it as a major area of concern that will continually prompt more research in light of a number of violent games being generated today. This topic appears in television show series or motion picture, and whatever the television portrays as true, it is true. This means that the matter of aggression among boys today is raising brows. In my thought, this is un-neglect able since the aping is not just from the violent scenes of games, but to other aspects of media portrayal like dressing and other lifestyle habits. If seen true, even in my very own experience, then the same truth can be noted in matters violence among boys as a result of violent video gaming.The Stroop Test has been used in neuropsychological evaluations to measure mental vitality and flexibility since performing well requires strong attention, inhibition and self-regulation capability. The researchers found in subjects who did not play violent video games, a normal delay in the Stroop test and an expected increase in areas of the brain related to emotion. On the other hand, the results of the brain images of the players of violent video games revealed at the beginning of the investigation a normal brain activity, but after 2 weeks of playing violent video games, they exhibited less activation in the cerebral areas related to emotion (Park, p. 154). In my own observation, I would say that the players of violent video games, after a week, showed a decline in activity in the areas that regulate attention and concentration. I would say that the participants who used the violent games showed more aggressiveness against their opponents in the retaliation part of the study than the participants who used the non-violent game,” the authors of the recent study noted. Violent video gamers were less “cooperative” than other children during play period. In my observation, even while playing with other kids, boys actively involved in playing violent video games displayed some sense of anger than the usual emotion displayed by boys that did not play violent video games. I would, therefore, cite that the violent video gaming has an intense impact on the young boys by evoking feelings of aggression when interacting in real life scenarios.ReferencesAnderson, Craig A., and Douglas A. Gentile. “Violent Video Game Effects on Aggressive thoughts, feelings, physiology, and Behavior.” Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals (2014): 229.Ferguson, C. J. (2011). Video games and youth violence: A prospective analysis in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(4), 377-377-391.FOURTH SUBMISSION OF A PAPER SECTION: Concession & Refutation Concession and RefutationCentral ThesisPlaying violent video games could cause various negative effects on the boys who are actively playing on it, in the way that they would become more aggressive and it is also a danger in mind, and it would damage the brain.ConcessionAccording to Ganic, Lobel, and Engels (1), the debate on video games, especially violent ones tends to emphasize its negative effects. Most of the research that has been conducted about video games only shows the negative impact it has on those involved. No one has ever perceived the benefits of playing video games. In an attempt to balance the perspective of research on video games, Ganic, Lobel, and Engels (1), argue that video games have positive impacts from negative ones. Ideally, I find their argument to be a valid one. Everything in life ought to have its positive and negative sides. Therefore, video games are subject to the same school of thought.The three authors argue that video games may benefit the player in a variety of ways. In this instance, the impact of video games is analyzed from a social, motivational, cognitive and emotional point of view. There happen to be some real-world social benefits attributed to the activity of playing video games (Ganic, Lobel and Engels 2). Video games are therefore a significant drive to achieving enhanced mental health and well-being in adolescents and children. I agree with the notion that playing video games has a positive impact on the mental well being of children as well as adolescents. It is prudent to note that while playing, children are able to discover problem-solving techniques that allude to gaining mastery in playing the games. This enhances their cognitive abilities in various ways. Thus, video game playing impacts positively the emotional, mental, social and motivational perspectives of the life of the involved individuals.RefutationConversely, video game playing has become a popular activity in the United States if not the whole world. Ideally, Greitemeyer and Mugge (2) argue that video games can have both helpful and aggressive consequences on the individuals characters. These two aspects of an individuals character are significantly enhanced through playing video games. The authors provide evidence of their claims in their findings that point to the learning ability of individuals from the content of the video games being played (Greitemeyer and Mugge 3). Initially, violent video games were the focus of research. Only recently has a small growing body of research focused on the potential benefits of video games. Researchers now agree that video games have both negative and positive impacts. The perspective in which an individual is impacted with depending on the context of the content of the video game. I refute the part of the notion that video games affect the individual based on content. Content has less to do with the video games as much as the name of the video game is, but the motive behind playing video games is what matters most to the individual. For instance, one may play a prosocial video game that has helpful rather than violent content. However, if the motives of the individual alluded to the violence of negative actions, the individual becomes affected in a corresponding manner. Therefore, content may be twisted for the pleasure of the player, and thus the eventual learning outcome is based on the individuals inclinations or motives when playing the video game. Therefore, video games can impact an individual in a particular way only if he or she is willing to enhance their motivational, social, cognitive and emotional aspects to fit the contents of the video game.Works CitedGranic, I, A Lobel, and RC Engels. “The Benefits of Playing Video Games.” The American Psychologist. 69.1 (2014): 66-78.Greitemeyer, T, and D.O Mugge. “Video Games Do Affect Social Outcomes: a Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Violent and Prosocial Video Game Play.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 40.5 (2014): 578-589.
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