Final exam philosophy paper

35 Multiple Q’s. Please read and answer each question carefully. This final exam is worth a high percentage of the final grade so put as much effort as needed.
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Philosophy 231-301: The Big Questions
Fall 2017
Second (FINAL) Exam
Directions:

Answer each of the questions below using the ANSWER SHEET provided.

PLEASE NOTE: NO LATE ANSWER SHEETS WILL BE ACCEPTED!
1.
According to Marx and Engels, bourgeoisie society ___________ .
a.
is poor
b.
is unconcerned about efficient management
c.
exploits workers
d.
pays workers a fair wage
2.
According to Marx and Engels, how does the proletariat differ from the
bourgeoisie?
a.
The proletariat controls capital.
b.
The proletariat’s jobs depend on bourgeoisie.
c.
The bourgeoisie’s wealth is based on what the proletariat pays them.
d.
The proletariat exploit the bourgeoisie for the profit.
3.
T or F According to Marx and Engels, the need of a constantly expanding market
chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe.
4.
Marx and Engels write, “Property, in its present form, is based on the antagonism
of capital and wage-labor.” If this is so, then ____________ .
a.
the property communism seeks to abolish is that of the petty artisan and
small peasant
b
society is classless
c.
workers are rich
d.
the abolition of private property of which communists speak is the
abolition of bourgeoisie property
5.
T or F
According to Marx, all culture (freedom, art, law, family, education,
etc.,) will disappear once communism is realized.
6.
According to Marx and Engels, a just society is one in which _______ .
a.
there is a fair and equal distribution of wealth
b.
the workers get part of the surplus value and the owners the rest
1
c.
d.
socialism replaces communism
laissez-faire capitalism fuels industry and regulates business
7.
Crito argues that Socrates should escape because _________ .
a.
the law allows him that option
b.
he was condemned unjustly, and therefore has the right to break the law
c.
he would bring disgrace upon himself and his friends if he fails to take
advantage of this opportunity to escape
d.
he has not made any promises to the state
8.
Socrates lays the groundwork for his argument by stating which of the following
principles?
a.
One should always do what one’s friends advise.
b.
Immoral actions cause no harm if no one finds out about them.
c.
The preservation of life is our most important duty.
d.
Two wrongs do not make a right.
9.
Socrates argues he should obey the law because _________ .
a.
it is not right to break one’s promises, and he has promised to obey the
state
b.
his judges were right in their verdict
c.
two wrongs do make a right
d.
sometimes civil disobedience is called for
10.
T or F
In the speech that Socrates imagines the laws of Athens making, the laws
argue that social chaos would result if everyone took the law into his or her own
hands.
11.
At one point during the speech Socrates imagines the laws of Athens making, the
Laws say, “For, after having brought you into the world, nurtured and educated
you, and given you and every other citizen a share in every good we had to give,
we further give the right to every Athenian, if he does not like us when he has
come of age and has seen the ways of the city, he may go wherever else he
pleases and take his goods with him.” This argument implies that _________ .
a.
since Socrates stayed in Athens, he stayed involuntarily
b.
if you leave Athens, you must still obey her laws
c.
if one voluntarily enjoys the benefits of a state, one assumes obligations to
obey its laws
d.
Socrates was not free to leave Athens when he came of age
12.
Socrates asserts that “the really important thing is not to live, but to live well” By
this he meant ________ .
a.
he should not die, but escape
b.
quality of life is more important than quantity
2
c.
d.
life is worth it at any price
no one should choose to die, if living is a viable alternative
13.
How do you think Socrates would answer the question “What makes a society
just?”
a.
The freedom to disobey unjust laws.
b.
Nothing does, because there is no such thing as justice.
c.
The abolition of capital punishment.
d.
Obeying the laws of the state.
14.
Descartes is ___________ .
a.
an absolute skeptic
b.
a methodical skeptic
c.
a common sense skeptic
d.
an empiricist
15.
What is the second premise of the argument that begins, “If the senses have
deceived us in the past, then they may be deceiving us now,” and concludes that
“They may be deceiving us now.”?
a.
“The senses have deceived us in the past.”
b.
“We cannot be certain we are not now dreaming.”
c.
“It is possible to imagine an evil demon who distorts our sensations.”
d.
“God deceives us.”
16.
What is the point of Descartes’ evil demon argument?
a.
An evil demon actually exists.
b.
An evil demon fights God for our souls.
c.
All our beliefs about an external reality may be false because it is always
possible that an evil demon is constantly working to deceive us about what
is real.
d.
Wax melts when it gets hot.
17.
According to Descartes’ Meditation II, we can be certain ____________ .
a.
of the existence of physical objects
b.
of our own bodies
c.
that we exist as a thinking thing when we are thinking
d.
that physical objects do not exist
18.
Descartes’s doubt is like __________ .
a.
realizing that it is logically possible for a belief to be false
b.
believing that a belief is false
c.
doubting a belief is false
3
d.
someone who believes we can never know anything
19.
How does Descartes reach the conclusion that he is a “thinking thing”?
a.
The fact that we have a body and our body has a brain indicates we think.
b.
If we eliminate all beliefs about ourselves except the ones we cannot
doubt, then the only belief we are left with is that we think.
c.
If we eliminate all beliefs about ourselves based on sensations, then the
only belief we are left with is that we must have brains.
d.
God reveals it to him.
20.
According to Clifford, people have a right to believe if _________ .
a.
they believe sincerely with all their heart
b.
their belief is based on sufficient evidence
c.
what they believe turns out to be true
d.
their beliefs are purely private and no one else’s business
21.
According to Clifford, ________________ .
a.
carefully gathering and judging evidence is a moral as well as an epistemic
duty
b.
questioning beliefs is not a universal duty
c.
credulity is good for society because it promotes trust
d.
all believing rests and ought to rest on our passions and desires
22.
In which of the following situations is belief without sufficient evidence justified
according to James?
a.
When confronted with a genuine option.
b.
In most cases of scientific investigation.
c.
Whenever we feel like it.
d.
When we own ships and send them out to sea.
23.
For James, a genuine option is _________ .
a.
live and forced
b.
live, forced, and momentous
c.
live and momentous, but avoidable
d.
dead, avoidable, and trivial
24.
According to James, in which of the following situations is the decision not to
believe as much a decision based on passion as the decision to believe ?
a.
genuine options that cannot be decided by the evidence
b.
genuine options that can be decided by the evidence
c.
questions about matters of empirical fact
d.
all issues of science
James believes that one of the consequences of adopting Clifford’s attitude is ___.
a.
we will allow our emotions to determine what we believe
b.
we will not miss any truths
c.
we will gain more truths
25.
4
d.
we will miss certain truths
26.
Moral questions, according to James, _________ .
a.
can be decided by the existing empirical evidence
b.
deal with what is the case
c.
cannot be decided by the existing empirical evidence
d.
are no different that questions about matters of fact
27.
An event is determined if it is _______________ .
a.
the result of antecedent events and would recur if those antecedent
conditions recurred.
b.
influenced by other factors
c.
not governed by the law of causality
d.
uncaused
28.
The problem of freedom and determinism can be formulated as ________ ?
a.
how can evil exist if God is good
b.
humans have no choice
c.
if every event has a cause, how can human actions (assuming they are
events) be free
d.
all is determined
29.
Hard determinism refers to a position that holds __________ .
a.
determinism is hard to understand
b.
determinism is incompatible with free will and moral responsibility
c.
simple determinism is false
d.
a science of human behavior is impossible
30.
According to Blatchford all human behavior is the result of:
a.
biology and physics
b.
free human choice
c.
the environment alone
d.
heredity and environment
31.
Most philosophers agree that free will depends on:
a.
continual use to be effective
b.
is a gift of God
c.
the ability to do other than we have done
d.
environment and heredity
32.
For Blatchford an act of free will is
a.
occasionally possible
b.
a total delusion
c.
the result of chancre
5
d.
none of these choices
33.
Existence precedes essence means ________ .
a.
there is a predetermined human nature
b.
human life is a product of heredity and environment
c.
first humans exist, then they define themselves by the choices they make
d.
we are created in the image of God
34.
The first principle of existentialism is ________ .
a.
we are not alone
b.
we are nothing else than what we make of ourselves
c.
“to be or not to be, that is the question”
d.
despair
35.
Why does it follow, according to Sartre, that in choosing what I will do, I choose
for all humans?
a.
Because to choose anything is to choose what we are determined to
choose.
b.
Because I choose what I value and to value something is to universalize it.
c.
Because my choice is purely personal and subjective and has nothing to do
with anyone else.
d.
Because God sets forth moral standards we all must follow.
Philosophy 231-301: The Big Questions
Fall 2017
Second (FINAL) Exam Answer Sheet
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