Final Research Project In this paper, you would be combining the two previously written papers the literature review and the method papers, and you will be incorporating two additional sections, the results and discussion sections. In this paper, you will present the results and discuss implications of the study. Please read the separate handout for the grading criteria. Final Research Report
The Task This third and final paper is a summative assignment, which brings together previously submitted papers plus two new sections results and discussion sections, where the data gathered from the project are analyzed, presented, and implications discussed. The assignment should demonstrate your implementation of single systems project as well as research principles, and the use of statistics to demonstrate the outcomes of the project. Changes from the earlier revisions should be updated in this paper. Please use the prescribed headings and subheadings for this final paper. The length should be no more than 18 pages excluding the abstract, references, appendices, cover page, and the reaction paper. The assessment criteria are as follows: Abstract (10)The abstract should identify the purpose of the research, a brief description of the methodology, research design, and data collection procedures used in the study, the results, and the implications of the study. The abstract should read no longer than 120 words. Please indicate the number of words. There will be a 3-point deduction if the number of words is not included. The abstract should be consistent with APA 6th edition formatting.Literature Review (40)Please highlight the changes in BOLD that you have made from the earlier submissions for the literature review and the method section. If changes are not made in BOLD, your instructor will assume that there are NO changes.Introduction – Have an introductory paragraph to provide an overview of the literature review, for example, you could discuss the problem or issue that is focus of the intervention. You may also discuss the macro perspective or significance of the issue, i.e., number of people that are affected by the problem, effects of the problem on the clients well being, while highlighting the need for the intervention. Discuss the importance of your research topic. Develop these ideas further in subsequent paragraphs. What are the controversies in the field? Make clear which studies fall on either side of the controversy. If there are no controversies, you should describe the research themes in your area of research. (5 points) Evidence Based Practices – Survey, discuss, and analyze the evidence based interventions and its effect on the identified behavior. You should make a direct connection of the research literature to the proposed intervention and outcome measures. (10 points) Critical Analysis & Synthesis – As you survey and analyze the research literature, be sure to integrate, synthesize and critically evaluate the current literature. What are the gaps in the research and how will your research contribute to the conceptual and clinical literature? What is the importance of your research question? Your research focus should be justified from a theoretical and clinical perspective. (10 points) Theory & Practice Model – What is the specific theory that your intervention uses? What specific practice model guides the selection of the a) assessment procedures and intervention; b) your dependent variables? Demonstrate the relationship of the theory to assessment procedures and intervention steps. How does the theory help us understand your clients problem? Analyze the problem using the tenets of the theory by integrating specific concepts of the theory into your explanation. (10 points) Research Question & Hypothesis – Identify your research question (based on the protocol that we had discussed in class), and hypothesis/hypothesis in your concluding paragraph. (5 points) Method (35) Please highlight the changes in BOLD that you have made. Update the procedures of the study.1. Issue & Person Description – Situate the person in the environment by providing a description of yourself (for those who are doing the behavior mod project) or the client, focusing more on the social history of the issue. Include demographic information that will enhance our understanding of the issue. Include any salient characteristics (e.g. gender, diagnosis, ethnicity, etc.) that you believe to be related to the assessment of the problem. What maintains the problem? How have you or your client(s) dealt with the problem? What is the history of the problem and your assessment of the causes of problem? How did you arrive at these conclusions? (5)2. Dependent Variables – What behaviors or thoughts were targeted? How are these behaviors operationalized and measured? Explain the rationale for the measurement of the dependent variable(s). How are these targeting behaviors sampled? What other instruments were (or will be) used in the study? You are strongly encouraged to develop an individual rating scale for the study. Please attach this to the appendix of the paper. Describe the technical properties of the instruments that you are using for the study. Explain the rationale for the use of the instruments. What social validity measures would you identify that will support the gains made from the study? Also attach in the appendices any work in progress. Bonus points may be awarded for effort and creativity in this section. (5) 3. Research Design – Identify the research design of the study (e.g. ABA, multiple baseline design, ABABC, alternating treatment design, hybrid designs, etc.) and the rationale for its use. Why was the design appropriate for the study? What determined the choice of this design? You may change the design after the proposal presentation and if you believe more clinical gains can be leveraged as a result of a change of research designs. You are strongly encourage to use hybrid designs which allow for more flexibility in practice (5) 4. Description of Intervention You should provide a description of the intervention(s) that were implemented. Describe each phase of the research design, duration and length. The interventions should be sufficiently detailed to allow another researcher to replicate your study. For example, describe the amount and duration of the intervention, what did you do to sustain your own (or your clients) involvement and to ensure that the procedures were carried out uniformly? While it is assumed that there will be some variation in the procedures because of the lifes unpredictability, you should make an effort to implement the procedures consistently within and between phases. You may also attach forms and/or logs that were designed for the study. NOTE: There may have been changes in procedures between the procedures in the method paper and this final one. Reflect the up-to-date changes in this section and reflect them in BOLD. (5) 5. Anticipated Problems and Motivation What problems do you anticipate in the study or have experienced while implementing the SSD research? How have you dealt with them or plan to deal with them? How did the procedures of the study address motivation issues? Describe and discuss how you have considered specific procedures (e.g. data collection procedures, definition of DV, frequency of data, research designs) or alternate ways that are likely to enhance the likelihood of SSD implementation and sustained involvement of the client in your research project over a period of time. In summary, describe the motivational elements in your study. (5)6. Control of variables What extraneous variables did you attempt to control for in the study? How were these controls instituted? How did you control for reactivity? Explain the procedures, which controlled for alternative explanations. Comment on internal validity issues as it relates to the dependent variables. How did you deal with the changing circumstances in your life (or your clients) in terms of the proposed research design and data collection procedures? How did, if any, unpredictable episodes or situations compromise the validity of the study? (5)7. Ethical issues What ethical issues were/will be considered during the implementation phase of the study? Identify any three ethical issues (either from your perspective, your clients or both) that are specific to this particular research study. Do not discuss general research ethical issues (e.g. confidentiality) but issues related to the procedural implementation of single systems design. How did you address these issues? (5)Results (35)In this section, you will present the data collected and describe the results of the research. How did the independent variable(s) affect the dependent variable(s)? Describe the outcomes of the study by performing a visual, statistical, and descriptive analysis of the data.Descriptive statistics Use descriptive statistics to summarize the data from the different phases of the study. Where possible, summarize the data in a table. Of the three measures of central tendency, which particular statistic best represents your data? Why did you think this statistic is an appropriate representation? 10Visual analyses – Present the data using line graphs. Your graphs should be completely labeled and should be drawn according to the relevant conventions (e.g. vertical axes for the dependent measure; horizontal axes for time). You are welcome to incorporate tables, bar graphs, and pie charts to illustrate the changes in the data. Based on the visual data you should make a conclusion on whether the problem improved, deteriorated or remained stable. Discuss the trend, stability, and the level of data in each phase. You may put the graphs in the appendix or in the text. You will be required to use WORD/EXCEL specific program to draw your graphs. 10Line Graph Presents data on line graph, with axes clearly labeled. Title of heading and the legend (if any) should be clearly labeled. Please use the SSD graph conventions, as discussed in class. 15You may sequence the content, i.e., visual, statistical, and descriptive analyses in a manner that suits the narrative and the purposes of the presentation.Discussion (50)In this section, you analyze the results based on the conceptual research discussed in the literature review section. You also discuss implications and consider future research ideas based on the data of this study. You would be expected to address the social impact of your study and consider issues of sustainability.1. Important Results & Connections to Previous Research – Summarize the important results of your study in the first paragraph. Were the studys hypotheses supported? What findings were expected and/or surprising? How do these findings further the discussion of theoretical issues that were discussed in the literature review? Extrapolate these conceptual issues based on your understanding of the results. 102. Social Validity & Sustainability What is the practical significance of the study to the participant and those around him/her? What did the client (and/or yourself) say think about the intervention and its impact? What did the significant others and/or family members say about the intervention and its impact? Summarize the qualitative data from your intervention. Do you think that the gains will be generalized and maintained after the intervention period? Please address issues of sustainability in this section. 103. Successes of & Limitations of the Study – Analyze the reasons for the successes and the failures of the study. What worked and what didnt? If you worked with a client for the project, how did you explain the results of the study to your client? Did you think the study was effective? Explain whether you used the data was used to advocate for policy change, if any 54. Future Research – Based on the results of the study, what should future research focus on? Explain how future research could contribute to knowledge development based on your research experience of the topic. How should future research be conducted on this topic? 55. Mixed Methods Research If you had to collect data on the same research question using a mixed methods methodology, how would you implement the study? Which particular model (as described by Creswell) would you use for your mixed methods study? Why? Which specific qualitative method or methods would you use and why? Briefly describe the sequence and procedures of the mixed methods research. 20Reaction paper (10 points)Write a one or two page reaction paper and place this in the appendix. You may use single or double line spacing, depending on the length of the reaction paper. In the paper, document your learning experiences, both good and bad. If you had to redo this assignment again, what would you do differently? How could your learning for this assignment be supported and enhanced? Please be honest in your assessment of the learning experiences of this assignment. How did this assignment and work related to this course address two of the following advanced practice behaviors: Integrates current research and evolving standards into ethical professional practice in decision makingApplies quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method research methodologies to evaluate practice effectiveness and outcomes 10 Presentation (10 points)The literature review was integrated, synthesized, and clear. The paper is well written. Ideas are comprehensive, concise, and coherent. Writing is in keeping with the language of an APA research report. There should be minimal or no typographical or grammatical errors in the paper. The write up and the conduct of the study reflect effort and attention to detail. APA Formatting (10 points)All research cited in the paper should appear in the reference list. The paper is written in APA format. There will be a deduction of 1 point for every APA error. Repetitions of APA errors will be counted. Deduction may exceed 10 points for APA errors and will not exceed 50 points. Include the relevant appendices. Follows instructions in the handout. The paper must be typed and references in the text and the reference page should be in APA format.
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Running head: A METHOD PAPER
A Method Paper
A METHOD PAPER
A Method Paper
Across the world, twenty percent of all people that are sixty or older benefited from
community-based support and services. Nevertheless, clinicians do not have enough knowledge
concerning the beneficial services to the patients. Each clients unique and requires subjective
care that may be different from another patient. In this aspect, cultural competency plays a major
role. In most cases, these services are offered in Adult Day Care Services (ADS) where the older
adults are consolidated within created home-based locations to provide them with the necessary
facilities. These home-based locations offer such services that may be assisted style living or
complete nursing home environments. Theres no need for an introduction I have asked the
students to use the headings provided by the paper.
When grouped in these places, there is a likelihood of affecting people’s psychology. The
change in an individuals psychological behavior would first possibly be noted when the
individual comes to accept the new surroundings as their norm. in detail, the individual changes
what they once knew as living at home with their families or alone to living with a community
like environment. This change in atmosphere may set the mood for the individual to become
more content and comfortable or hostile. The mood and social engagement of these people are
not always automatic (Brunswik, 2016). This makes it hard for people to associate efficiently or
make the services offered efficient.
Personal psychology affects one’s living. It is the responsibility of the clinicians to offer
the clients with psychological counseling to promote their social living. However, most of the
clinicians employed to offer these services do not understand the needs automatically. It takes
time to learn the patients unique requirements and it takes time to give a person more
A METHOD PAPER
satisfactory service because a trust between the client and the caregiver must be built. Therefore,
there will be a gap created in service delivery without the proper attention that the client requires.
Isolation of people in an Adult Day Care Service (ADS) are affected by the mood and the
social engagement among the clients who have only received In-home service. Having an Inhome service allows the client to learn how to cope with their social dependencies. Typically, it
is expected that these home-based care services will create happiness among the clients.
However, this is not always the case. When older adults are isolated from their children and
friends whom they have been together for a long time, there will be a psychological
disconnection between the clients and the new environment (Brunswik, 2016). Further, the new
environment may become unfavorable for most clients, it may take more time for certain clients
to accept the new area and surroundings which most people at the ages of sixty or above express
the lack of patience to do so. Therefore, there is a need to consider offering the required services
from clients’ homes. Within this research, the objective hypothesis is to analyze and host the
demonstration that the intervention activities offered through the ADS will improve the
happiness level and help to promote social activities for the senior clients who are living in a
single-family home. Remember for the method paper, all you need is to follow the headings
provided in the instructions and put the content under those headings.
And under Person/Issue Description you should provide a one paragraph summary of
the agency, then provide a description of each of the clients. Remember this is a single case
research design so specific person variables needs to be described. If you do not have a
description of each person then you would need to try to provide as much description as possible
A METHOD PAPER
for the group ..oh finally I am now seeing the paper. I think you can cut the pages before this
for your final paper.
The research question for this Single Subject Design (SSD) Study is that how does Adult
Day Care Service (ADS) affect the mood and the social engagement of the isolated senior clients
who have only received In-home service? The hypothesis is that the interventions (the activities)
of ADS will improve the happiness level (This is inconsistent with the research question) the
hypothesis should focus on social engagement and mood rather than happiness although these
constructs may be related in some way and allow the participation of social activities to be more
favorable for the senior clients who living in the single-family home.
Issue and Person Description
The participants of this study include two to three seniors who are between the ages 68 to
87 years of age. This group of individuals who have already been receiving the In-Home service,
are observed firstly in their isolation form when they lived in their individual apartments alone
and received attention from In-home caregivers. The participant are the clients of the Xilin
Association located in Arlington Heights in the greater Chicago area. The participants are all
fluent in English, and can give detailed responses in favor to this thesis. They have never
participated in activities in any Adults Day Care center. They lack social engagements in their
daily lives, and with most of their time they reside in their homes and do not go outside. Perhaps
a little more information on the individuals
The Adult Day Care (ADS) service of Xilin Association will focus on how this program
effects the stimulation of mood regarding the seniors, we will be focusing on levels of depression
and happiness while observing the changes when the seniors are engaged in social interactions.
A METHOD PAPER
This research will help promote our services and portray the importance of our senior Daycare
program in Social Benefit Service areas. 12/15
In the analysis of the Adult Day Care (ADS), this thesis paper will consider Xilin
Association and focus on how the program affects the mood of patients suffering from
depression and help to give a clear demonstration of the level of happiness they may experience.
For the service and the importance of senior Daycare program in Social Benefit Service area, the
dependent variables considered are the moods and the social engagements of the isolated senior
clients who have only received In-home service. The independent variables are the interventions
or the activities of Adult Day Care (ADS) service. Provide an conceptual and operational
definition of outcomes. For example how is social engagement measured and how is mood
The paper will employ multiple baseline research design across participants. Multiple
baseline is a research style that involves careful measurement of multiple participants or
locations involving analysis of their conditions before and after administration of particular
treatments. It has been applied in the fields of medicine, psychology, and biology research
among other areas. Compared to different AB designs, multiple baseline designs have several
advantages emanating from the fact that it does not measure a single case (Barlow, 2017). In
multiple baseline designs, treatments start at different times referred to as a staggered condition.
As such, the changes that may occur will not be because of deviation in chance factors. Instead,
the changes will be linked directly to the treatment offered (Shadish, 2015). During the
A METHOD PAPER
procedure, data will be gathered from several instances, and the inferences are made concerning
the possibility that the studied conditions and factors will generalize to the broad population.
In multiple baseline designs, the investigator will measure the traits of interest, and then
apply a treatment before measuring that quality again. Treatment begins when a stable baseline is
established and recorded and finishes when stability is regained (Johnston, 2014). When there is
a significant change across all participants, the investigator will consider the experiment valid.
The use of multiple baseline designs is used where the dependent variable is not expected
to return to normal after administration of treatment. Particular approaches are used to recruit
participants in this design method. The method is also associated with potential mistakes created
when an experiment is biased addressed to preserve objectivity (Barlow, 2017). Specifically, the
investigator should develop test schedules and limits for data collection.
In this case, the participants include people aged between 68 and 87 years, along with
having been adopted in a home-based care facility. Age and psychological conditions will be
used as the limiting factors to recruit participants. Say why the research design is a good fit with
the clients that you have 7/10
Description of Intervention
The design method can employ any technique in recruiting the participants. However, it
is always associated with ex-post facto recruitment. The particular way is useful because it
provides data concerning the response of treatment administered. Using method like the reversal
(ABA) may not automatically provide such data. The investigator ought not to remove cases that
may give diverging results from sampling to prevent the recruitment from being the biased
threatening validity of the findings of the experiment. Ex post facto recruitment approaches are
A METHOD PAPER
considered as false experiments because there is limited or randomized control of the
experimenter toward that trait. Here, a control group will be selected necessarily from a discrete
and separate population. As such, it is considered as a quasi-experimental design (Shadish, 2015).
The participants have unique characters. First, they will be selected from Xilin Association
population. Second, they are within the age limit set. This section is not necessary
In this phase, a repeated measurement of the dependent variable will be done to establish
stable conditions. These measures reflect the status of the participant on the dependent variable
before the implementation of the intervention. The measurements determined in this baseline
phase will provide two features of control to represent the control group in the design (Brunswik,
2016). One highlight is the availability of many scores expected for a group design as compared
to a control group after interventions.
In a single subject plan, the subject fills in as the control as the repeated benchmark
estimations build up the example of scores that we anticipate that the intercession will change.
Without the intervention, analysts accept that the gauge example of scores would proceed with
its course. Second, in a control group design, arbitrary task controls for dangers to inward
legitimacy. In a solitary subject outline, the repeated pattern estimations enable the analyst to
markdown most hazards to the inside legality of the plan.
In this baseline phase, estimations are taken until the point that a pattern rises. Distinctive
sorts of examples are condensed. The three standard designs are stable and trend lines as well as
cycle. A steady line is shown as a line that is moderately level, with little fluctuation in the scores
which fall in a limited band. This sort of line is alluring because progressions can be identified
without much of a stretch, and it is likely that there are a couple of issues of testing,
A METHOD PAPER
instrumentation, factual relapse, and development in the information. A problematic trend may
appear when the pattern is displayed as a horizontal line, but the scores are scattered over a wide
range (Brunswik, 2016). As we examine later, this kind of design makes deciphering of the
information more troublesome than a steady line with little variety. A pattern happens when the
scores might be either expanding or diminishing amid the standard time frame (Johnston, 2014).
At the point when there is a direct pattern, the scores tend to increment at a consistent rate after
some time. Despite the fact that the illustration is not shown, a pattern line may likewise decay at
a constant rate. A curvilinear pattern line rises when the rate of progress is quickening after some
time, as opposed to expanding or diminishing at a steady rate. This section is not necessary since
it relates to the intervention
Treatment Phase Yes this is an essential section cut down all the previous content
The treatment stage denoted with letter B speaks to the period amid which the
intercession is executed. In this step, repeated measurements of a similar dependent variable
where a similar measure approach is utilized are acquired. Eventually, the patterns, as well as the
magnitude of collected data points, can be looked at and compared to the data collected during
the baseline phase. According to Brunswik (2016), the treatment phase needs to be as long as the
baseline phase. As such, the response to the desired treatment will be notable (Johnston, 2014).
Further, the proceeding tests will be easily achieved, as the final analysis requires that the
participant has completed constant conditions.
The administered treatments among the aged people who suffer psychological discourse
will involve creating a platform of providing counseling. In most situations, the cause of
psychological problems emanates from isolation. In Xilin Association, the clients involve people
separated from their normal lives. However, the necessity to consolidate them is a home-based
A METHOD PAPER
care is due to their health conditions. For instance, most of these clients suffer from one or more
chronic illnesses. They are thus required to take their daily medicine and drugs. Most of them fail
to keep the necessary drugs administration patterns and lender treatments ineffective (Brunswik,
2016). Further, these people lack people close to them who can offer them the required
monitoring to ensure that they follow clinician’s prescriptions. Therefore, this founds that basis
of formation of Xilin Association. Please focus on describing the interventions
The approach leads to separation of older adults from their dear environment to undergo
monitoring. However, since they are bound to their environment, they fail to associate well with
their colleagues and interact with the new environment. Consequently, there will emerge
psychological disorders that can be treated through counseling (Johnston, 2014). Further, these
clients will be involved in various day-to-day activities that will prompt them to interact with
their colleagues as well as the environment.
Consolidating clients around their homes ensures that they do not undergo psychological
strain caused by a change in environment. Here, the service offered will be daycare where the
clients will report every day to the association’s center. However, this is not an effective
treatment method, as it will depend on the goodwill and willingness of the client to attend daily
services. Further, it is not cost effective for the clients and the association (Johnston, 2014). The
clients will commute from their areas while the association will need more service providers to
monitor all clients. What did you DO with the client? Answer this question directly. I need a
very concise description of the intervention. Focus on describing this in greater depth 7/15
Anticipated Problems and Motivation
During the implementation of this study, various challenged are anticipated. Resistance
and lack of cooperation from the participants are expected. Most of the chronically ill people are
A METHOD PAPER
aggressive and do not interact well with medical providers. As such, one or more participants
will fail to provide the required cooperation with the service providers (Shadish, 2015). The
massive measurements carried out require maximum participation from the clients. As such, the
expected results will be null rendering the research incapable of presenting reliable information.
Resources and time limitations are other anticipated problems. The research is being
carried in a limited period and resources. The nature of research needs to be extensive and
accurate since there is no measurable outcome is expected. However, the available resources are
sufficient to complete the study. Therefore, the investigator must be accurate and consider the
limits. The association is also ready to offer required information. Good job in identifying the
group issues 10/10
Control of variables
The investigator will monitor the clients closely to minimize extraneous variables that
may affect the outcome. For instance, the clients will not be exposed to an environment that may
expose them additional psychological stresses that were not measured during the baseline phase.
The service providers will maintain service offered and prescribed at the treatment phase
throughout the entire assessment period.
The extraneous variables will be controlled by ensuring minimizing the differences
between participants like age, ability, and ideologies. What is meant by age, ability and
ideologies .can you describe this further, consider identifying the confounding variables in the
study. As such, there will be the creation of a harmonious environment across the participants.
Researcher variables that may affect the response from the participant like appearance, gender,
and behavior will either be eliminated or be kept constant throughout the process (Shadish, 2015).
Other situational variables like receiving what what sorts of activities, and appearance among
A METHOD PAPER
others will be controlled to maintain consistency and minimal deviation of conditions.All you
need to do in this paragraph is what did you DO to minimize variables that are not related to the
During this experiment, there are moral issues that may arise. First, the investigator must
obtain informed consent from the participants and their relatives. This will prevent the case
where the investigator will be charged with prying of privacy and interfering with matters too
personal to the lives of the participants. Secondly, there might be the occurrence of the need to
debrief. After the investigation, it is the role of th
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