attached is the peer response instructions and posts. utilize the required required reading materials to support claims.
Unformatted Attachment Preview
PEER RESPONSE INSTRUCTIONS:
Please respond to two of your classmates posts in a minimum of 150 words. Do you agree
with the student? Why or why not? You may ask questions to extend their thinking. Utilize
the reading material (chapter reading) to support your claims.
Discussion 1 Instructions:
This discussion presents the opportunity for you to address the inequality of access to health care
in the United States using moral and ethical reasoning. There is overwhelming evidence that
social inequalities affect health outcomes. Many argue that lack of health care access due to
poverty is a human rights concern in the United States that should be subject to public and social
justice inquiry. As such, the Affordable Care Act was implemented to promote health equity.
While there are some that have reported favorable outcomes with respect to health care access,
others have reported unfavorable experiences.
What is your perspective on the ethics of providing universal health care to all U.S. citizens, and
how well do you think the Affordable Care Act has addressed this cause? Prepare an
academically-informed post to address this question. In doing so, consider both the ethical and
moral reasons for supporting the implementation of the Affordable Care Act and also a possible
shortfall or problem with this policy. You may talk about your own experiences but must also
use academic research to support your arguments.
In this day and time, universal health care to all U.S. citizens should be a component of our
society that is inalienable. With economic recovery developments creating opportunities for
growing workforces, we have yet to put our money where our mouths are in terms of
facilitating health care reform in a way that focuses on the structural complexities within the
AFC (Affordable Care Act). Unfortunately, healthcare has too often been used as a political
chess piece that divides the country along party lines.In an article in the University of
Pennsylvania Law Review by Paul Kalb, he states Americas health care system is in a state of
crisis. We spend far more per capita on healthcare than any other nation, yet almost 15% of our
population lacks health insurance coverage, and an even larger percentage has coverage that is
insufficient to protect them in the event of a serious illness (Ward, A., & Johnson, P. J.2013).
From a socioeconomic standpoint, this disparity creates a serious ethical deficiency. The fight
over funding is cause for great concerns and have grave implications for the future. The
generation inheriting the responsibility of cost will have some say in the administration of
resources necessary to keep the ACA.
In 1965 the U.S.Congress established Medicaid with the understanding that its recipients were to
receive medically necessary care. The ethical consideration would apply to the Deontology
because in the United States we are governed by the rule of law and basic human rights are Life,
which is not supported without adequate health care. Basic needs are those needs that, when not
satisfied, deprive a person in one or more ways of the capability of having a flourishing life qua
human being. Following David Wiggins, this means that a persons need for x is basic just if
what excludes futures in which she or he remains without harms (deprivations) whose presence
is inconsistent with the capability of having a flourishing life, despite not having x, are laws of
nature, unalterable and invariable environmental facts, or facts about human constitution (Ward,
A., & Johnson, P. J.2013). So you may argue that from a humanitarian perspective, basic needs
would be afforded to all citizens and not just those who can afford them.
From a utilitarianism perspective, the Affordable Care Act (ACA), helps a large population of
individuals who could not afford medical insurance or work for companies that did not offer
it. Before the ACA, the US Census Bureau showed the approx. 15% of the people in the US
were uninsured (www.obamacarefacts.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external
site.). Since ACA, this percentage dropped to approx. 9%. This is a significant change and
means more US citizens are able to get the healthcare they need. The intent of the ACA was to
bring high-quality and affordable healthcare, so everyone could have insurance and not just those
who purchased it through private sectors (Cooper & Gardner, 2016). It also aided in reducing
costs of insurance by making it more competitive amongst a larger number of providers to select
from (Cooper & Gardner, 2016). Based on the numbers above, I feel the ACA did what it was
set out to do. More people have health insurance and are able to get quality healthcare because
of it. It also provided insurance to people with pre-existing conditions that were turned down by
other insurance companies because that individual would cost them money. Under the ACA,
pre-existing conditions are covered. An issue that not only those who are covered under ACA
but those in the private sector face, are rising healthcare costs. No one is immune to this and it is
said that average cost of insurance is about 35% of a familys income and the trend is rising
(Moffit, 2016). Just in the past five years, the cost of insurance for me and my family has
increased by 40%. It is getting very expensive to pay for insurance, but you cant afford to not
Discussion 2 Instructions:
The purpose of this discussion is to offer you the opportunity to debate the issue of food justice
and food deserts. Food deserts are significant issues in poorer neighborhoods in the United
States. In many of these neighborhoods, the only access to food is through local convenience
stores or fast food restaurants. This severely limits the options for the poor to have access to
fresh, wholesome food and has been evidenced as a key reason for the obesity epidemic in the
United States. This issue is encompassed in the overarching topic of food justice, which also
highlights public access to genetically modified or organic foods and the issues of equal access
to positive food options in light of public health and social inequality. Prepare and post a
response to the following prompt:
Read the Hilmers article, Neighborhood Disparities in Access to Healthy Foods and Their
Effects on Environmental Justice
. Assume that your town is a food desert and you would like
to do something about it. Prepare an argument to present to your local town council that outlines
an idea to offer healthy food options to your town. Use at least one ethical theory or perspective
to support the moral or ethical reasoning for why this program should be implemented.
If you had a close friend that was struggling with weight loss, would you recommend this
friend to get the gastric bypass operation, why or why not? Which ethical theory would you
use to defend your answer to your friend, and why?
Across the United States of America, there are many rural areas with low-income neighborhoods
where most of the population have limited access to healthy food. This is due to the high density
of fast food outlets and convenience stores as their primary means of obtaining food for
themselves and family. There is a high prevalence of obesity and other health-related issues in
these neighborhoods because of the unhealthy food provided by the fast food restaurants and
convenience stores. Fast food outlets meals are prepared with lots of fat and salt while the preprepared foods sold by the convenience stores consist of lots of sugar among the other unhealthy
ingredients which have little or no nutritional value. These areas where accessing proper healthy
food is difficult are known as food desert.’
Food deserts are under-reported in many areas because the situation is downplayed because
small corner grocery stores in some regions are categorized with the super grocery chains like
Safeway and Whole Foods.
To combat the issue of my town being termed as a food desert I would like the local town
Educate the population about the danger of eating unhealthy food by having Health Fairs
with a variety of exhibits of and demonstration of healthy foods and how to cook the food
to acquire the nutritional value.
Encourage planting greens, vegetables and fruits when the weather is permissible.
Seek assistance from the government in encouraging the super grocery chains to open
mini grocery chains with the provision of healthy fresh fruits and vegetables at
Encourage the people to work together to elevate their standard of living through clubs
where they can come together and share the views positively with the community.
From an ethical and moral standpoint, the utilitarianism theory and relativism perspective
support my moral reasoning why this program should be implemented. This program will be the
greatest good for the whole community with regards to the culture and background of the society
There is a weight pestilence in the United States, for the most part because of destitution ridden
neighborhoods lacking access to an appropriately adjusted eating routine as entire sustenances,
for example, new foods grown from the ground, drain, and natural meats. In these areas are
regularly discovered more accommodation stores and fast food eateries than arable grounds or
supermarkets. This, normally, prompts poor families making due with what is promptly
accessible, which is generally extremely handled nourishments high in sodium and unfortunate
Ethically and socially, utilitarianism and deontology both gather as one in this situation.
Deontology “concentrates on what we are committed to do as sane good specialists” (Mosser,
2013, Ch. 1.6), with utilitarianism directing that what ought to be done is what is best for
everybody, consequently, how is it moral for one portion of the populace to have prepared access
to markets and eateries that serve more beneficial things, while the other must manage with poor
quality foodstuffs that abbreviate their lives without wanting to?
Growing up in a rustic zone, as the most youthful individual from a six youngster family, I know
the severe taste of yearning. I was sufficiently fortunate to be an individual from an association
that understood that outrageous destitution exists, and that endeavored to fire up a sustenance
wardrobe that started particularly to help my family out, later developing into a community that
would go up against several families every week. These communities exist inside almost every
district, regardless of whether they be nourishment storage rooms, Jesus focuses, or
neighborhoods doing what they can to gather as one to shield starvation from flooding their
There is a developing development to change over unused or neglected land into group gardens
for destitution stricken territories. Kept up by the group as entire, these greenhouses would give
crisp products of the soil, enabling youngsters to get the vitamins and minerals that are
fundamental to solid development. This, thusly, would bring down the rates of youth corpulence,
diabetes, and an entire host of other weight related illnesses that reason high death rates.
Researchers at the University of Utah found that individuals who grouped together to helpfully
make group gardens have bring down weight records contrasted with their neighbors who did not
partake, with comes about demonstrating that ladies who took an interest in group gardens were
eleven pounds lighter than the individuals who did not, and men were sixteen pounds lighter by
and large (U News Center, 2013). Legitimately set up and kept up (regardless of whether it be in
an unused building, a void parcel, or inside homes in pots), these greenery enclosures offer crisp
sustenances, as well as offer heftiness diminishment procedures through exercise, presentation
to regular light and air, and furthermore a feeling of having a place and inauguration in the group
overall, prompting lower wrongdoing, misery, outrage, and sadness rates, and in addition higher
rates of business, dependable people, and a brighter standpoint.
Purchase answer to see full
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more