Goal-Setting Framework

**************YOU MUST USE THE SOURCE PROVIDED BELOW**************************The first of six steps of performance management consists of goal setting, as detailed in Chapter Three. Assume that you work for the Los Angeles Tribune, a large but struggling newspaper publisher with distribution throughout the Los Angeles region. Various problems have arisen that need to be addressed:The cost of paper is risingThe cost of distribution is risingCirculation revenue is downAdvertising revenue is down, largely due to free online listings offered by Craigslist and other online advertising servicesCustomers are largely in the 40+ age rangeThe current number of employees cannot continue to be supported if revenue continues to shrinkYou have been selected by the CEO to construct a goal-setting framework that focuses on three of the six issues above. In your APA formatted two- to three-page paper, include a goal statement for each of the three issues you’ve chosen and describe the corresponding strategies, tactics, activities, measures of success, and goal measurements you recommend. Support each with your rationale, citing the textbook as necessary, and be sure to provide specific examples within the activities section. In addition to your two to three pages of written content, a title page and reference page are required. For this assignment, it is possible to make reasonable assumptions regarding the organization’s economic situation and business climate. Be sure to specifically mention any such assumptions that you are making within your paper.
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3
Leading One to One
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Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
• Describe the importance of leading one to one.
• Apply key frameworks for succeeding in the one-to-one role.
• Explain how to build trust and empower others.
• Apply a framework for organization-wide goal setting, including working with direct reports.
• Give direct reports constructive feedback.
• Provide resources to help direct reports develop their strengths and overcome weaknesses.
• Describe the purposes of coaching and a five-step process for coaching direct reports.
• Describe various ways to recognize employee performance.
• Apply effective strategies for appraising overall performance.
• Measure gaps in performance management.
• Manage and resolve conflicts for win–win solutions.
• Describe how to select the right person for the right position.
© 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
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Introduction
Introduction
To the extent that leaders are effective in the role of self-leadership, they will be effective
in the one-to-one role. As leaders engage in one-to-one practices, their self-leadership skills
(e.g., self-monitoring and self-regulation) and their personality-related behaviors (e.g., being
open to others’ ideas and experiences) become critically important for interpersonal effectiveness. Knowing one’s self—how one acts and comes across—is essential for understanding
a one-to-one interaction with a direct report. Leaders with self-knowledge can address the
other person in the relationship with distinct understanding and can anticipate and mitigate
the impact of their own behavior and their direct reports’ behavior on the interaction. For
example, if a manager knows that initially she resists new ideas from a direct report, she
might decide to spend time evaluating these ideas rather than dismissing them. The manager
might say to her direct report, “I would like to take a day or two to mull over your idea and to
give it thorough consideration.”
In the Mone-London organization model, one-to-one leadership is referred to as dyad performance; you may recall that “collaborative dyads” are one of the role-performance components in the model. In addition to their direct reports, leaders can have dyadic relationships
with a variety of stakeholders:
•
•
•
Customers, where the emphasis might be positioning the company for further sales
Competitors, where the emphasis could involve collaborative leadership focused on
mergers or alliances
Regulators and government officials, with the goal of influencing possible legislation
or positioning their companies in a favorable light
We will consider the importance of collaborative relationships in Chapter 5. In this chapter,
however, we will focus on the leader–direct report relationship.
The Mone-London organization model can be used to illustrate the components of one-to-one
leadership, just as we used it to illustrate the components of organization leadership (Chapter
1) and self-leadership (Chapter 2). Effective one-to-one leadership requires that leaders need
to (1) build trust and empowerment, (2) utilize performance management practices, (3) effectively resolve conflicts, and (4) select the right people. Each of these areas will be discussed
in this chapter, but we want to note now how performance management is at the heart of the
Mone-London organization model for one-to-one leadership (see Figure 3.1).
Performance management is the process of involving employees in improving organizational effectiveness, including communicating, goal setting, feedback, development, recognition, coaching, and performance appraisal. Leaders must focus on performance and development management, guided by the organization’s overarching goals and each direct report’s
own performance and development goals. The organization’s human resource performance
management and development processes and programs serve as enablers to this effort and
provide the foundation for leaders to be coaches, and perhaps mentors, to their direct reports.
Leaders will, in the end, evaluate their direct reports’ performance and development efforts,
ensuring that their results meet or exceed expectations in line with the organization’s strategic direction and goals.
© 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
Introduction Introduction?
Figure 3.1: The Mone-London organization model applied to one-to-one
leadership
The Mone-London organization model can be applied to one-to-one leadership: To be successful leading
one to one, leaders must be guided by organization’s overarching goals and each direct report’s own
performance and development goals as they focus on building trust and empowerment, managing
performance, resolving conflicts, and selecting the right people. The organization’s human resource
performance management and development processes and programs serve as enablers to this effort and
provide the foundation for leaders to be coaches, and perhaps mentors, to their direct reports. Leaders
will, in the end, evaluate their direct reports’ performance and development efforts, ensuring that their
results meet or exceed expectations in line with the organization’s strategic direction and goals.
In this chapter, we will begin by exploring the one-to-one relationship. We will then review
three interrelated frameworks that leaders can use and apply to increase their capability
when working one on one. We follow this with an important discussion of how leaders can
build trust in the one-to-one relationship and empower others to act. As you will see, trust
and empowerment are foundational and necessary ingredients for achieving success in this
leadership role. For the remainder and majority of this chapter, we discuss in detail additional
role-related competencies, as well as how to assess and develop those competencies:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mutually set performance and development goals.
Deliver effective, constructive feedback.
Identify and create informal and formal development opportunities.
Reinforce performance through the timely use of recognition and rewards.
Coach for performance improvement and enhancement.
Construct and deliver effective performance appraisals.
Manage and resolve conflicts.
Conduct effective selection interviews for jobs or key assignments.
© 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
Section 3.1
Exploring the One-to-One Relationship
3.1 Exploring the One-to-One Relationship
We worked with a chief human resource officer (CHRO) of a high-tech Fortune 500 company
who once said, “People don’t quit companies; they quit bosses.” What do you think about this
statement? Do people quit because of their bosses or supervisors? Are there other reasons to
leave or remain with an organization that may be more important?
Although the CHRO’s statement is a broad generalization, it contains a fair degree of truth.
Even though formal mechanisms may be in place and legal recourse is certainly available,
employees will suffer, or potentially leave their organizations, if their supervisors create and
sustain hostile work environments. Sometimes an untrustworthy supervisor is all it takes to
create the desire to pursue a career with another company. On the other hand, employees
are more likely to remain committed to their supervisors and their organizations when leaders and managers focus on practices that engage their employees (Macey, Schneider, Barbera, & Young, 2009; Gebauer & Lowman, 2008), that is, when leaders create the conditions
and encourage behaviors that allow employees to become more embedded within their jobs,
organizations, and communities (Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, & Erez, 2001).
The one-to-one relationship provides leaders the opportunity to model effective behaviors,
build trust, and enroll others in their vision of the future. When leaders and managers succeed in the one-to-one role, their employees will be engaged, empowered, and committed to
contributing to the organization’s success. Their employees, too, develop the ability to lead
themselves, a concept discussed by Manz and Sims (2001) as SuperLeadership. (See Considering SuperLeadership to learn more.)
Considering SuperLeadership
SuperLeadership is a concept originally
introduced in the book SuperLeadership by
Charles Manz and Henry Sims (1989). The
book was updated and revised in 2001 as The
New SuperLeadership. The purpose or goal of
SuperLeadership is “to facilitate self-leadership
capability and practice and, further, to make
the self-leadership process the central target of
external influence” (Manz & Sims, 2001, p. 25).
In other words, leaders focus on developing
the self-leadership of others, not the creation
of followers, and they largely accomplish this
through empowering their direct reports to
act. And we agree with Manz and Sims that
leading one’s self effectively is a prerequisite
for leading others in the one-to-one role.
Digital Vision./Photodisc/Thinkstock
The key to SuperLeadership is to
develop one’s self-leadership to such a
degree that it has an external impact.
(continued)
© 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
Exploring the One-to-One Relationship
Section 3.1
Considering SuperLeadership (continued)
For Manz and Sims, self-leadership is an extensive set of strategies focused on the
behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that we can use to influence ourselves as leaders. These
include setting our own performance and career goals, providing our own rewards for our
successes, creating opportunities for deriving natural or intrinsic rewards from our work,
and holding positive beliefs and thoughts that help guide us in search of opportunities and
prevent us from being overwhelmed by obstacles. The self-regulation and self-monitoring
behaviors we discussed in Chapter 2 can also be added to that list. Manz and Sims
suggested that there are specific strategies leaders can use for developing self-leadership
through the dyadic, or one-to-one, relationship with direct reports. These include the
following:
•
•
•
•
Modeling: When leaders demonstrate self-leadership behaviors, providing an
example to their direct reports that captures their attention, helps them to
remember the behavior, and motivates them to try the behavior on their own
Facilitating goal setting: When leaders help to develop direct reports’ capability
to realistically set their own performance and development goals, including
leadership development goals
Identifying rewards: When leaders help their direct reports find the natural or
intrinsic reward in their work, which is often found in work that helps to build
feelings of competence, feelings of being able to control the work, and feelings
that the work is worthwhile and has purpose and meaning
Encouraging positive thought patterns: When leaders help their direct reports see
opportunities where obstacles were normally seen, engage in mental rehearsal
and visualization of success, and encourage positive self-talk
As we progress through this chapter, you will recognize how the presented frameworks
(such as performance management) and the recommended processes and programs (such
as goal setting, feedback, and mentoring) all serve to foster self-leadership when done
effectively in the one-to-one role.
Finally, Manz and Sims suggested that SuperLeadership can be exercised with teams, and
this is accomplished when leaders establish empowered, self-managed, or self-directed
teams, such as service teams, product teams, cross-functional teams, top-executive
teams, and virtual teams. At the organization level, SuperLeaders can build a culture of
self-leadership through the organizational structures they create—for example, moving
from a layered, hierarchical structure to a horizontal structure (one that is flat with
few management levels)—and through human resource systems that promote work
innovation, informal hiring practices, performance appraisals that incorporate multiple
inputs and have a development focus, and compensation that is more variable, team
oriented, and performance based.
Managers at all levels in the organization require skills in one-to-one leadership. Therefore,
this chapter also is applicable to lower and middle managers. For example, both leaders and
managers are expected to carry out all phases of performance management, from goal setting
to appraising direct reports.
© 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
Exploring the One-to-One Relationship
Section 3.1
Leadership does take time and effort, and some of what leaders need to do—for example, give
tough feedback to a direct report—is not easy and requires advanced skills. When leaders,
and managers for that matter, work effectively in the one-to-one role, they will spend time in
goal setting, providing feedback, working on development plans, and coaching and appraising
each of their direct reports. Just engaging in 30-minute biweekly coaching sessions with each
of a leader’s six direct reports, given the time it takes to prepare for the session and to follow
up on progress afterward, can easily total 6 hours—that is almost a full working day every
other week. However, though time intensive and challenging, this is what effective leadership
and management involves. See Case Study: Chief Marketing Officer’s One-to-One Role to learn
about what could happen when leaders tend to ignore the one-to-one role.
Case Study: The Chief Marketing Officer’s One-to-One Role
We recently had the opportunity to consult with a senior executive, the chief marketing
officer (CMO) of a multinational organization of more than 5,000 employees. The CMO,
with more than 20 years of experience in the industry, reported directly to the CEO and
had a team of eight direct reports, collectively leading more than 125 employees. However,
in a recent 360-degree feedback survey, the CMO’s direct reports indicated issues of trust
between themselves, but more so between each team member and the CMO. This surfaced
in the lack of cooperation and agreement between them when it came to launching global
initiatives, such as a new product launch.
After reading through the results and discussing them with the CMO, we then met with
each direct report to further explore the trust issues. We learned that the CMO, who
thought he was empowering his direct reports to act, actually was demonstrating more
of a laissez-faire leadership style and ignoring feedback from his team about conflicts
between team members. The CMO also provided little performance feedback, so
individually direct reports thought they were doing fine and that others on the team were
the ones causing the problems. These conflicts, as was the case, were the result of the CMO
not holding each of the direct reports accountable for results and working collaboratively
to achieve overall goals. Fundamentally, the CMO was not managing the performance
of his direct reports and, frankly, was spending more time in his role as a member of
the senior leadership team (leading the organization) than as a supervisor of his direct
reports (leading one to one).
Our advice ultimately improved team morale and performance and reduced the tension
and conflict within the team and between team members and the CMO. It included the
following:
•
•
•
Bringing the direct report team together to share and discuss overall findings and
feedback
Establishing clear goals for the organization with the team, as well as with each
direct report, helping each to better understand expectations for themselves and
others on the team
The CMO agreeing to conduct biweekly, one-to-one performance review and
feedback meetings with each direct report to monitor performance, progress,
and morale
(continued)
© 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
Frameworks for Understanding and Guiding One-to-One Leadership
Section 3.2
Case Study: The Chief Marketing Officer’s One-to-One Role
(continued)
•
The CMO committing to be proactive in resolving conflicts brought to his
attention, while also emphasizing his desire for collaboration and teamwork
across the team—in essence, having his team model the right behaviors for the
rest of his organization
Our advice in this case emphasized a “back to basics” approach. Regardless of your
level in the organization and the level of your direct reports, the one-to-one role and
the fundamentals of performance management—such as setting clear performance
expectations, articulating desired behaviors, and providing feedback on a regular basis—
remain important. Leaders, in essence, have to be managers, too; they have to supervise
their direct reports. Leaders also need to learn how to effectively balance the four roles of
leadership, as this case demonstrates.
Reflection Questions
1. What do you think causes senior leaders, in general, to lose focus on the one-to-one
role? What assumptions might they be making about themselves and their direct
reports?
2. Have you ever neglected your direct report team when it came to performance
management? Why was that so? What impact did it have on your team?
Leadership in Review
Reflect on your learning by answering the following questions:
1. What is the purpose of SuperLeadership?
2. What are four specific strategies leaders can use for developing self-leadership
through one-to-one relationships with their direct reports?
3. At what levels in organizations are skills in one-to-one leadership required?
3.2 Frameworks for Understanding and Guiding
One-to-One Leadership
There are three interrelated frameworks that are necessary for understanding the practices
and approaches of leaders in the one-to-one role: theories of action, the ladder of inference,
and performance management. Both the theories of action and the ladder of inference frameworks strengthen and enhance the framework of performance management.
© 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
Frameworks for Understanding and Guiding One-to-One Leadership
Section 3.2
Theories of Action
Theories of action are explanations and
interpretations of individuals’ approaches
to achieving the outcomes they want. People have ideas about the deliberate behaviors they must demonstrate to achieve the
results they want; for example, a leader
might have ideas about the behaviors
required for effective leadership for a large
organization. The specific behaviors people
demonstrate form a sequence of interrelated behaviors, or action.
Types of Theories of Action
Jetta Productions/Blend Images/SuperStock
Leaders must understand the frameworks of
one-to-one leadership in order to successfully
lead their teams.
The extensive work of two theorist-practitioners, Argyris (1990, 1994, 2004) and Schon
(Argyris & Schon, 1974; Schon, 1990), has consistently found that most people tend to be
unaware of how their attitudes affect their behavior and the negative impact of their behavior on others. When asked about their theories of action, people generally describe their
espoused theories, or how they will think or believe they will act to achieve results. People
believe in and are committed to their espoused theories. To learn about a person’s espoused
theory, ask that person to tell you how she or he would act in a given situation.
People ultimately act based on their theories-in-use. Observe someone in action to learn
about his or her theories-in-use. For example, a CEO demonstrates leadership behavior by
speaking to a large group of employees in a town hall meeting. The leader ma …
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