Help needed with an introduction and three promising practices.

Attached will be three documents my paper and 2 of my classmates papers since its a group project. You will read all three research papers and create an introduction to the study that summarizes the entire research. This introduction is for a powerpoint we will be presenting as a group.you will then list three Promising Practice—what is it? How will it help solve the problem? in three bullets. This assignment is for a group project we are working on regarding gun violence. 1. Introduction to the study2. Three Promising Practices.Please let me know if you have any questions.
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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW
Literature Review
Aaron A Flores
Research Methods
Gun Violence Intervention Group Project
28th November, 2017
1
LITERATURE REVIEW
2
Introduction
Gun violence in the United States has been a growing source of concern in recent years.
According to the University of Washington’s Institute of Health Metrics and evaluation, The
United States had the 31st highest rate of gun violence with an estimated 3.85 deaths per 100,
000 deaths in 2016 (Miller, Hepburn & Azrael, 2017). In recent times, mass shootings have
become very common in the United States than any other country in the world. The inability to
control gun ownership among the United States citizens is becoming the highest risk to the safety
of United States citizens. People are social, and group dynamics are inevitable, which makes the
possibility of gun violence spreading from one group to the next almost a guarantee. There are
different interventions that can be put into consideration to ensure that gun violence is well
engaged and focus on how these issues can be solved. A public health approach to weaken this
problem is warranted since public health initiatives prioritize health and safety of the whole
population. Taking such an approach to gun violence prevention provides a unique perspective,
which aims to reduce gun violence through health and wellness. With inputs from different areas
of healthcare, including, psychological and sociological aspects, this approach has the potential
to yield a well-rounded solution gun violence prevention. This integrative literature review aims
to explore and investigate the reasons why gun violence is rampant among inner-city youth. We
aim to explore the best public health solutions to reducing gun violence and the most effective
ways of implementing such solutions to yield maximum results. The key themes that will form
the basis of this review of literature will include increased gun ownership, public health
intervention, and public awareness.
LITERATURE REVIEW
3
Increased gun ownership in the United States
Miller and Azrael (2017) focus on firearm purchase without background checks based on
the results of a national survey. The number of gun owners in the United States has significantly
increased over the years. The study was able to establish that a significant number of individuals
in the United States both young and adults have acquired guns, which are not licensed. Getting a
gun in the United States is not a difficult undertaking especially due to the high increase in
illegal dealing within the United States. There are no background checks that are being
conducted on the new gun acquisitions within a span of last two years. The significant laxity on
the part of security is making it harder to track the legal and illegal guns within the country,
which is a very risky endeavor when considering the current levels of gun violence and gun
ownership where even minors own guns. These considerations are not attractive at all focusing
on the existing developments and loopholes in security. Significant measures need to be put in
place to ensure that there is controlled level of gun ownership as one of the ways that can be used
to curb the increasing levels of gun violence (Miller & Azrael, 2017)
However, the increased gun ownership does not independently influence the decisions
made by individuals to engage in violence. There are some cities within the United States, which
have reported a very low level of gun violence over the years. According to Gehrke (2013), El
Paso TX, is the safest city in the United States, which is quite the opposite to Chicago despite
being neighbors. El Paso has one of the most lenient gun control laws in place although there
have been very little to none gun violence cases reported. Chicago, on the other hand, has some
LITERATURE REVIEW
4
of the strictest gun control laws in place even though this has not been able to help reduce gun
violence issues within the city, which is considered as one of the most dangerous in the United
States. The gun-friendly laws in El Paso are considered the reason behind the existing sustained
period of safety with little to no major incidence involving gun violence. El Paso City borders
the Mexican city of Ciudad Juarez and is considered one of the most dangerous cities. The high
gun violence rates in Chicago has been blamed on the surrounding cities who have weaker gun
control laws which make it easier for Chicago citizens to acquire guns without any significant
background checks (Gehrke, 2013).
Public health interventions in gun violence
Bertz et al. (2016) assert that the role of healthcare providers in establishing a better
environment for engaging with victims and perpetrators of gun violence is unquestionably very
important and need to be significantly considered if there is any true chance to make headway on
this issue. The study established that it was for healthcare professionals to engage gun violence
related patients since it is one of the most significant ways that can be developed to creating an
environment where better decisions can be based. Developing better strategies on how to get this
critical information would be key in setting the pace for better engagement levels regarding the
issues involved in gun violence (Bertz et al., 2016).
Pinto (2008) provides a very detailed consideration of integrating health professionals in
support of gun violence. Health professionals have been involved in advocacy of issues linking
to the social determinants of health including protesting against the war, mitigating the
production, trade, and use of specific weapons. Thus, small arms and gun violence is a
significant area to engage since they play a crucial role in ensuring that there is better healthcare
for all. Even though there is a significant level of negativity and challenges relating to the whole
LITERATURE REVIEW
5
issue of advocacy, there are ways that can be significantly engaged to create a better environment
(Pinto, 2008).
According to Frattaroli et al. (2013), to develop a better and effective public health
approach to gun violence prevention, physician engagement is key. Developing a health
approach is an action that requires a considerable level of participation across different levels
where different levels. The response level to any of the public health approach that will be
adopted to create a better and engaging environment to prevent gun violence will significantly
depend on the response from the public. Healthcare providers, more specifically the physicians,
are a source of information to the public relating these cases and thus form the core and valued
constituency for policymakers. The role of physicians in providing critical information in
preventing gun violence can be developed from some engagements (Frattaroli et al., 2013).
Creating public awareness
Franco et al. (2015) provide a very valid consideration assessing how the increase of
knowledge is likely to help in preventing gun violence. Many individuals usually use engaging in
gun violence as a source of ending conflict rather than protecting themselves. There are some
ways, which are legal which individuals can engage to solve their differences rather than opting
for gun violence. Most of these individuals, therefore, lack the much-needed knowledge on
problem-solving, as that is why they opt for gun violence as a remedy. It is therefore believed
having significant knowledge of alternative approaches to solve a conflict will help in preventing
gun violence (Franco et al., 2015).
According to Reid et al., (2017) exposure to violence plays a greater role in influencing
the level of violence. The study focused on examining the potential effect of exposure to
LITERATURE REVIEW
6
violence and well as the existing relationship between gun carrying and psychological distress.
The findings from the study concluded that gun carrying was reliably associated with
significantly higher levels of psychological distress. Exposure to violence was significantly
higher among adolescents carrying guns. The study also determined that many individuals tend
to think of themselves as untouchable when carrying a gun and thus they are highly likely to use
it when provoked. Adolescents are also less likely to think twice before removing their guns
when provoked, and thus a significant percentage of gun violence is attributed to the inability of
individuals carrying guns to control their emotions (Reid et al., 2017).
Conclusion
Gun violence is a genuine issue in the United States due to many reasons. This includes
inadequate gun control laws where countless citizens in the United States are gun holders either
illegal or legal due to weak laws in place. There has been a common trend among gun violence
perpetrators where they have been influenced by certain aspects of their lives, which could be as
well prevented when putting into focus key underlying issues. Gun violence can be effectively
controlled through consideration of public health interventions, which aim at understanding the
existing risk factors.
LITERATURE REVIEW
7
References
Betz, M. E., Azrael, D., Barber, C., & Miller, M. (2016). Public opinion regarding whether
speaking with patients about firearms is appropriate: Results of a national survey. Annals
of Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-0739
Gehrke, J. (2013, February 08). Politics. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from
http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/el-paso-americas-safest-big-city-undermineschicagos-case-for-gun-control/article/2520974
Miller, M., Hepburn, L., & Azrael, D. (2017). Firearm acquisition without background checks:
Results of a national survey. Annals of Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.7326/M161590
Reid, J. A., Richards, T. N., Loughran, T. A., & Mulvey, E. P. (2017). The relationships among
exposure to violence, psychological distress, and gun carrying among male adolescents
found guilty of serious legal offenses: A longitudinal cohort study. Annals of Internal
Medicine, 166(6), 412–418. https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-1648
Pinto, A. D. (2008). Engaging health professionals in advocacy against gun violence. Medicine,
conflict and survival, 24(4), 285-295.
Franco, E. L., Shinder, G. A., Tota, J. E., & Isidean, S. D. (2015). An elusive low-hanging fruit
for public health: gun violence prevention. Preventive Medicine, 791-2.
doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.06.008
LITERATURE REVIEW
8
Frattaroli, S., Webster, D. W., & Wintemute, G. J. (2013). Implementing a public health
approach to gun violence prevention: the importance of physician engagement. Annals Of
Internal Medicine, 158(9), 697-698. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-158-9-201305070-00597
Gill, C., Weisburd, D., Telep, C. W., Vitter, Z., & Bennett, T. (2014). Community-oriented
policing to reduce crime, disorder, fear, increase satisfaction, and legitimacy among
citizens: a systematic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), 399-428.
Does Having Stricter Gun Laws Increase Gun Violence?
The United Stated of America has been known as the place for dreams to come true.
Many people move to the USA for better opportunities and better jobs. The USA though, which
is home of the free, comes with many laws and regulations that we must follow and live by,
while we are living here. We also have rights that have been given to us as the free people. One
of these rights in particular is the Second Amendment of the United States Constitution. The
Second Amendment of the United States Constitution reads: “A well-regulated Militia, being
necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not
be infringed”.
In the most basic form of explanation what this means is that you have the right to own
and possess weapons (arms) for your own defense and protection from others who are looking to
do you harm. There are some weapons that you can just buy freely at a local gun shop or at a
hunting and sporting goods store. Other weapons are a little harder to obtain because you have to
take a special course to earn a license in order to be able to acquire that weapon. And then there
are weapons that are so powerful and dangerous that are completely illegal. So even though we
have the right to bear arms, we still have to follow certain guidelines in order to practice our
second amendment right.
Of course, there is always someone who will come in violation of these rights. It seems
our right to bear arms is slowly being taken away because of stricter gun laws. Gun violence is
increasing in our country every year. Statistics have been collected on the number of people who
have been wounded, shot, murdered, and committed suicide through the use of fire arms. There
is gun related violence happening every in the US and El Paso, TX is no different. But El Paso,
TX can not be as bad as it is in Chicago, Illinois.
Statistics:
Studies and research have shown us that gun violence reaches anyone from all age
groups. “Every day, 315 people in America are shot in murders, assaults, suicides & suicide
attempts, unintentional shootings, and police intervention.” – (Brady Campaign, Key Gun
Violence).
A statistic analysis provided by the Brady campaign shows that that every day, 93 people
die from gun violence. Out of those 93 people, the break down goes as follows. 32 of them are
murdered. 58 people die from suicide. At least 1 is killed unintentionally and 1 killed by legal
intervention. There are also some that die with the intent unknown. Not everyone who is shot
must face the grim reaper. The statistic also provides the information of people who were shot
and survived. There are 222 people that were shot and survive. Here is the break down as
follows. There were 164 people injured in an attack. Out of the people who attempted suicide, 10
survived. Even the innocent are caught in the crossfire because 45 people were shot
unintentionally. And finally, 3 of them are shot in a legal intervention. Which could mean they
were shot down legally by the cops.
These numbers show us what it is like to deal with gun violence on a daily basis.
What kind of numbers are we looking at if it was averaged out for a whole year? Well, in 1 year
there were 114,994 people in America that were shot. Out of the 114, 994 people, 33,880 people
die and 81,114 survived.
EL PASO:
El Paso is considered one of the safest big cities in America. But why? How is this
possible? When it should be one of the scariest and dangerous places to live in. El Paso is really
high in immigration, ¾ of its population is Hispanic and 25% of that are foreign born. It is very
likely that many residents in El Paso are living and working here illegally. El Paso sits right on
the border to one of the world’s most dangerous cities, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. El Paso, with a
hostile neighbor, a population full of immigrants, illegal residents, high in poverty rates, low in
household income, and a lax in gun control policies, should amount to a chaotic city. “Here’s the
surprise: There were just 18 murders in El Paso last year, in a city of 736,000 people. To
compare, Baltimore, with 637,000 residents, had 234 killings”. – Balko, Radley (2009)
It seems that perhaps the reason why the city is considered safe is because of the high
number of immigrants. Studies show that immigrants are less likely to commit a crime than the
native born. In a way it’s as if they practice good behavior so to not be caught and thrown out of
the country, while the native born take for granted that they live here and take advantage of their
rights and privileges.
So, what are the gun laws in El Paso? According to the Texas Department of Public
Safety, there are 11,913 residents that have a concealed gun license in El Paso County. Now,
license holders are be able to carry their handguns openly in a holster. A license for rifles and
shotguns is not required in the state of Texas. On university campuses, there is a separate
provision that allows you to carry concealed weapons and they are required to be on a holster. To
qualify for a license, you must have a state-issued license, be at least 21 years old or 18 if
military, pass an approved training course and shooting test and have no criminal or
psychological issues that prohibit them from possessing guns.
CHICAGO:
Compared to El Paso’s 18-gun related murders in 1 year, Chicago overshot that number
with a total of 766-gun deaths! “Police say rifles are increasingly becoming popular because,
well, “they are deadlier.” “Rifle bullets can tear through cars and other obstacles, including
standard-issue bulletproof vests worn by Chicago police,” the Tribune reports.” – Daley, William
M. (2017)
Chicago’s gun violence is mainly committed against and by black males. It also targets
many innocent bystanders caught in the crossfire. Including young boys and girls of all ages.
Most of the killings occur in black neighborhoods and most of the victims are black. The
community also has a lack of trust in their fellow police department and may even consider them
as part of the problem. Chicago citizens demand a higher urgency and efficient way to combat
gun violence.
There have been many suggestions like “providing stricter gun laws,” to bring down the
gun violence. For example, Illinois must require a mandatory jail time for people carrying guns
illegally. This enforces gun laws justly. Another helpful tip is giving police leeway to stop and
search suspects for illegal firearms. This would resemble New York’s “Stop & Frisk” policy.
Unreasonable searches and racial profiling will not be accepted and to avoid this, Chicago police
department need better training, recruitment, and full accountability of their actions. Part of a
police officers job is to prevent crime before it happens. Not just show up and clean up the mess.
Chicago is without a doubt a dangerous city to live in and yet many citizens continue on
their lives as if the violence will not reach them. Just halfway through the year of 2017 and
Chicago’s number of gun related violence (deaths and injuries) was at 323 people.
CONCLUSION:
I believe that gun control will not work. Taking guns away from violent people will not
make them less violent. In fact, it might even make them more violent due to the fact that they
just had something taken away from them which was their right to have in the first place. Guns
are only 1 in a thousand ways that a violent person can use to hurt, steal, or kill people.
Another thing that a criminal does not need is anyone’s “PERMISSION” to do what they
set out for. People become criminals from engaging in illegal activities and breaking the law.
Therefore, criminals will just ignore the fact that the weapons they have hidden under their shirts
or in their cars, are illegal. A ban on guns isn’t going to work just like the current ban on drugs is
failing. Another ban that has failed in the past is the Prohibition from 1919. The prohibition
banned the owning, producing, and selling of alcohol. Many thought that alcohol was a bad thing
that caused people to do terrible things. So, it seemed like a good idea at the time to make
alcohol illegal. However, outlaws and gang members decided to keep making alcohol anyway
and the Prohibition failed. Even though I don’t think it will work, I am in favor of very strict gun
control AND removal of guns from the hands of criminals.
REFERENCES
•
Balko, R. (2009, July) The El Paso Miracle. Retrieved from
http://reason.com/archives/2009/07/06/the-el-paso-miracle
•
Brady Campaign To Prevent Gun Violence. (2016). Key Gun Violence Statistics.
Retrieved from https://www.bradycampaign.org/key-gun-violencestatistics?gclid=CjwKCAiAr_TQBRB5EiwAC_QCq05m5GQdsRPRosJ_lsNBLq
TgKmPOdNrUIxXEdCOAICPggNTnjSAOnRoCYV0QAvD_BwE
•
Daley, W.M. (2017, March) Enough! Chicago Cannot Keep Tolerating Gun Violence.
Retrieved from http://www.chi …
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