I need proofread, check grammar, spelling, punctuation, transition, add or delete information. anything can help to improve this research.The theses is: Self-driving cars will improve transportation,
increase safety, cut cost, but put millions out of work.
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Self-driving car is a robotic car that can sense the surrounding environment without
human control. People think that the history of self-driving cars started few years ago, but the
experiment on this kind of cars began in 1925, as Luke Dormhel says, the inventor Francis
Houdina demonstrates a radio-controlled car, which he drives through the streets of
Manhattan without anyone at the steering wheel (Digital trends). Then, the first self-driving
car appeared in 1995s through the NavLab labs of Carnegie Mellon University. Since then,
many large corporations have developed prototypes of self-driving vehicles. The development
of these vehicles has grown rapidly with the participation of many automotive and technology
companies, including General Motors, Toyota, Apple, Google, Intel, Audi, BMW, and Tesla.
Furthermore, in 2009 Google began manufacturing and developing self-driving technology to
build a self-propelled car, and tested it with Toyota cars on highways in California in the same
year. According to the DMV, In May 2012, Nevada, issued the first license for a self-driving
car (Dmvnv), and that year Google announced that the self-driving car had completed half a
million kilometers of self-driving on freeways without accidents. And few years after that some
states such as; Nevada, Florida, California, Virginia and Michigan allowed to test self-driving
cars on the public roads. After that some countries allowed to experience self-driving countries
like British and Singapore. In few years roads will be full of self-driving cars. However, selfdriving cars have advantages and disadvantages. Self-driving cars will improve transportation,
increase safety, cut cost, but put millions out of work.
Self-driving cars will reduce traffic congestion. There won’t be any slower cars or faster
cars. And cars will drive the same speed, so that will reduce the need for brake pressure, which
is a major cause of traffic congestion. In addition, reducing traffic congestion will contribute to
maintaining peoples health. Traffic jams have been shown to cause high blood pressure,
depression and tension, as well as poor sleep ability. Similarly, self-driving cars have high-tech
sensors that can precisely detect distances between vehicles, and able to maintain certain
distance at high speed. Therefore, the distance between cars can be significantly shortened,
which eases traffic at peak times. As a result, speed limit will be elevated, which alleviates
traffic congestion. Furthermore, self-driving cars will help a lot in saving time. For example, the
self-driving car can drop and pick the passengers door to the door instead of humans wasting
time going to the parking lots to ride their cars. This will create efficiency and make things more
organized. However, self-driving cars will be able to communicate with the cars around them to
find the most appropriate ways to travel and reach the destination as soon as possible. Another
reason for traffic jam is accidents. Even if the accidents do not block the road, drivers still slow
down to see the accidents and that increases the traffic.
Furthermore, self-driving cars will improve safety. The safety feature is one of the most
important features of self-driving cars. The rate of technology error and artificial intelligence is
less than normal human error, and the car is equipped with a lot of modern technology to
accurately locate the path. However, based on Road Crash Statistics, nearly 1.3 million people
die in road crashes each year, on average 3,287 deaths a day. An additional 20-50 million are
injured or disabled. More than half of all road traffic deaths occur among young adults ages 1544 (ASIRT). Studies have shown that self-driving cars can increase safety on the roads and thus
reduce the number of deaths significantly. For example, some vehicles are fitted with frontimpact warning systems that warn drivers or automatically use the brakes during emergency,
which have already contributed to reduced accident. So, self-driving cars will eliminate the
human factor causing up to 90% of traffic accidents, which will significantly reduce accidents.
However, self-driving cars may have software errors because of the complexity of the program
that controls the vehicle, but they are free of dispersion and risky behaviors that are currently
the most common causes of traffic accidents. In the near term, semiautomatic safety systems
will only be used to prevent accidents, leaving the rest of the driving functions for the driver,
which can significantly reduce the human errors while driving.
Additionally, self-driving cars will reduce the cost and save money. As technology is
taking over, parents will decide not to spend money on driving lessons and let their children
wait for self-driving vehicles. Also, people can save their money and not buy a car. People can
use self-driving cars instead of own vehicles. Studies show that each self-driving taxi may
replace six to ten privately owned vehicles. Self-driving vehicles will not just save money for
parents and families, but it will save money for the state as Lindsey Patterson says, these cars
will also help the states improve the level of their economy because they will save about $99
billion annually that would have been spent in car crashes (Tech Zone 360). Similarly, selfdriving vehicles will reduce cost of paid drivers for taxis and commercial transport and will
encourage groups travelling together to save some money. Furthermore, self-driving vehicles
will reduce carbon emissions. According to the Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, In 2015,
greenhouse gas emissions from transportation accounted for about 27 percent of total U.S.
greenhouse gas emissions, making it the second largest contributor of U.S. greenhouse gas
emissions after the Electricity sector (EPA.gov). As a fact, self-driving cars can be the solution
to this problem. They identify roads, know where the traffic is, and therefore choose the most
appropriate ways to go, so they can reduce fuel consumption. Thus, the use of self-driving
vehicles can reduce carbon emissions.
However, self-driving vehicles have a major impact on the job market. Since the selfdriving vehicles are the bright future in which traffic accidents reduced, there are some fear
that these vehicles have a negative impact on the labor market. In the United States, there are
three million people that are worried that their job will be replaced by self-driving vehicles;
those are truck drivers, taxi drivers or delivery trucks. Many companies started testing selfdriving trucks and one company, Otto has succeed to deliver without a driver. Self-driving
trucks can reduce traffic fatalities, which is more than one million people worldwide every year.
Most accidents occur due to fatigue, distraction or driver failed to make quick reaction during
emergency. However self-driving trucks will provide opportunities for new employees such as
engineers, but the shift from normal trucks to self-driving ones will but the drivers and the truck
drivers out of work, also, their ability to find new jobs will be difficult. Additionally, self-driving
vehicles can reduce insurance cost due to fewer accidents. As a result, there will be a reduction
in insurance representative jobs. The reduction in accidents will not only impact insurance
markets, but will also impact the jobs related to other car repairs such as body shops,
mechanics, and my also affect some injury lawyers. The insurance money plays a large role in
covering health costs, legal fees and other car repairs. The self-driving vehicles will reduce the
insurance costs, and as a result impact the fields that are tied to this industry.
In conclusion, self-driving vehicles are no longer imaginative or futuristic as we see in
the movies. There are already self-driving features in the cars, because when people define selfdriving vehicles half of the meaning goes to the vehicle that can control steering, brake, and
speeding. With self-driving appearing several ethical issues have emerged, although having selfdriving vehicles mean a significant reduction in the number of accidents up to 90%, as well as
benefits to the people with disabilities, older persons and young passengers, also, will benefit
the environment as these cars will probably be running on electric energy. However, several
ethical issues remain to be resolved as ethical, financial and criminal liability in case of accidents
and the decisions that a vehicle must take before a fatal accident, for example, if the vehicle is
in a position where it must choose between running over one of the pedestrians or colliding
with a passenger bus. Furthermore, self-driving vehicles will improve social welfare as can
improve traffic jams, and increase safety, this kind of technology has negative impacts and risks,
but these negative impacts seem limited with the potential gains.
Dormehl, Luke. Sit Back, Relax, and Enjoy a Ride through the History of Self-Driving Cars.
Digital Trends, 3 Nov. 2017
News Release. Nevada DMV Issues First Autonomous Vehicle Testing License to Google.
Patterson, Lindsey. Can Driverless Cars Eliminate Traffic?
Road Crash Statistics.
Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, 14 Apr. 2017,
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