attached is the final paper instructions, a sample final paper, and the week 3 rough draft. Please read the instructions carefully to ensure the paper addresses all instructions. I am not attaching the reading material as i have already provided them. however, should you need it, please let me know and i will attached them.
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Final Paper: In your rough draft, you chose an ethical issue to write about. It is strongly
recommended that you write about the same topic for your final draft.
In your paper, you will apply ethical theories and perspectives to the issue that you select. You
do not have to use all six, but you should apply at least two ethical theories and at least one
ethical perspective in your paper. Make sure that you write primarily on ethical topics and
concepts, aiming to be both balanced and intellectually driven in your work. Think about the
evidence that helps to make your case and use it.
Address the following questions:
What are the ethical issues?
Where are there breaches of ethical behavior?
How could each ethical theory you cite help people think about what constitutes virtuous
or ethical behavior?
The paper must be 1500-1800 words in length (excluding title and references pages) and
formatted according to APA style. Excluding the textbook, you must use at least five scholarly
sources from the Ashford University Library to support your claims.
The Final Paper
Must be 1500-1800 words in length (not including title and references pages), doublespaced, and formatted according to APA style.
Must include a separate title page with the following:
o Title of paper
o Students name
o Course name and number
o Instructors name
o Date submitted
Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
Must use at least six scholarly sources 5 from the Ashford University Library and one
must be from the required reading material.
Running head: ETHICAL CONTRIBUTIONS
(Including a Running head and page numbers help to keep your assignment organized.)
Are Contributions to Political Campaigns Ethical?
SOC120: Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility (Course Section)
Week 5 Final Paper
Dr. Ashford Instructor
July, 1, 20XX
Ethical Contributions to Political Campaigns
A question that comes up frequently in political discussions is whether organizations like
corporations have too much influence over the political landscape today. Corporations have
many resources through which to effect political change, including lobbyists, quid pro quo back
door arrangements and campaign contributions. Because these funds can have a large influence
on who wins elections and the legislation that politicians support, it is important for an educated
citizenry to be aware of these contributions, and to consider their ethical implications. I will
argue that from the utilitarian perspective, indirect contributions to political campaigns by
organizations like corporations and unions can be ethical and should be allowed so long as there
are sufficient regulations in place to prevent undue harm that might result from giving large
organizations too much influence over the political process. I will contrast this view with that of
ethical egoism, which would argue that such contributions are ethical inasmuch as they allow
corporations to pursue their own long term interests.
According to the Federal Elections Commission (2004), “The Federal Election Campaign
Act (the Act) places monetary limits on contributions to support candidates for federal office and
prohibits contributions from certain sources.” However, corporations are allowed to create
separate bank accounts and then make donations from these accounts to political campaigns as
long as they are not connected directly to the operation of the business. Regarding this type of
donation, the FEC (2004) stated that, “Contributions may be made from separate segregated
funds (also called political action committees or PACs) established by corporations, labor
organizations, national banks, and incorporated membership organizations. In other words,
corporations can set up PACs that in turn give large amounts of money to support candidates.
Because these funds can have a large influence on who wins elections and the legislation that
they support, it is important for an educated citizenry to be aware of the potential ethical impacts
of these contributions. The sections that follow address how two of the most important moral
theories would address this issue.
Utilitarianism is the moral theory that actions are right or wrong in proportion to the
degree to which they promote the happiness of all concerned (Mill, 2015). Accordingly, whether
or not corporate campaign contributions are ethical will depend on the overall consequences of
such contributions. If a corporations making a contribution results in better overall
consequences than not making it, or than making a different contribution, then the contribution
would be considered ethical. On the other hand, if the contribution results in more harm than
good, then the contribution would be unethical. For instance, a contribution to a candidate could
be unethical if it results in benefits to the corporation itself, but does so at the expense of many
others in the society. The primary question of this paper is not whether particular cases of such
contributions are wrong, but whether corporate contributions to political campaigns are wrong in
general; that is, does permitting them have greater overall consequences than banning them
would have? I will argue that with careful oversight, the benefits of such contributions can
outweigh their potential harms, so allowing them is ethical from a utilitarian point of view.
There are various reasons that representatives of a corporation may want to make
donations to a political campaign. Corporations may be trying to advance their particular
organizational objectives or they may stand to garner an economic benefit. While a corporation
will always be concerned with its own future profits, this does not necessarily conflict with the
interests of society as a whole. In many cases, attempting to have a political influence that
benefits the corporation can also benefit society as a whole. For example, a contribution that
helps a corporation to succeed in the market place can result in the continued employment of
thousands of people, as well as the provision of important goods and services at lower prices.
Another example of the positive use of political contributions comes not from
corporations but from unions. According to the Center for Responsive Politics (2016), the largest
all-time contributors to campaigns has been labor unions such as the Service Employees
International Union (SEIU) which ranked number one with $228,096,452 in donations since
1989. They were far ahead of the next two contributors which were the National Education
Association with $96,619,681 in donations and the American Federation of
State/County/Municipal Employees Union with $96,445,616 in total contributions. The millions
of dollars from these political contributions have served to promote the goals of their union,
which in turn promote the well-being of the many members of the American work force that they
In the case of the unions, the PACs representing them contribute to political campaigns in
an effort to maximize the benefits to their union members. The SEIU represents members from
many different industries with varying and diverse concerns and needs. According to Center for
Responsive Politics (2016) the SEIU’s top issues for lobbying are Health Issues, Labor/AntiTrust and Workplace, Immigration, Federal Budget and Appropriations, and Economics and
Economic Development. Considering the fact that the unions are frequently made up of service
industry employees like healthcare workers, janitors, security guards, public service employees,
home care workers, building service workers, probation and parole officers, the SEIU political
lobbying can benefit not just members of the union but also millions of other workers engaged in
similar professions. Legislation passed to support the interests of SEIU members can thus be
beneficial to the American workforce in general and thus to society as a whole. It would seem
that in cases like these political contributions from organizations can have great overall benefits
and thus be ethical from a utilitarian perspective.
Even though such contributions can be ethical in particular cases, however, this does not
necessarily mean that it would be ethical to legally permit all such contributions. Its also
possible for political contributions by organizations to be harmful to society. Corporations have
sometimes used their considerable influence to create legislation that is harmful to workers,
human rights, and the environment (Burley and Hoedeman, 2011).
While there are certainly negative consequences that can result from allowing corporate
contributions, rather than banning them outright, we can put in place regulations designed to
limit the amount of harm that might result from them. For instance, we could require
transparency that would enable the public to know which corporations are closely connected to
which PACs, and thus whether a politician is (indirectly) receiving large contributions from a
particular corporation. This could, in turn, shed light on whether certain laws and policies are
being passed primarily for the benefit of those corporations, rather than for the public good. With
such regulations in place, allowing corporations and unions to contribute to political campaigns it
is more likely to do more good than harm and thus be ethical from a utilitarian point of view.
Ethical egoism is the moral theory that one should do whatever is in ones own interests
(Mosser, 2013). This does not mean that one should do whatever one feels like in the moment,
but that one should work hard to promote ones greatest long term success. When corporations
donate to political campaigns they generally will do so with the goal of promoting their own
financial interests, and thus are acting ethically according to the egoist theory. Some may feel
that this kind of self-interested influence is unethical. One can imagine a business supporting
legislation that promotes its own interests to the detriment of society as a whole. For example,
corporations have often used their considerable influence to create legislation favorable to their
own interests but not to the interests of employees, human rights, or the environment (Burley and
Hoedeman, 2011). Because a lot of harm can come to society from such influence, some may
feel that this degree of power in the hands of self-interested corporations should not be allowed.
Such concerns, however, assume that the metric by which we measure the ethicality of an
action is based on its overall social consequences, which reflects a utilitarian perspective.
According to ethical egoism, one is not responsible to society as a whole, but to ones own long
term success. According to this theory, a corporations only responsibility would be to its own
long term interests. Such a view is reflected in the work of the economist Milton Friedman, who
argues that increasing its own profits is the sole ethical responsibility of a business (Friedman,
One can even argue that the corporate pursuit of self-interest is actually beneficial to
society as a whole. If corporations did not seek to promote their own financial success, then over
time they would collapse, and all of their employees would be out of work. Capitalism itself
works by assuming that companies and individuals will seek to increase their own financial
success. This results in competition, which in turn ensures that product quality, supply levels,
and prices find an optimal balance between the interests of corporations and consumers (Smith,
2007). Without this egoistic perspective, it can be argued, our economy would collapse. With it,
our economy grows and prospers.
One can think of the balance of interests involved in corporate contributions with the
analogy of a courtroom. In a trial, it is the duty of the prosecution and defense attorneys to
defend opposite sides of a case as well as possible. It is through this balance that we achieve an
approximation of fairness in the courtroom. So it is with corporate political contributions. There
are political contributions made on all sides of political issues. There are PACs representing
environmental, regulatory, workforce, human rights, corporate, and other interests. With the
contributions of all of these parties, various interests groups are able to have their voices heard in
the American political process so that a proper balance can be struck.
Donations from organizations to political campaigns can drive legislation and thus have a
major influence on public policy in this country. While this influence can have positive and
negative impacts, this paper argues that such contributions should be allowed as they satisfy the
ethical egoist goal of allowing corporations to promote their own interests, and, at least when
regulated, can satisfy the utilitarian goal of a promoting a happier society as well. One significant
difference between the two approaches is that the utilitarian view would insist on certain
regulations designed to limit the harmful results that could result from organizations donating in
ways that promote their own interests. However, the ethical egoist would disagree, and maintain
that the freedom of organizations to promote their interests has the highest priority; thus, the
egoist would likely oppose most kinds of regulations on political contributions by organizations.
Both theories appear to agree, however, that, at least when carefully regulated, corporations
should be allowed to make political contributions that further their long term interests.
Burley, H., & Hoedeman, O. (2011). The best influence money can buy the 10 worst corporate
lobbyists. New Internationalist Magazine. Retrieved July 11, 2016 from
Center for Responsive Politics (2016). Service employees international union. Retrieved July 1,
Daigle, C. (2006). Nietzsche: Virtue Ethics Virtue Politics? Journal of Nietzsche Studies 32, 121.
Federal Election Commission (FEC). (2004, February). Contributions (Updated February 2016).
Retrieved May 8, 2016, from:
Friedman, M. (1970, September 13). The social responsibility of business is to increase its
profits. The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved July 11, 2016 from
Kelsen, H. (1948). Absolutism and relativism in philosophy and politics. The American Political
Science Review 42(5), 906-914. Retrieved May 22, 2016, from
Mill, J. S. (2008). Utilitarianism. In J. Bennett (Ed. & Rev.) Early Modern Philosophy. Retrieved
July 11, 2016 from http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/mill1863.pdf
Mosser, K. (2013). Ethics and social responsibility 2e. Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Smith, A. (2007). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Retrieved
July 11, 2016 from http://www.ibiblio.org/ml/libri/s/SmithA_WealthNations_p.pdf.
Teachout, T. (2001). Prime-time patriotism. Commentary 112(4), 51. Retrieved from:
Running Head; Ethical Considerations in Human Trafficking
Ethical Considerations in Human Trafficking
Ethical Considerations in Human Trafficking
Ethical Considerations in Human Trafficking
The issue of human trafficking in modern day has been a subject of ethical discussions as
ethicists seek to breakdown the ethical factors surrounding the issue. Human trafficking is a form
of modern-day slavery whereby the proprietors seek to profit from the exploitation and control of
others. The common forms of human trafficking are defined as; sex trafficking, recruitment and
exploitation of human beings for purposes of forced labor and subjection to involuntary
servitude, and subjection of people to forced begging (De Angelis, 2016). Human trafficking is
driven by profits with the victims often being lured with the promise to economic benefits.
According to a global report on Trafficking of persons by the United Nations Office on
Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2009), sexual exploitation accounts for 79% of the total number of
victims while forced labor accounts for 18% of the victims. Other forms such as forceful begging
and trafficking for illegal organ harvesting also account for a significant percentage although
they are not reported frequently. Globally, children make up about 20% of the victims trafficked.
Other statistics show that approximately 80% of the victims are women and children. These
statistics show the intensity of the crisis and raises the need for countermeasures to deal with the
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory that evaluates the morality of an action by
looking at its outcomes or consequences (Mosser, 2013). Given a set of choices, the right action
when chosen is the one that produces the best results for the greatest number of people affected.
The moral value of human trafficking can be evaluated by evaluating its consequences on those
affected. If human trafficking results in positive overall outcomes compared to the results of not
trafficking, then it can be judged to be ethical. On the contrary, if it results in more harm than
Ethical Considerations in Human Trafficking
good, then it is unethical. The purpose of this paper is to explore and determine whether human
trafficking is ethically acceptable or not, by assessing the moral acceptability of the results of the
action, by comparing the nature of the outcomes of human trafficking to those of banning the
trafficking. I will argue and demonstrate that banning human trafficking brings about social
benefits in promoting human and social welfare.
Trafficking takes different forms including sex trafficking, involuntary domestic
servitude forced child labor, and debt bondage among others. Whereas trafficking is a crime
under international law, it still continues to be an international crisis. Human trafficking has
become widespread taking other different forms in the domestic and international settings.
Victims do not have to be physically transported to a different location for them to be classified
The final paper will examine the drivers and outcomes of human trafficking on
individuals, families and entire society. The examination will be important in explaining the
countermeasures placed to deal with the crisis.
Deontology evaluates the moral value by looking at the reasons for which the action is
done and the rules according to which one chooses to act. However, the theory does not dispute
that actions have consequences, but it only insists that the consequences should not play a role in
the moral evaluation of the action (Mosser, 2013). Deontologists argue that human beings have
the moral obligation to treat others with respect and when dealing with them, they should take
their dignity into consideration. Typically, it is morally wrong to treat another person as simply a
means to their end but should regard others as ends themselves. Under this theory, actions are
right when they are universally acceptable and wrong when they are not accepted universally.
Ethical Considerations in Human Trafficking
Human trafficking is facilitated by economic interests. Traffickers are on …
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