Identify each terms in reading (No internet source)

Exam Instructions:For each concept, identify a reading in which it is used, and a quote that discusses the idea (even if it doesn’t use the concept by name.) Provide the title of reading, the author’s name, and the page number(s) of the quote that you are referring to. In your own words, explain what the quote means in the context of the reading, and how that quote illuminates the concept. The quote cannot speak for you; you need to reiterate the meaning of the quote, to show to us that you understand what it is saying. The longer the quote, the more explanation will be necessary. Moreover, the quote alone may be insufficient to explain the meaning of the concept as it is used in a given article. Add any additional information necessary to explain how the author understands the concept. Though not essential, drawing connections with other readings or terms may strengthen your answer. Finally, you must explain what is at stake when the concept is used in the reading.Readings and concepts: (No INTERNET SOURCE)Affect:1.Emotion and reason binary 2.Vocabulary of affect (shame) and race3.Public life of feelingsNeoliberalism:1.Ideology of free market2.Individual assumption of responsibility and riskChapter 6 (Kamoto):1.International marriage as distinct from intermarriage2.Method of “advancing” the level of “civilization” of the Japanese3.Stigma, or lack thereofChapter 7 (Robertson):1.Eugenics (“instrumental and selective procreation”)2.Science and nation-building connection3.Lamarckian fallacies4.Impact on womenChapter 16 (King O’Riain):1.Complex relationship between race and culture2.Function of beauty pageants in communities3.Authenticity4.Ways to embody cultureChapter 17 (Hall):1.Marginal man2.Dual minority3.Ethnic identity and gender, language, cultural knowledgeChapter 29 (Nishime):1.How do we see “race”?2.Tragic and optimistic associations with mixed race Time, space, face3.Vision as mediated4.Legibility of appearances5.Representations of race
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natural phenomena. These categories form the basis for
1
of the self as possessing a depth or interiority evident
Affect
in the supposed natural truth of feelings (Foucault
Ann Cvetkovich
1976/1990). Following this line of research, the affective
modern notions of subjectivity and power that conceive
turn takes up debates about the construction of binary
“Affect” names a conceptual problem as much as a
oppositions betw_!en reason and emotion and the
tangible thing. As such, it is best understood as an
reversal of hierarchies that subordinate emotion to
umbrella term that includes related, and more familiar,
reason as part of a mind/body split often associated with
words such as “feeling” and “emotion,” as well as
the seventeenth-century philosopher Rene Descartes.
efforts to make distinctions among them. The Oxford
In the Cartesian worldview, passions, instincts, and
English Dictionary (OED) traces the history of the term
feelings are unruly and uncontrollable, requ iring
to the seventeenth century, aligning i t with “desire”
subordination to the rational control of reason and
or “passion” and opposing it to “reason.” Further
the mind-a hierarchical ordering that has sometimes
specifying that “affect” is both a “mental” and a “bodily”
led to a romantic embrace of their subversive power. In
disposition, the OED sets in place a persistent ambiguity
response to such reversals, Foucault’s critique of the idea
that challenges distinctions between mind and body.
that freedom of expression and resistance to repression
More technical uses of the term emerge from mid­
constitutes political liberation has inspired cautionary
twentieth-century scientific psychology, where “affect”
accounts of the politics of affect. Efforts to historicize
designates sensory processes or experiences prior to
subjectivity and to conceive of the self in non-Cartesian
cognition and distinguishes such sensations from the
terms have required new conceptions of affect, em?tion,
cognitive processes that produce emotions (Damasio
and feeling. Indeed, the use of the term “affect” rather
1994). Because affect, emotions, and feelings stand at the
than “feeling” or “emotion” arguably stems from_the
intersection of mind and body, cognition and sensation,
desire to find a more neutral word,_J;iven the strong
and conscious and unconscious or autonomic processes,
vernacular associations of “feeling” and “emotion” with
it Is not easy to Identify the material basis for their social
irrationality.
….

—-



and historical construction, which includes parts of the
Within cultural studies, the project of aS£ounting
body (nerves, brains, or guts) as well as environments
for social life a?tifal economy through ?eryday
and transpersonal relations.
and ?s?l)’_exe,eriences, includlru;_feelings, has an
As the recent declaration of an “affective turn”
in American studies and cultural studies sugges ts
extensive history. Affect, emotion, and feeling have been
(Clough and Halley 2007; Gregg and Seigworth 2010),
psychoanalysis and to theorize the relations between
central to long-standing efforts to combine Marxism and
the current prominence of “affect” as a keyword
the psychic and the social, the private and the public.
represents the convergeQCe of?an?strands of thinking.
Psychoanalysis has used “affect” and related categories
Foundational for both fields are French theorist Michel
as part of a vocabulary for drives, unconscious processes,
Foucault’s histories of the social construction of
and the psychic energies created by both internal and
categories such as body, gender, and sex that seem like
external stimuli. The term “affect” is also present in
13
social and cultural theories that seek alternatives to
emotion binary, the often essentializing assumption
psychoanalytic models, such as Eve Sedgwick’s use of
that women are more emotional or nurturing than
Sylvan Tompkins, who describes nine affects that link
men, and claims for affective expression’s liberatory
outward behavior with mental and physical states
possibilities. Instead, this scholarship has provided
(Sedgwick and Frank 1995; Sedgwick 2003). Whether
rich and nuanced histories of the centrality of feeling
drawing on psychoanalysis or on its alternatives, accounts
to the relations between private and public spheres
of psychic life and felt experience have been important
and especially of how the intimate life of romance, the
to cultural studies in its efforts to explain the social and
family, and the domestic sphere serves as the foundation
political uses of feeling (including the divide between
for social relations of power (Davidson and Hatcher

reason and emotion) and to negotiate differences of
2002). In the field of American studies, scholarship
scale between the local and the global, the intimate and
on categories such as sentimentality, sensationalism,
the collective. Raymond Williams’s elusively suggestive
sympathy, melodrama, and the gothic has shown
term “structure o?ing” (1977/1997, 128-35) is a good
how cultural genres, especially fiction, produce social
example of the use of the vocabulary of feeling to describe
effects through mobilizing feeling (Tompkins 1985;
how social conditions are manifest in everyday life and
S. Samuels 1992; Cvetkovich 1992; Halberstam 1995).
how felt experience can be the foundation for emergent
Attention to affect is the culmination of several decades
social formations. Rather than being attached to one
of feminist scholarship on clusters of related terms such
theoretical school or discipline, “affect” has named
as “domesticity,” “family,” and “marriage,” as well as on
multiple projects and agendas, including broad inquiry
the historical continuities that link women’s popular
into the public life of feelings. Following Williams, the
genres, such as domestic and sentimental novels,
vernacular term “feeling” remains a useful way to signify
theatrical melodrama, and women’s film (L. Williams
these projects, which extend beyond the question of
2002; Berlant 2008).
specifying what affects are.
The far-reaching impact of feminist approaches
Though the affective turn has conceptual roots
14
to feeling and politics, including their relevance to
in Marxism and psychoanalysis, it has also been
histories of racism and colonialism, is exemplified by
significantly catalyzed by feminist critiques of the
genderlng of dichotomies between reason and
sch? larship on the sentimental politics of a£2!iti9n
in texts such as Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s
emotion, which made their way into the academy from
Cabin (1852/1981), nineteenth-century slave narratives,
popular culture and political movements. The 1970s
and contemporary neo-slave narratives. Stowe uses
feminist cultures of consciousness raising reversed
representations of slave mothers separated from
the disparaging association of femininity with feeling
their children and innocent slaves being beaten to
and, in a version of the discourse of sexual revolution,
.
celebrated emotional expression as a source of feminine
generate appeals to universal feeling as the marker of
power associated with social and political liberation
witnessing the evils of slavery. Scenes of sexual intimacy
(Sarachild 1978; Lorde 1984b). Subsequent generations
between master and slave prove more a ffectively
of scholarship in feminist cultural studies have been
complex, howev? Incidents in the Life ofa Sla¥f_Girl
more skeptical about an easy reversal of the reason/
(1861/zoor), in which Harriet jacobs grapples with
AFfiCT
the humanity of slaves and as the inherent result of
ANN
CVETKOVICH
how to represent her sexual relations with white men
relation tGJ the past and whether it is ever possible to
without losing the reader’s sympathy. Toni Morrison’s
complete the work of mourning, particularly while
historical novel Beloved (1987) further challenges the
social suffering is ongoing. Drawing on psychoanalytic
tradition of the sympathetic slave mother by telling the
categories of mourning and melancholy, critical” race
story of a woman who tries to kill her three children
theory and queer studies (especially work on AIDS) have
in order to protect them from slavery, aiming for a
produced new theories of melancholy or unfinished
mQre complex representation of the affective life of
mourning as productive rather than pathological. These
slavery than stark scenes of innocence and guilt. The
fields depart from psychoanalytic categories of affect
powerful fusion of secular forms of religious feeling and
and trauma in favor of vernacular vocabularies of affect
maternal sentiment in abolitionist discourses provides
in indigenous, diasporic, and queer cultures (Crimp
a model for the representation of social suffering that
2002; Eng and Kazanjian 2002; Cvetkovich 2003).
has had a lasting impact on U.S. cultural politics in
Queer studies has also made important contributions
both popular entertainment and the news media.
to embracing ostensibly negative emotions such as
What Lauren Berlant (2008) has called the “unfinished
shame and melancholy, as well as theorizing queer
business of sentimentality” persists not just in popular
temporalities that favor a ffectively meaningful
genres produced for women but also in realist and
representations of the past rather than accurate or
documentary forms of representation, including
realist documentation (Love 2007; E. Freeman 201o).
human rights discourses, in which spectacles of
While these critical histories of affect as a cultural
charged represe ?ion is part of every?ife across
American studies, a second important line of research
?ly
suffering are used to mobilize public action. Aff
and social construct have been extremely generative in
the polttical ?ctrum, ang images ofpolitical prisqners
has returned to theories of embodiment and sensation
at Abu Ghraib, children of war, and unborn babies
to ask new questions about the material basis for affect,
prompt ongoing debate about the politics of sensation,
emotions, and feelings. The use of the term “affect”
sentiment, and sympathy (Berlant 2004; Staiger,
by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari to describe the
impersonal intensities, forces, and movements that
Cvetkovich, and Reynolds 2010).
Another important area of scholarship in which
cause bodies and objects to affect and be affected by
feeling and affect are central are discussions of trauma
one another has been especially influential In recent
and cultural memory that have emerged In American
scholarship (Deleuze and Guattari 1987; Massumi
studies as it reckons with the le?cies of slave!:Y.,gen?ide,
and colonialism. Although the ur_!tenci?s of Holocaust
2002b; Stewart 2007; Puar 2007). Deleuze’s work


usefully displaces psychoanalysis and decenters the
memory have inspired the creation of public memorials
individuated subject of cognition, locating unconscious
and testimony as forums for emotional expression in
bodily processes and sensory life at the center of social
Europe and elsewhere, slavery and genocide provide
life. Deleuze has also been a major catalyst for new
a specifically U.S. genealogy for trauma studies and
materialist notions of affect that distinguish more
cultural memory. In seeking to address traumatic
sharply between “affect” and “emotion,” preserving
histories, public cultures of memory raise questions
“affect” for noncognitive processes and using “emotion”
about what emotional responses constitute a reparative
to describe socially constructed behavior.
AFfECT
ANN CVElKOVIC:H
Clearly, the multidisciplinary question of what it
theoretical school, and American studies and cultural
2
studies have been invigorated by proliferating forms of
African
affect studies. Phenomenology and cultural geography
Kevin K. Gaines
means to be a sensory being cannot be confined to one
have provided resources for materialist histories of
sensory experience as well as new accounts of the
The keyword “African” has been and remains a
relations between bodies, objects, and environments
touchstone for African-descended peoples’ struggle for
and of termssuch as “mood” and “atmosphere” (Ahmed
identity and inclusion, encompassing extremes of racial
2006; Thrift 2008). Neurobiology and cognitive science
denigration and vindication in a nation founded on
have been embraced by scholars in the humanities
the enslavement of Africans. Both the African presence
interested in the interface between brain and body in
throughout the Americas and its significance for
constituting sensory experience, including reading
constructions of national culture in the United States
and other forms of aesthetic and cultural reception
have remained fraught with raclalized and exclusionary
(E. Wilson 2004; Zunshine 2006). Animal studies and
power relations. In a nation that has traditionally
ecocriticism contribute to a posthumanist concept of
imagined its culture and legislated its polity as “white,”
humans as integrated with animals, things, and nature
“African” has often provided for African Americans a
and to understandings of affective experience as bodily
default basis for identity in direct proportion to their
sensation and vital force (Haraway 2008; Grosz 2on;
exclusion from national citizenship.
j. Bennett 2010). With the project of overturning old
As scholars ranging from Winthrop jordan (1969)
hierarchies between mind and body, cognition and
to jennifer L. Morgan (2004) have noted, there was
feeling, reason and emotion largely accomplished, affect
nothing natural or inevitable about the development of
studies is now promoting new interdisciplinary inquiry
racial slavery in the Americas. Nor was the emergence of
across science and humanities. In so doing, it offers
the racialized category of the African as permanent slave
answers to the long-standing problem in social theory
foreordained. European travelers who recorded their
of how to think the relation between the psychic and
initial encounters with Africans did not perceive them
the social worlds and provides resources for building
as slaves. But their ethnocentric self-regard informed
new cultures of public feeling.
their descriptions of Africans as extremely different
from themselves in appearance, religious beliefs,
and behavior. European constructions of the bodily
difference, heathenism, and beastliness of Africans
mitigated occasional observations of their morality
and humanity. As European nations experimented
with systems of forced labor in the Americas, initially
enlisting indigenous peoples and European indentured
servants as well as Africans, ideologies of African
inferiority facilitated the permanent enslavement
•6
social benefits provided by capitalist welfare states as
45
well as socialist societies.
Neoliberalism
power during the 1970s, beginning with the overthrow
Lisa Duggan
of the democratically elected socialist government of
The l;VOrd “neoliberalism,” first used during the 1930s,
internal elites, with the assistance of the CIA and the
These minority views moved toward centers of
Salvador Allende in Chile by the Chilean military and
came into widespread circulation in the 1990s to name
advice of the University of Chicago-based economists
a utopian ideology of “free markets” and minimal
surrounding Milton Friedman, often called the
state interference, a set of policies slashing state social
“Chicago Boys.” Neoliberal reforms-privatization
services and supporting global corporate interests, a
of state enterprises, opening up to foreign business
process (neoliberalization) proceeding in company with
ownership and expatriation of profits, cuts to social
procorporate globalization and financialization, and a
services-were accomplished along with violent
cultural project of building consent for the upward
suppression of dissent. When these policies were later
redistributions of wealth and power that have occurred
modified to meet the challenges of economic stagnation
since the 1970s. But neoliberalism might best be
In the mld-1970S, neoliberalism as state policy (rather
understood as a global social movement encompassing
than a utopian theory opposed to the state) began to
all of these political goals. In American studies and
appear as a practical set of strategies for maintaining
cultural studies, the concept has gathered force as a
capitalism in the face of global social movement
description of current tendencies in global politics and
challenges and for reinforcing or installing elites with
a critique of those tendencies, even as its meanings have
access to an increasing share of economic and political
dispersed.
power. As David Harvey (2005) and Naomi Klein (2007)
Though the term tends to be used differently across
describe the genealogy of neoliberalism since the
the social sciences and the humanities, there is wide
Chilean coup, successive experiments developed means
agreement that neoliberalism is a radicalized form of
of extracting resources on the U.S. imperial model (as
capitalist imperialism, centered in the United States and
had occurred in earlier interventions in Nicaragua
Anglo-Europe, that has developed unevenly across the
and Iran, among many others), the installation of
globe since the 1970s. Most scholars trace its intellectual
unaccountable governing structures, the transfer of
genealogy to the Mont Pelerin Society and the ideas
profits out of social services supported by progressive
of Friedrich Hayek (1944), Ludwig von Mises (1949)
taxation, and the maintenance of widening inequalities.
and economists of the Austrian school, and to the
These events and tactics function as experiments
writing and activities of Milton Friedman (1962/2002)
by creating or exploiting crisis conditions to test
and the Chicago school, developed and circulated
key economic hypotheses central to the theory of
since the 1940s. These economists defended classical
neoliberalism, as political institutions and modes
liberalism and market-based economies grounded in
of decision-making are simultaneously reshaped to
individualism and published scathing critiques of the
entrench neoliberal power brokers. Such experiments
centralized government regulation and redistributive
include the 1975 New York City fiscal crisis that slashed
social services and gave bankers and bond holders
theories of the intellectuals. Overlapping at times with
unprecedented control over the city’s finances; the
neoconservative security-state policies that deploy
198os “structural adjustment” programs forced on
centralized military power for imperial violence a·nd
Latin American economies through the practices of the
war, neoliberalism has functioned historically less as a
International Monetary Fund (IMF) that created and
clearly defined set of ideas and theories and more as an
exploited sovereign debt to enforce investor domination
internally contradictory mode of upward redistribution
of the political process; and the 2003 U.S. invasion of
of wealth and power and an extension of the practices
Iraq, where the administrator of the U.S.-controlled
of imperial extraction of resources from economies of
Coalition Provisional Authority of Iraq, Paul Bremer,
the global South.
presided over massive privatization of state enterprises
But U.S. Imperlal power has not been the sole source
opened to foreign control. These experiments
of global neoliberal reform. From the ”opening” of
developed policies in localities at the periphery of U.S.
China to world capitalist markets in the 198os, through
imperial power that might then be generalized for use in
the new business and trade policies of post-Sov …
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