Importance of Port Security Management with Two Responses

Course Objective – Assess the importance of Port Management Security.Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 350 words. Please respond to at least 2 other students. Responses should be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions.Initial Post Due: Thursday, by 11:55pm ETResponses Due: Sunday, by 11:55pm ETRespond to the below discussion questions taken from the Lessons (Required Reading). You are expected to give complete answers referring to what you have read. Reference to, or the use of critical thinking, analysis, what you have learned in previous courses, the media, and in your professional lives is also expected. Define the subject; make references to what you have read, what you have learned elsewhere, and then form a response.The following historical incidents happened over 60 plus years ago. Assess the lessons learned from these port incidents and discuss measures taken to mitigate these issues from happening again. Support your response in a paragraph or two for each of the following:Halifax Explosion – 1917Pearl Harbor – 1941Port of Chicago – 1944Texas City – 1947Documents are attached here and and can be found in the “Lessons” area of the classroom.Note this requirement – respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts.

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Response to these Posts
Student 1
The tragedy of Port Chicago was a preventable disaster and provided several lessons learned for
port safety that we still see today. Some of the biggest reasons that the tragedy occurred was
training, safety and negligence. First, there was very little training provided to the sailors loading
the ships. The sailors were not given proper equipment to load those types of munitions, so they
used whatever was around at the dock. The leadership encouraged the workers to hurry and get
the munitions loaded as quickly as possible to meet timeframes established by the Navy. The
common theme of this tragedy was the port had no safety regulations that governed how the
munitions were to be loaded, workers were overworked and exposed to unneeded risk, and the
management did not listen to the sailor?s safety concerns no matter how legit the concern may
have been. In the end, we have learned that safety, regulations and training are now ingrained in
day-to-day activities making everyone safer and more efficient. Final thought, hopefully today
the U.S. government would know if a nuclear weapon is at a port and it exploded because of the
new radiation detection devices being utilized ?if it was a nuclear weapon?.
The Halifax explosion brought up many safety related concerns, including new regulations for
storage of hazardous materials, new vessel inspections for seaworthiness and rules for navigation
of vessels within the harbor. I would think that the first lesson learned is you must have a vessel
that can carry the hazardous materials. The ?Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) are in the
volume containing Parts 100-185 and govern the transportation of hazardous materials in all
modes of transportation ? air, highway, rail and water Transportation, Code of Federal
Regulations (49 CFR)? (DOT, 2018). Second, it is essential that all ships understand how to
maneuver through the harbor and not cause these types of disasters. Today, we use systems like
the Global Positioning System to help with these issues because of growing number of vessels at
the ports ensuring the safety of all involved. This leads into the next disaster in Texas where
again we didn?t do a good job with hazardous materials, training of first responders and storage.
The lessons learned from this disaster was that we must train for all types of hazards. Nowadays,
hazardous materials are labeled and tracked appropriately allowing for proper response. We
utilize OSHA to help identify and deal with these types emergencies. As mentioned above, the
DOT develops regulations for transport and storage.
The attack on Pearl harbor could have been mitigated by not only having better radar detection
devices, but superior intelligence, communication capabilities and preparedness. The lessons
learned from the attack have helped the U.S. government develop new technologies when it
comes to detection of aircraft and ships decreasing the risk to ports. There was also espionage
involved and the government had some trouble breaking the codes which caused delays in the
response to the attack. Over the years, we have established numerous agencies to defend against
future attacks and increase intelligence capabilities to include the FBI, CIA, etc. The first
responders have also used this attack to develop better response plans and resource development.
Finally, The U.S. has developed new communication systems that not only allow us to
communicate within a local port, but throughout the entire system to prepare all sectors for
possible attack simultaneously.
How to Use the Hazardous Materials Regulations. (2018). DOT. Retrieved from
Lessons Never Learned from Pearl Harbor. (2016). US News. Retrieved from
Student 2
Halifax Explosion – 1917
The Halifax Explosion has gone down in the history books as one of the largest manmade
disasters. It is incredibly hard to imagine all the people whim were instantly dead, the injured
and all the damage the explosion caused. Some of the lessons learned from this incident was that
stricter hazardous material rules were implemented as well as rules on how ships should navigate
and communicate when inside of a harbor (MacDonald, 2017). Today we have the global
positioning system (GPS) as well as Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
and the Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) who have regulations on explosive
movement. Additionally, there are clear guidelines on how ships should conduct themselves
inside of a port were there are close quarters operations. Who has the right of way, speeds, and
so on are some of the few expectations that must be followed in order to ensure the safety of
everyone around.
Pearl Harbor – 1941
When it comes to the attacks on Pearl Harbor I think that the military and the U.S. government
learned valuable lessons. The first and most obvious is to never underestimate any enemy and
always be on guard ready for any counter offensive. The U.S. government should have a
military budget that assures the U.S. will have the best equipment and most trained forces that
strikes s much fear in the enemy that they don?t even think of attacking the U.S. Also, a big
lesson learned is the sharing of intelligence needs to be better. The U.S. failed to properly
identify the aircraft coming in that morning. They were caught on radar, but thought they were
American aircraft. Better communication and intelligence would have probably helped them
identify the aircraft an enable the forces to put a response together.
Port of Chicago – 1944
The explosion in the Port of Chicago was a catastrophic incident that took the life of about 320
naval personnel in a naval base in California. The incident happened between two ships that
were in the middle of an ammunition loading operation. The main lesson that was learned in the
ensuing investigation was that there was a lack of proper training on the handling of ammunition
and proper loading procedures. Another problem was that officers in charge had complacency
and did not listen to the men?s claims that they were not confident in the handling of the
explosives. The officers dismissed their claims and had them proceed with the operation even
though they did not possess the proper training. Today we have very strict and clear guidelines
on the handling of explosives as well as have very well trained personnel in the fields whom are
subject matter experts.
Texas City ? 1947
The last event that took place in a port of operations was the Texas City Disaster. It is far too
common that most of these disasters had the same blueprint of inappropriate handling of delicate
cargo such as flammable chemicals, hazardous materials, or explosives. In this situation the S.S.
GrandCamp had been loaded with the hazardous material ammonium nitrate. The cargo ignited
and there was a poor handling of the emergency disaster response process. The individuals
fighting the flames did not know what agent was needed to fight the ensuing fire and the people
in charge did not take control of the situation and were prioritizing other things, like trying to
save the cargo, instead of controlling the fire and expediting the evacuation process. Again, this
leads to the improper handling and storage of hazardous materials. We have learned from these
incidents and today the loading/unloading processes in ports is much safer. We now know more
how certain chemicals react to heat or the improper storage, (like confinement) being exposed to
heat, not stored in a cool place, reaction to fluids and so on. Understanding the composition and
the reaction of hazardous materials to certain environments is key in how we handle them in our
ports. Today we have a strict labeling process that clearly identifies materials and the threat they
pose. Additionally, we can contain the possible incident by isolating the process when we
accomplish it as well as having the proper notice gives us the ability to have teams on standby
when accomplishing these tasks. Lastly, it allows us to apply the proper training enabling us to
respond appropriately if needed.
MacDonald, M. (2017, December 5). Retrieved February 2018, from The Star:

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