Intro to Culture Milestone 2 Exam

I have attached a word document with questions on it and also the required reading material along with the lessons that the answers should come from. I just need the questions answered in as much detail as possible. The Milestone 2 attachment describes how to answer the questions and the requirements. There are 3 attachments that are the “articles” that the questions are asking about. Then there are 3 “lessons” (4,5,&6) that has the information for answering said questions.


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BBC – Future – How East and West think in profoundly different ways
(Credit: Getty Images)
The Human Planet Psychology
How East and West think in
profoundly different ways
Psychologists are uncovering the surprising influence of geography on our reasoning, behaviour, and
sense of self.
By David Robson
19 January 2017
As Horace Capron first travelled through Hokkaido in 1871, he searched for a sign of human life among the vast prairies, wooded
glades and threatening black mountains. “The stillness of death reigned over this magnificent scene,” he later wrote. “Not a leaf was
stirred, not the chirping of a bird or a living thing.” It was, he thought, a timeless place, straight out of pre-history.
“How amazing it is that this rich and beautiful country, the property of one of the oldest and most densely populated nations of the
world… should have remained so long unoccupied and almost as unknown as the African deserts,” he added.
This was Japan’s frontier – its own version of the American ‘Wild West’. The northernmost of Japan’s islands, Hokkaido was remote,
with a stormy sea separating it from Honshu. Travellers daring to make the crossing would have then had to endure the notoriously
brutal winters, rugged volcanic landscape and savage wildlife. And so the Japanese government had largely left it to the indigenous
Ainu people, who survived through hunting and fishing.
BBC – Future – How East and West think in profoundly different ways
It is now seven years since Henrich published his paper outlining the ‘Weird’ bias, and the response has been positive. He is
particularly pleased that researchers like Talhelm are beginning to set up big projects to try to understand the kaleidoscope of different
ways of thinking. “You want a theory that explains why different populations have different psychologies.”
But despite the good intentions, further progress has been slow. Thanks to the time and money it takes to probe minds across the
globe, most research still examines Weird participants at the expense of greater diversity. “We agree on the illness. The question is
what the solution should be.”
David Robson is BBC Future’s feature writer. He is@d_a_robson on Twitter.
Join 800,000+ Future fans by liking us on Facebo o k, or follow us on Twitter, Go o gle+, Linkedln and lnstagram.
If you liked this story, sign up for the weekly features newsletter, called “If You Only Read 6 Things This Week”. A
handpicked selection of stories from BBC Future, Earth, Culture, Capital, Travel and Autos, delivered to your inbox every Friday.
Understanding Your Environment
Page 1 of 24
Understanding Your Environment
Lesson 4
Where are you from? This is one of the most significant factors contributing to who you have
become as an adult. If you are from the United States, for example, there is a good chance that you
had electricity and indoor plumbing in your home. Your family probably had at least one television
and telephone, and most likely had a car. You had access to education, and in fact legally had to be
enrolled in a school program until you were 16 years old (statistically speaking, you probably stayed
in school until you were at least 18 years old). All of these factors together signify that the people
around you probably had most, if not all their basic needs adequately met to a degree that allowed
them to pursue various extracurricular activities, such as playing sports, taking part in after-school
clubs, reading, playing video games, or going out with friends.… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
Page 2 of 24
Contrast your situation with someone who is from India where the majority of people come from
small villages with intermittent access to electricity, clean drinking water, and education, and the
average salary is less than $1,000 a year (less than $3.00 a day). You will find that economic and
environmental conditions result in a very different life experience for these people.
The differences result from the effects of the environment. When cultural geographers talk about
environments, they include both the physical features that surround us (weather, landscape, etc.)
and the built environment (buildings, street patterns, use of public spaces). In India, people’s living
situations have arisen due to the history, physical location, daily practices, and meanings associated
with the place, as well as the vision of it held by its inhabitants and non-Indians. How people and
their environments shape each other is at the core of the study of cultural geography and of this
Key Terms and Lesson Objectives
Key Terms
As you well know by now, key terms are highlighted in the lesson and can be found in your
Lesson Objectives… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
Page 3 of 24
Lesson objectives are important to keep in mind as you go through the lesson. All of your exam
questions – and hopefully improved life skills – are built around these objectives.
1. Recognize, define, and distinguish between terms associated with Cultural Geography and its
primary concepts.
2. Understand what a cultural geographer means by “environment”, and how environment,
location, and culture influence each other. Identify examples that show…
Locations influence culture and the environment.
Culture (human interaction) influences the environment and the location.
Environment (both built and natural) influences location and culture.
3. Explain how the concepts of Geographic Scale and Geographic Perception provide an
advantage to understanding culture, cultural geography, and sources of conflict.
4. Distinguish between linear and cyclical views of time and how those views impact geographic
Lesson Enhancement
The required reading(s) appear throughout the lesson. For your convenience, they also appear at
the beginning of the lesson in case you want to read ahead.
A City of 2 Million Without a Map
Ross, Oakland. 21 April 2002. A City of Two Million Without a Map. The Toronto Star.
Cultural Geography
Cultural geography asks the question: “how and why do cultures vary from place to place?” It deals
with the ways that culture shapes, and is shaped by people’s ideas about the following:
• How places on earth should look,
• Who should occupy those places, and
• What behaviors and norms should and should not be tolerated within those places.… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
Page 4 of 24
Cultural geographers are interested in understanding how location and human interaction influence
each other in various and unique ways. On the one hand, they look at how humans alter their
environments to meet their needs: they examine how massive cities have been built in areas that
have rough natural terrain (such as San Francisco) or conditions inhospitable to humans (Las Vegas
and Tucson). On the other hand, cultural geographers examine how human cultures themselves are
significantly shaped by the environments in which they develop: an example would be the effects on
Japanese culture of living on an island prone to earthquakes and tsunamis.
The tools we give you in this lesson will help you get to know a location and the people who inhabit
it. When your understanding of the local geography is similar to that of the locals, then you have a
better basis to relate to them.
Examples from North and Central America
Take Americans and Canadians, for example. The majority of people from both countries speak
English as their first language and both groups share a lot of the same characteristics. Canadians and
Americans largely listen to the same music, watch the same TV shows, and laugh at the same jokes.
Underneath the surface, however, Canadians and Americans have some important cultural
differences. Why? Because the cultures of each group of people evolved in very different places.
For example, it should be obvious why ice hockey is the most widely played youth sport in Canada,
while very few Americans outside the northern states bordering Canada play organized hockey as
children. But what about other stereotypes of Canadians? Can you think of any that may be related to
Canada’s history in the fishing and fur-trapping trades? (Yes, THESE guys again!)… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
Page 5 of 24
Moving from North America to Central America, let’s look at one more example. This is a short article
by Oakland Ross from the Toronto Star, A City of Two Million without a Map.[1] In it, he describes how
people in Managua, the capital city of Nicaragua, function without maps or street names and
Click here to read the article and then do the Cultural Log Exercise. Questions from this article may
appear on the lesson quiz and midterm exam!… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
Page 6 of 24
CULTURAL LOG ACTIVITY 4.1 – City of Two Million Without a Map
Please jot down your thoughts in answer to the following questions.
Click here to download this exercise in a Word document, which you can use to type up/write your
responses and save for future reference.
TIP: If you experience trouble opening the Word document, when the dialogue box opens asking you
to “Open” or “Save,” click “Save” and save to your computer. Then open the document from your
computer, not from the website.
Did Managuans’ way of finding their way around surprise you? Why, or why not?
What are some of the things we take for granted in a city in America?
Why do the people of Managua accept and perpetuate this system?
Do you think the same system will arise in northern Japan after the recent massive earthquake?
Why, or why not?
The ways you respond to these questions reflects your cultural beliefs about the ways people “should”
live in cities.
Next: read our interpretation of this article.
Two Million People without a Map
On the previous page, we asked why Managuans accept and even perpetuate their way of life without
maps. Here is the AFCLC’s cultural geographer’s response to this particular question:… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
Page 7 of 24
Managuans live in a society in which little to no value is placed on going places that lie outside the
familiar confines of the neighborhood. Most people live, work, play, go to school, and shop within
walking distance of their homes. Rather than being seen as a functioning mega-city, Managua is
better understood as a collection of hundreds of small neighborhoods located really close to one
another. It is not uncommon for residents of the city to spend their entire lives without leaving the
confines of a few square miles. This means that people’s *worldviews within Managua itself can be
very different at various locations within the city. Someone from one neighborhood may feel that he is
in a completely different microculture when he visits another part of the city.
*Worldview affects people’s perceptions of their environments and others’ environments, too.
Moreover, people build their environments in ways that reflect their values and assumptions about the
Another significant factor related to cultural geography is that Nicaragua is a poor country. Even if the
will had been there to rebuild the city’s colonial era grid-pattern streets after the devastating 1972
earthquake, the resources were simply not available. People adhere to and perpetuate this way of
organizing their lives because of the combination of local cultural patterns and socioeconomic
conditions. This is a example of the influence of Economics and Resources (one of the twelve cultural
domains defined in lesson one) on the culture and environment of Managua.
To Americans, the thought of a city with two million people without some sort of standard street address
system is unacceptable. Our view is influenced by our culture and our values. American values are
largely influenced by our country’s history, its early settlers from northwestern European countries, and
our common experiences of traveling outside our home areas in the U.S.
Our economic resources and our cultural perceptions of time and space have created, in American towns
and cities, environments in which cost-effective and efficient ways of getting from place to place are
highly valued characteristics and roads and public transit systems are constantly being upgraded in order
to make our travel as easy and short as possible. In fact, many people now rely on GPS technology to
find the most efficient ways of getting from point A to point B. In Managua, GPS technology would be
useless because the GPS requires the name of the destination.
In Managua, the woman who lives “next to the yellow car” probably sees nothing odd or unique in the
way she organizes the various locales of the city in her own mind. To her, navigating a large city through
nothing more than landmarks seems completely “normal” whereas in the United States it is increasing
“normal” to find your way from point “A” to point “B” with detailed directions read to you by a computer.… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
Page 8 of 24
When we discuss the difference between the American and Managuan perspective of a city, we are
employing three concepts central to Cultural Geography that we will discuss in this lesson:
• Geographic Mental Maps,
• Geographic Scale
• Geographic Perception
Geographic Mental Maps
Geographic mental maps are virtual maps existing in our minds that are formed in two ways:
1. By direct experience with our environments, and
2. Through ideas we learn from other people. Those ideas include information about what different
places in the world look like and how people in those places live.
In addition, geographic mental maps contain two types of information:
1. The location of places, spaces, and objects, and
2. The cultural associations we make to those things.
Few people consciously realize the impact that mental maps have on their daily lives. As beings that
occupy and move through space every minute of every day, we develop a keen sense of where we
are on the surface of the planet, where we came from, and where we are going. Repetitive patterns of
movement imprint onto our brains mental maps that are so accurate that they allow us to move from
one place to another without giving it any thought.
Mental maps start to form as soon as we are able to move as toddlers trying to navigate around our
homes. The path from the nursery to the bin of toys in the living room gets so ingrained in a child’s
developing mind that even when a parent or object stands in its way, the child figures out how to
circumvent the obstacle in order to reach its desired destination. Similar patterns of movement
become ingrained as people mature. Soon, the toddler can find the bathroom, the refrigerator, or the
backyard without giving it much thought.… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
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These patterns become so automatic that it is usually possible for people to navigate around their own
home in pitch darkness just based on the spatial memory that has been “programmed” into their
heads in the form of mental maps created through repetitive experience.
One aspect of culture shock that we discussed in Lesson 2 is the disruption to your routine that lack of
mental maps for a new place causes. How many times have you stood on a corner or sat at a stop
light in a new city and wondered which way is home? That feeling can be frustrating and even
frightening, leading to general sensations of uneasiness and anger about the unfamiliar place.
Understanding this impact of mental maps on your perceptions will not only help you overcome
culture shock, but will make you a more effective Airman when dealing with people from other
Let’s turn now to the concept of geographic scale.… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
Page 10 of 24
Geographic Scale
Geographic scale means the degree of specificity of a person’s geographic view at a particular time
or for a particular purpose. In the example from Nicaragua, the scale that citizens living in Managua
seemed to use on a daily basis did not extend beyond the confines of their neighborhood. Their
specific focus was on their zone of the city.
If you think of a map that you would call up electronically on MapQuest or Google to get directions to
a locale, you can relate to the concept of geographic scale. The map typically defaults to a view of
the whole region, with the path you need to drive highlighted. You may decide that you need more
specificity. In this case, you “zoom in” to a closer view of the neighborhood you are trying to reach.
The zooming in does two things:
1. It shows more detail in your target area: streets that were not visible in the larger view, and a
better representation of that leg of the trip. It might also show buildings and actual businesses
in the area.
2. It shows less information about the larger area. You lose part of the larger region, because
you are concentrating on an area of smaller size.
Larger and Smaller Geographic Scale
The human mind is structured to allow people to think across geographic scales. This means that
while the daily lives of most individuals center around local geographic scale (thinking about and
doing things like going to work, to the store, or looking for other things to do close to home), we also
have the ability to extend our relationship to the larger world around us.
On 9/11/2001, for example, the vast majority of Americans did not directly experience the attacks on
the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and the foiled attack that ended in disaster in a field in
Pennsylvania. However, because we have the ability to think across geographic scales (helped in
large part by communication technology such as cable and satellite TV, the Internet, and… 12/6/2017
Understanding Your Environment
Page 11 of 24
telecommunications), Americans collectively interpreted the attack on one geographic location in the
US as an attack against the U.S. as a whole.
Thinking across geographic scales happened even before television and the Internet were widely
used. When Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941, many Americans had never heard of
it, but they learned that it was part of the U.S. through media or even word of mouth. Nevertheless,
they viewed the attack in a similar way to how the 9/11 attacks were perceived, as an assault on all
of America.
The larger the geographic scale you use, the more generalizations you will make about an area and
the cultures that exist within it. The smaller the geographic scale you use, you will make fewer
generalizations because you will have specific information about the area and its cultures. There is
nothing “wrong” or “right” about either of these statements. This is the natural way our brains work.
The ne …
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