Journal analysis for epidemiology study.

I need to do a report about a study. The characteristics of the study and all instructions are attached below. I do have a study and I wrote like topic statement. but im not sure if the study is the right one. if the study i choose is ok, then you can use it for the report. if its not, please find another study and work on it
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Journal Analysis:
1) Report: Your report must be organized as follows – divide into sections with headings and
subheadings as described below. Report will be double spaced, 11 or 12 font, and standard
margins. Use Times New Roman as your font.
1. Title page with name of article, authors, author affiliations; journal with volume and pages,
date of publication of the journal article. Note, if more than three authors, list first three only
and use ‘et al’ for the rest.
• Your name and date due
Organize the body of your paper using headings and subheadings (you may use my recommended
subheadings in addition to your own). Page lengths are suggested, not mandatory.
2. Introduction – This section will be anywhere from two to three pages – Introduction must
include at least three references related to the topic and used to describe the background
of the study; note that references may come from the journal article’s reference list as used in
the article’s introduction. You may also find your own references using the library’s data bases.
You must use primary references from medical / scientific journals describing original
research. This section will consist mainly of paragraphs where you describe background.
• Background
• Study objectives/goals: What is the purpose of the study?
• Hypothesis: What is the study’s hypothesis? This should be expressed as an ‘if…then…’
statement. Note that this may not be obvious from the article. Make sure that you clearly
express the hypothesis
3. Materials/Methods – This section will be anywhere from one to three pages. Bulleted outline
is recommended for this section – must include items as indicated below. Your items may vary
depending on the nature of your study. Note that you may order your items according to the
way the topics are covered in the Materials/Methods section of the article.
• Target population: What is the target population?
• For cohort studies: What is the cohort? Is the cohort a defined cohort? Or are exposed and
nonexposed populations selected in another way?
• For case-control studies: How are cases defined? What are the controls? How were they
chosen?
• For randomized trials: What is the treatment group? What is the comparison group?
• Eligibility: What are the eligibility criteria?
• Exposures (for observational studies): What is the exposure? How is exposure determined?
• Outcomes: What is the outcome? Note that some studies will have two outcomes (primary
and secondary). How is outcome determined?
• Randomization and Blinding: If study is randomized, how was this done? If doubleblinded, how was this done?
• Comparing groups: Are the groups studied in the same way? Were participant losses
minimal? If not, what was done? Were there any potential problems observed with the
control group(s)?
• Confounders: Are there any potential confounders? If so, what are they? How did the
investigators deal with confounders?
• Statistical Analysis: Brief description (a few sentences) of statistical analysis (or analyses)
used, including:
o Sample sizes
o
o
o
o
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Power – is the sample size sufficient to detect a difference?
Statistical significance (p level)
Are confidence levels included in the results?
Methods used in the study (no more than very brief description – a few sentences)
etc.
Note: I know you are not statisticians so…if I see ‘stat-speak’, I will suspect
that you copied from the article. Note: if you ARE well-versed in statistics,
please let me know. I can use your help!
4. Study Design – Study design must be clearly stated and described (eg, cohort, case-control,
double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial, etc.) and illustrated by a simple diagram
and using you own words. Note that diagrams as used in the articles are not study designs
– they are simply protocols describing eligibility, loss to follow-up, etc. You will have to
design your own diagram. This is pretty challenging. When I say simple, I mean simple.
Refer to power points showing study designs – use the words of your study to fill in the
study design boxes.
5. Results – This section will be one to three pages. Use headings / subheadings (eg, Table 1,
Figure 1, etc with a very brief title for each). Don’t write a big run-on paragraph.
• Baseline characteristics: describe the prognostic profile.
• Description of the results must be in your own words and must be briefly and
accurately stated. You must refer to tables and figures in the article. When you
describe the table or figure data, use no more than five or six sentences. That way
you will be forced to understand the data. You may prepare your own tables or graphs
(Excel) to show the results in a simple and visual way. If you include tables or graphs
you must explain the data in your own words. Do not copy/paste tables or figures into
the document unless you add a citation (refer to Chicago-Turabian for format). Note
that if you want to use color, submit your completed product as e-mail attachment (as
well as printed copy). Note that a Results section does not include interpretations of
the data – the section simply states what the results are.
6. Discussion – This section may be anywhere from two to three pages and will include the
following items. Again, use these headings:
• Hypothesis and Overall Conclusion: Is the hypothesis supported by the data? What did the
authors conclude?
• Strengths: What are the strengths of the study?
• Significance: What is the significance of the study? What do the results add to the body of
knowledge in the specific area of study?
• Limitations/Biases/Confounders: What are the imitations of the study, including potential
biases? Also, explore known types of biases related to different types of studies from what
you learned from text/power points and apply your knowledge to look for how investigators
dealt with these potential biases in your chosen study; eg, information, recall, selection,
loss-to-follow-up, etc. Were there biases you learned about from the paper? How do the
investigators explore these issues? Explain clearly! What were the confounders? How were
these dealt with? Don’t just say, ‘confounders were analyzed by…’ What were the
potential confounders? Can you think of any other potential confounders?
• Generalizability / external validity: how applicable is the study to other populations? Or do
results only apply to the study population? Explain your reasoning. What do the authors
say about this?
o
o
o
If you are a clinician reading about this study, what would be your reaction? How
might you approach your own patients who may have a similar disease or
condition?
If your article is relevant to health care administration and you are an
administrator or policy maker, what would be your reactions to the results? How
would the results impact your work?
If you are working in public health, how would the results of a study applicable
to your type of work impact you?
7. Miscellaneous information – Half to one page including:
• Financial Support: Evaluate the financial support for the study – are there any potential
conflicts or biases?
• Ethics – how are potential ethical issues handled? If a review board was involved, describe
the process.
Other Issues and Comments: Your own astute observations, etc. or any other questions / issues /
comments you would like to discuss. For example, if you heard the results presented at a conference, what
questions would you ask?

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