Journal Article Review. At least 1,000 words excluding references. Please try to to turn it Saturday

Journal article review. It is due Saturday. I wanted to know if you have time to do it before I ask. I cannot turn it in late, so please let me know if this is something you can doThe topic would be: Finding creative solutions to the security challenges terrorism is bringing to international schools- I attached the full instructions of the paper and the article to be used. Please let me know if you have any questions
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Here is the instructions: please let me know if you can do it.
Standards:
The Journal Article Critical Reviews must be 1,000 – 1,500 words in length. The general
format of will consist of an executive summary or generalized overview of the homeland security
issue being examined, followed by an executive summary as to what the article revealed relevant
to the issue, and conclude with your critical analysis and review of the author’s findings and/or
conclusions. The article reviews can be research-based or expository, as long as they are current
(published within the last 3-5 years) and relevant to terrorism and domestic preparedness and
homeland security issue. Each will be submitted in the Canvas course room for grading.
As this is a critical review, you should be able to critique the author’s work and its relevance,
implications, and application to homeland security. Your reviews will adhere to the APA Style
guidelines in all respects. Refer to the Journal Article Review – How to document, in the
student documents section in the Canvas course room.
Journal Article Submission Standards:
•
•
•
Article submission was made on or before the respective deadline
Article is from an approved publication
Article relates to Terrorism, Domestic Preparedness or homeland security issue/problem
Students will use the University Library electronic database entitled: International Security and
Counter Terrorism Reference Center (Ebsco) to select their Journal Article to critique.
Journals include:
Homeland Defense Journal
Homeland Security Affairs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Information Security
Information Systems Security
Intelligence and National Security
International Journal of Conflict Management
International Journal of Information Security
International Journal of Police Science and Management
International Security
Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management
Journal of Information Privacy and Security
Journal of Security Education
Safety Director’s Report
Security and Terrorism Bulletin
Security Director’s Report
Security Studies
Included here are supplemental reference for deeper research in Terrorism and Domestic
Preparedness, and Homeland Security.
Public Documents
For general reference, a selection of public documents is provided. These documents were
carefully chosen to compliment the overall subject matter of Understanding Homeland Security.
› Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site.
› The National Strategy for Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets (Links
to an external site.)Links to an external site.
› National Strategy for Aviation Security (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
› National Incident Management System (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
› Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report (Links to an external site.)Links to an external
site.
› National Security Strategy (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
› Protecting Americans in the 21st Century: Imperatives for the Homeland White Paper (Links to
an external site.)Links to an external site.
› Country Reports on Terrorism 2011 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
› National Homeland Security Consortium Fact Sheet (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site.
› 9/11 Opinion Survey Report: A Changed Nation (Links to an external site.)Links to an external
site.
› FBI: Law Enforcement Bulletin, September 2011 (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site.
› NOAA Hurricane Intensities (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
› NOAA Hurricane Sandy (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
› Federal Emergency Management Agency National Preparedness Goal, September 2011 (Links
to an external site.)Links to an external site.
› Federal Emergency Management Agency: National Response Framework (Links to an external
site.)Links to an external site.
› Federal Emergency Management Agency: National Response Framework Information
Sheet (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
› National Emergency Management Associate Organizational Details (Links to an external
site.)Links to an external site.
THE JOURNAL ARTICLE REVIEW…HOW TO:
Here is an example of the proper form for your journal article review [don’t type the brackets,
that’s just sample information]. Your review must be 1,000 – 1,500 words in length, typed, and
double spaced. Since this article will be submitted online simply add the following to the first
page to identify you as the author:
Your Name
CJ 251 Terrorism and Domestic Preparedness
Journal Article Critical Review Assignment #
Instructor’s Name [Dr. Matthews, etc]
[Journal Article Information]
Author(s). (year of publication). Article title. Journal name, volume, number, pages.
Example:
Smith, K. W. (2015). Drone technology: Benefits, risks, and legal considerations. Seattle Journal
of Environmental Law, 5(1), 12. Retrieved from
http://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=sjel (Links to
an external site.)Links to an external site.
First, summarize the article in your own words.
Beneficially envisioned and applied applications of drones include forest health monitoring, fire
mapping applications, forest inventory, wildlife surveys, avalanche patrols, air quality
monitoring, plume tracking, groundwater discharge monitoring, mine surveys, and precision
agriculture for things like the monitoring of crop health and precision application of chemicals.
In a recent survey about drone use, 63 percent of Americans indicated a belief that uninhibited
personal and commercial drone use would represent a change for the worse.
Registration of drones and even permitting of drone use under four hundred feet should be
undertaken by individual states, relieving the FAA of exhaustive and often regressive rulemaking
on this promising technology.
Next, explain and critique the methods use and/or the findings presented.
The author found several issues that needed to be resolved in the near future with regard to the
use of drones:
1. How will the privacy issue be addressed when these flying cameras have the capacity to
invade your backyard and take photographs at will?
2. The unchecked potential for mischief using these devices, particularly with regard to the
rise in domestic terrorism.
3. The FAA concerns about near misses with aircraft due to the lack of regulatory authority.
As a result he suggested…
Finally, offer your opinion on the value of the study. Describe how this study contributes
to or fails to contribute to furthering our knowledge base or the goals relevant to terrorism
or domestic preparedness, i.e., analyze, explain, evaluate, predict, infer, concur or disagree
with the perspective the author espouses.
Although the format is APA, the opinion and position expressed is your own. As a result,
you should be able to cite other sources, including the course text to support your opinion.
Police Practice and Research
An International Journal
ISSN: 1561-4263 (Print) 1477-271X (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gppr20
Changes in homeland security activities since 9/11:
an examination of state and local law enforcement
agencies’ practices
Thomas C. Johnson & Ronald D. Hunter
To cite this article: Thomas C. Johnson & Ronald D. Hunter (2017) Changes in homeland security
activities since 9/11: an examination of state and local law enforcement agencies’ practices, Police
Practice and Research, 18:2, 160-173, DOI: 10.1080/15614263.2016.1261253
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2016.1261253
Published online: 01 Dec 2016.
Submit your article to this journal
Article views: 343
View related articles
View Crossmark data
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=gppr20
Download by: [Park University]
Date: 27 November 2017, At: 16:42
Police Practice and Research, 2017
VOL. 18, NO. 2, 160–173
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2016.1261253
Changes in homeland security activities since 9/11: an
examination of state and local law enforcement agencies’
practices
Thomas C. Johnsona
and Ronald D. Hunterb
Criminology and Criminal Justice Department, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC, USA; bCriminal Justice/
Criminology, School of Liberal Arts, Georgia Gwinnett College, Lawrenceville, GA, USA
Downloaded by [Park University] at 16:42 27 November 2017
a
ABSTRACT
This study investigated differences in state and local law enforcement
agencies participation in homeland security activities within the year
after the 9/11 terrorist attacks and 13 years later. Further, this investigation
assessed whether there were regional differences for these practices during
these same time periods. Activities assessed were based on a homeland
security initiatives index. Data suggest that, in the year after the attacks,
agencies’ participation in all of Stewart and Morris’ homeland security
activities was not high and statistically significant differences existed across
several regions for some of these practices. However, since then, the number
of agencies participating in all of Stewart and Morris’ homeland security
activities increased and statistically significant differences between regions
decreased. The increase in participation may be attributed to incentives
provided by the federal government. Nevertheless, data suggest that
support may be waning within law enforcement agencies to participate in
homeland security activities.
ARTICLE HISTORY
Received 22 July 2015
Accepted 3 November 2016
KEYWORDS
Homeland security
policing; homeland security
preparedness; homeland
security risk; terrorism
preparedness; terrorism risk;
first responders
Introduction
The law enforcement profession was profoundly affected by the September 11th (9/11) terrorist attacks.
Many agencies faced uncertainty as it became apparent that agencies at all levels would confront the
potential for terrorism in the U.S. and many agencies were unsure of their roles. Further, many state
and local law enforcement agencies found it difficult to define their role in homeland security (Morreale
& Lambert, 2009) and were hampered in preparing to address terrorism issues by a lack of funding
and a unifying strategy (Gilmore, 2003; Henry, 2002; Holden, 2003).
Government agencies are typically quick to respond to public concerns during crises and, in the
aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, law enforcement agencies sought to engage in homeland security activities to enhance public perceptions of safety (Ortiz, Hendricks, & Sugie, 2007). Indeed, it
has been argued that the 9/11 terrorist attacks ushered in a new policing era known as homeland
security policing that reflected a change from the traditional approaches to law enforcement services
that included local crime analysis, strategies, and responses, to a homeland security approach that
includes social event analysis, target-oriented strategies, coordinated intelligence work, and proactive
and intensified responses (de Guzman, 2002; Oliver, 2005). Immediately after the 9/11 terrorist attacks,
local law enforcement agencies were considered instrumental in preventing future terrorist attacks
and ensuring homeland security, as they are the agencies that know their communities and are the
CONTACT Thomas C. Johnson
tjohnson@wcu.edu
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Downloaded by [Park University] at 16:42 27 November 2017
POLICE PRACTICE AND RESEARCH?
161
first responders and the ones that are in the best position to contain incidents and minimize the life
loss and property damage (Gilmore, 2003; Hart, Rudman, & Flynn, 2002; Murphy & Plotkin, 2003;
Pollard, Tuohy, & Garwin, 2003; Rinaldi, 2003; White, 2004). Many Americans expected state and local
law enforcement agencies to enhance security by concentrating resources on preventing, deterring,
and responding to potential terrorist threats against the homeland (Henry, 2002) to the detriment of
other policing strategies such as community policing (Kim & de Guzman, 2012).
Although public expectations were that state and local law enforcement agencies assume responsibility for engaging in homeland security activities, this did not mean that every agency did so. The
study assesses the extent to which state and local law enforcement agencies engaged in homeland
security activities in the year after the 9/11 terrorist attacks and whether regional differences existed.
This study also explores the extent to which these agencies engaged in these activities 13 years after
the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the extent to which regional differences may still exist. This study only
assesses these two periods as no data were located that assessed agencies’ homeland security practices
before 9/11 for comparative analysis.
This study contributes to the body of research on homeland security. This contribution is important
because, compared to other police practices, the volume of research on law enforcement homeland
security practices is comparatively small (Burruss, Schafer, Giblin, & Haynes, 2012) with little clarification as to the activities in which agencies participate (Lum, Haberfeld, Fachner, & Lieberman, 2009).
This study’s results hold important implications for understanding how homeland security practices
have evolved since immediately after the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
Related literature
Immediately following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, attention was directed to the role that state and local
law enforcement agencies were expected to play in homeland security. President Bush stated that
countering and investigating terrorist activity is the number one priority for law enforcement agencies
(President Bush signs anti-terrorism bill, 2001). Further, many individuals perceived that state and local
law enforcement agencies would evolve into effective counterterrorism components (White, 2004).
However, at the local level, there was little direction in homeland security practices for agencies
to follow (Gilmore, 2003; Henry, 2002; Holden, 2003). Further, exacerbating this problem was the
decentralized nature of law enforcement in the United States. There are over 18,000 law enforcement
agencies in the U.S., the majority of which operate at the state and local level (Banks, Banks, Hendrix,
Hickman, & Kyckelhahn, 2016), of which approximately 50% of agencies employ 10 or fewer officers
while another 40% employ 50 or fewer officers (Reaves, 2015). Each of these agencies generally function
with autonomy from other agencies with their priorities set by the communities they serve.
Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, guidance regarding homeland security activities has increased
substantially with the National Strategy for Homeland Security serving as the basis for recommended
activities for state and local agencies (Pelfrey, Jr., 2007). Stewart and Morris (2009) codified these recommended activities into a homeland security initiatives index. Recommended homeland security
activities include:
• implementing the national incident management system (NIMS) for managing terrorism and
other major events,
• developing or updating an all-hazards plan to include terrorist activities,
• changing the agency’s mission statement to reflect homeland security responsibilities,
• broadening an agency’s investigation functions’ to include intelligence gathering and analysis,
• creating or updating mutual aid agreements to include homeland security responsibilities,
• participating in exercises or drills that include terrorism scenarios,
• ensuring interoperable radio communications between public safety agencies,
• implementing a linked records management system (RMS) that allows agencies to share records
and information,
162
?T. C. JOHNSON AND R. D. HUNTER
• conducting agency and community risk assessments to terrorist threats,
• forming or strengthening non-governmental organizations (NGO) partnerships that increase
resource-sharing, and
• participating in anti-terrorism task forces.
Downloaded by [Park University] at 16:42 27 November 2017
National incident management system
The Bush administration issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5 (HSPD-5) that addressed
the management of domestic incidents (Sylves, 2008). One component of HSPD-5 was the development of a National Response Plan and NIMS. NIMS provides a national, standardized method for
managing all incidents and allowing the assimilation of responding agencies and organizations into
an effective response protocol (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2016). Although
adoption of NIMS is required for federal agencies, it was initially only suggested that state and local
agencies adopt it. State and local agencies were eventually required by the federal government to adopt
NIMS as a condition to receive federal assistance during a terrorist or disaster event (Association of
State & Territorial Health Officials [ASTHO], 2016).
All-hazards plan
The all-hazards plan is an outgrowth of a requirement in the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and
Emergency Assistance Act (1988) that all states have emergency operation plans. This act serves as a
catalyst for the FEMA to work with state and local governments in developing emergency operations
plans. The Stafford Act was amended by the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 that required state and local
jurisdictions to have plans if they expect to receive federal assistance for terrorist or disaster events.
The term all-hazards plan is somewhat misleading. This term does not suggest that an agency
should prepare for every possible hazard that may occur; rather, an all-hazards plan recognizes that,
for terrorist and disaster events, there are many common activities that must be performed, such as
emergency notification, evacuation, or mobilizing resources (Schultz, Koenig, Whiteside, & Murray,
2012). These activities should be codified into an all-hazards plan that not only identifies these activities, but addresses how they will occur for different events.
Agency mission statement
An agency’s mission statement is important since it reflects the specific goals and objectives of the
agency (Gurley, Peters, Collins, & Fifolt, 2015). Commensurate with a shift to homeland security
policing is the belief that an agency’s mission statement should include homeland security activities
to inform agency employees and other stakeholders that such activities are important (David, 2012).
A carefully constructed mission statement promotes unanimity of purpose within the agency, provides a basis for allocating resources, establishes a general agency climate, serves as a focal point for
individuals to identify with this purpose and direction, and translates purposes into objectives (King
& Cleland, 1979).
Intelligence gathering
Intelligence gathering, particularly as it relates to homeland security, has been crafted with federal
oversight since World War II (Carter, 2005). The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice
Standards and Goals (1973) recommended that each state has a centralized law enforcement intelligence function that included participation by every agency. Further, the Commission recommended
that all agencies support the federal intelligence function. Similarly, the Police Executive Research
Forum identified intelligence gathering as a crucial homeland security activity for law enforcement
agencies to perform (Loyka, Faggiani, & Karchmer, 2005).
POLICE PRACTICE AND RESEARCH?
163
A primary reason that local law enforcement agencies are instrumental in intelligence gathering is
that they tend to be more cognizant o …
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