lab 18 Archimedes’ Principle

I need lab 18 report (lab outline)1 *cover sheet -{title -phys 205L005-Name -prof name }2* introduction {Theory} 4-5 sentence 3*Data {charts /tables 4* Analysis {Question }5* conclusion -summary
lab_18_181_81.jpg

loyd_physics_laboratory_manual_3rd.pdf

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
lab 18 Archimedes’ Principle
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Physics Laboratory
Manual
Third Edition
David H. Loyd
Angelo State University
Australia . Brazil . Canada . Mexico
United Kingdom . United States
.
Singapore
.
Spain
Physics Laboratory Manual, Third Edition
David H. Loyd
Publisher: David Harris
Acquisitions Editor: Chris Hall
Development Editor: Rebecca Heider
Editorial Assistant: Shawn Vasquez
Marketing Manager: Mark Santee
Project Manager, Editorial Production: Belinda Krohmer
Creative Director: Rob Hugel
Art Director: John Walker
Print Buyer: Rebecca Cross
Permissions Editor: Roberta Broyer
Production Service: ICC Macmillan
Copy Editor: Ivan Weiss
Cover Designer: Dare Porter
Cover Image: (c) Visuals Unlimited/Corbis
Cover Printer: West Group
Compositor: ICC Macmillan
Printer: West Group
ª 2008, 2002. Thomson Brooks/Cole, a part of The Thomson
Corporation. Thomson, the Star logo, and Brooks/Cole are
trademarks used herein under license.
Thomson Higher Education
10 Davis Drive
Belmont, CA 94002-3098
USA
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the
copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by
any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution, information storage
and retrieval systems, or in any other manner—without the written
permission of the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 10 09 08 07
Library of Congress Control Number: 2007925773
Student Edition:
ISBN-13: 978-0-495-11452-9
ISBN-10: 0-495-11452-9
For more information about our products,
contact us at:
Thomson Learning Academic Resource Center
1-800-423-0563
For permission to use material from this text
or product, submit a request online at
http://www.thomsonrights.com.
Any additional questions about permissions
can be submitted by e-mail to
thomsonrights@thomson.com.
Contents
For each laboratory listed below the symbol
preceding the laboratory means that lab requires a calculation
preceding the laboratory
of the mean and standard deviation of some repeated measurement. The symbol
means that the laboratory requires a linear least squares fit to two variables that are presumed to be linear. The
symbol WWW preceding the laboratory indicates a computer-assisted laboratory available to purchasers of this
manual at www.thomsonedu.com/physics/loyd
Preface
xi
Acknowledgements
xiii
General Laboratory Information
1
Purpose of laboratory, measurement process, significant figures, accuracy and precision,
systematic and random errors, mean and standard error, propagation of errors, linear least
squares fits, percentage error and percentage difference, graphing
L A B O R AT O R Y
1
Measurement of Length
13
Measurement of the dimensions of a laboratory table to illustrate experimental uncertainty,
mean and standard error, propagation of errors
L A B O R AT O R Y
2
Measurement of Density
23
Measurement of the density of several metal cylinders, use of vernier calipers, propagation
of errors
L A B O R ATO R Y
3
Force Table and Vector Addition of Forces
33
Experimental determination of forces using a force table, graphical and analytical
theoretical solutions to the addition of forces
L A B O R AT O R Y
4
Uniformly Accelerated Motion
43
Analysis of displacement versus (time)2 to determine acceleration, experimental value for
acceleration due to gravity g
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
4A
Uniformly Accelerated Motion Using a Photogate
Measurement of velocity versus time using a photogate to determine acceleration for a cart
on an inclined plane
iii
iv
Contents
L A B O R AT O R Y
5
Uniformly Accelerated Motion on the Air Table
53
Analysis to determine the average velocity, instantaneous velocity, acceleration of a puck on
an air table, determination of acceleration due to gravity g
L A B O R AT O R Y
6
Kinematics in Two Dimensions on the Air Table
63
Analysis of x and y motion to determine acceleration in y direction, with motion in the
x direction essentially at constant velocity
L A B O R AT O R Y
7
Coefficient of Friction
73
Determination of static and kinetic coefficients of friction, independence of the normal
force, verification that s > k
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
7A
Coefficient of Friction Using a Force Sensor and a Motion Sensor
Measurement of coefficients of static and kinetic friction using a force sensor and a motion
sensor
L A B O R AT O R Y
8
Newton’s Second Law on the Air Table
85
Demonstration that F ¼ ma for a puck on an air table and determination of the frictional
force on the puck from linear analysis
L A B O R AT O R Y
9
Newton’s Second Law on the Atwood Machine
95
Demonstration that F ¼ ma for the masses on the Atwood machine and determination of the
frictional force on the pulley from linear analysis
L A B O R AT O R Y
10
Torques and Rotational Equilibrium of a Rigid Body
105
Determination of center of gravity, investigation of conditions for complete equilibrium,
determination of an unknown mass by torques
L A B O R AT O R Y
11
Conservation of Energy on the Air Table
117
Spring constant, spring potential energy, kinetic energy, conservation of total mechanical
energy (kinetic þ spring potential)
L A B O R AT O R Y
12
Conservation of Spring and Gravitational Potential Energy
127
Determination of spring potential energy, determination of gravitational potential energy,
conservation of spring and gravitational potential energy
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
12 A
Energy Variations of a Mass on a Spring Using a Motion Sensor
Determination of the kinetic, spring potential, and gravitational potential energies of a mass
oscillating on a spring using a motion sensor
Contents
L A B O R AT O R Y
13
The Ballistic Pendulum and Projectile Motion 137
Conservation of momentum in a collision, conservation of energy after the collision,
projectile initial velocity by free fall measurements
L A B O R ATO RY
14
Conservation of Momentum on the Air Track
149
One-dimensional conservation of momentum in collisions on a linear air track
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
14 A
Conservation of Momentum Using Motion Sensors
Investigation of change in momentum of two carts colliding on a linear track
L A B O R ATO RY
15
Conservation of Momentum on the Air Table
159
Vector conservation of momentum in two-dimensional collisions on an air table
L A B O R ATO RY
16
Centripetal Acceleration of an Object in Circular Motion
169
Relationship between the period T, mass M, speed v, and radius R of an object in circular
motion at constant speed
L A B O R AT O R Y
17
Moment of Inertia and Rotational Motion 179
Determination of the moment of inertia of a wheel from linear relationship between the
applied torque and the resulting angular acceleration
L A B O R ATO RY
18
Archimedes’ Principle
189
Determination of the specific gravity for objects that sink and float in water, determination
of the specific gravity of a liquid
L A B O R AT O R Y
19
The Pendulum—Approximate Simple Harmonic Motion
197
Dependence of the period T upon the mass M, length L, and angle y of the pendulum,
determination of the acceleration due to gravity g
L A B O R AT O R Y
20
Simple Harmonic Motion—Mass on a Spring
207
Determination of the spring constant k directly, indirect determination of k by the analysis
of the dependence of the period T on the mass M, demonstration that the period is
independent of the amplitude A
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
20A
Simple Harmonic Motion—Mass on a Spring Using a Motion Sensor
Observe position, velocity, and acceleration of mass on a spring and determine the
dependence of the period of motion on mass and amplitude
v
vi
Contents
L A B O R AT O R Y
21
Standing Waves on a String
217
Demonstration of the relationship between the string tension T, the wavelength l,
frequency f, and mass per unit length of the string r
L A B O R AT O R Y
22
Speed of Sound—Resonance Tube
225
Speed of sound using a tuning fork for resonances in a tube closed at one end
L A B O R AT O R Y
23
Specific Heat of Metals
235
Determination of the specific heat of several metals by calorimetry
L A B O R AT O R Y
24
Linear Thermal Expansion
243
Determination of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion for several metals by direct
measurement of their expansion when heated
L A B O R AT O R Y
25
The Ideal Gas Law
251
Demonstration of Boyle’s law and Charles’ law using a homemade apparatus constructed
from a plastic syringe
L A B O R AT O R Y
26
Equipotentials and Electric Fields
259
Mapping of equipotentials around charged conducting electrodes painted on resistive
paper, construction of electric field lines from the equipotentials, dependence of the electric
field on distance from a line of charge
L A B O R AT O R Y
27
Capacitance Measurement with a Ballistic Galvanometer
269
Ballistic galvanometer calibrated by known capacitors charged to known voltage, unknown
capacitors measured, series and parallel combinations of capacitance
L A B O R AT O R Y
28
Measurement of Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law
279
Relationship between voltage V, current I, and resistance R, dependence of resistance on
length and area, series and parallel combinations of resistance
L A B O R AT O R Y
29
Wheatstone Bridge
289
Demonstration of bridge principles, determination of unknown resistors, introduction to
the resistor color code
L A B O R AT O R Y
30
Bridge Measurement of Capacitance
299
Alternating current bridge used to determine unknown capacitance in terms of a known
capacitor, series and parallel combinations of capacitors
Contents
L A B O R AT O R Y
31
Voltmeters and Ammeters
307
Galvanometer characteristics, voltmeter and ammeter from galvanometer, and comparison
with standard voltmeter and ammeter
L A B O R AT O R Y
32
Potentiometer and Voltmeter Measurements of the emf of a Dry Cell
319
Principles of the potentiometer, comparison with voltmeter measurements, internal
resistance of a dry cell
L A B O R AT O R Y
33
The RC Time Constant
329
RC time constant using a voltmeter as the circuit resistance R, determination of an unknown
capacitance, determination of unknown resistance
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
33A
RC Time Constant with Positive Square Wave and Voltage Sensors
Determine the time constant, and time dependence of the voltages across the capacitor and
resistor in an RC circuit using voltage sensors
L A B O R ATO RY
34
Kirchhoff’s Rules
339
Illustration of Kirchhoff’s rules applied to a circuit with three unknown currents and to a
circuit with four unknown currents
L A B O R AT O R Y
35
Magnetic Induction of a Current Carrying Long Straight Wire
349
Induced emf in a coil as a measure of the B field from an alternating current in a long
straight wire, investigation of B field dependence on distance r from wire
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
35A
Magnetic Induction of a Solenoid
Determination of the magnitude of the axial B field as a function of position along the axis
using a magnetic field sensor
L A B O R AT O R Y
36
Alternating Current LR Circuits
359
Determination of the phase angle f, inductance L, and resistance r of an inductor
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
36A
Direct Current LR Circuits
Determination of the phase relationship between the circuit elements and the time constant
for an LR circuit
L A B O R AT O R Y
37
Alternating Current RC and LCR Circuits
369
Phase angle in an RC circuit, determination of unknown capacitor, phase angle
relationships in an LCR circuit
vii
viii
Contents
L A B O R AT O R Y
38
Oscilloscope Measurements
379
Introduction to the operation and theory of an oscilloscope
L A B O R AT O R Y
39
Joule Heating of a Resistor
391
Heat (calories) produced from electrical energy dissipated in a resistor (joules), comparison
with the expected ration of 4.186 joules/calorie
L A B O R AT O R Y
40
Reflection and Refraction with the Ray Box
401
Law of reflection, Snell’s law of refraction, focal properties of each
L A B O R AT O R Y
41
Focal Length of Lenses 413
Direct measurement of focal length of converging lenses, focal length of a converging lens
with converging lens in close contact
L A B O R AT O R Y
42
Diffraction Grating Measurement of the Wavelength of Light
421
Grating spacing from known wavelength, wavelengths from unknown heated gas,
wavelength of colors from continuous spectrum
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
42A
Single-Slit Diffraction and Double-Slit Interference of Light
Light sensor and motion sensor measurement of the intensity distribution of laser light for
both a single slit and a double slit
L A B O R AT O R Y
43
Bohr Theory of Hydrogen—The Rydberg Constant
431
Comparison of the measured wavelengths of the hydrogen spectrum with Bohr theory to
determine the Rydberg constant
WWW
L A B O R AT O R Y
43A
Light Intensity versus Distance with a Light Sensor
Investigate the dependence of light intensity versus distance from a light source using
a light sensor
L A B O R AT O R Y
44
Simulated Radioactive Decay Using Dice ‘‘Nuclei’’
441
Measurement of decay constant and half-life for simulated radioactive decay using 20-sided
dice as ‘‘nuclei’’
L A B O R AT O R Y
45
Geiger Counter Measurement of the Half-Life of
137
Ba
451
Geiger counter plateau, half-life from activity versus time measurements
Contents
L A B O R AT O R Y
46
Nuclear Counting Statistics
463
Distribution of series of counts around the mean, demonstration that
uncertainty in the count N
L A B O R AT O R Y
p????
N is a measure of the
47
Absorption of Beta and Gamma Rays
473
Comparison of absorption of beta and gamma radiation by different materials,
determination of the absorption coefficient for gamma rays
Appendix I 483
Appendix II
Appendix III
485
487
ix
This page intentionally left blank
Preface
This laboratory manual is intended for use with a two-semester introductory physics course, either calculusbased or noncalculus-based. For the most part, the manual includes the standard laboratories that have been
used by many physics departments for years. However, in this edition there are available some laboratories
that use the newer computer-assisted data-taking equipment that has recently become popular. The major
change in the current addition is an attempt to be more concise in the Theory section of each laboratory to
include only what is required to prepare a student to take the needed measurements. As before, the
Instructor’s Manual gives examples of the best possible experimental results that are possible for the data for
each laboratory. Complete solutions to all portions of each laboratory are included. All of the laboratories are
written in the same format that is described below in the order in which the sections occur.
OBJECTIVES
Each laboratory has a brief description of what subject is to be investigated. The current list of objectives
has been condensed compared to the previous edition.
EQUIPMENT
Each laboratory contains a brief list of the equipment needed to perform the laboratory.
THEORY
COPYRIGHT ª 2008 Thomson Brooks/Cole
This section is intended to be a description of the theory underlying the laboratory to be performed,
particularly describing the variables to be measured and the quantities to be determined from the
measurements. In many cases, the theory has been shortened significantly compared to previous editions.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
The procedure given is usually very detailed. It attempts to give very explicit instructions on how to
perform the measurements. The data tables provided include the units in which the measurements are to
be recorded. With few exceptions, SI units are used.
xi
xii
Preface
CALCULATIONS
Very detailed descriptions of the calculations to be performed are given. When practical, actual data are
recorded in a data table, and calculated quantities are recorded in a calculations table. This is the preferred
option because it emphasizes the distinction between measured quantities and quantities calculated from
the measured quantities. In some cases it is more practical to combine the two into a data and calculations
table. That has been done for some of the laboratories.
Whenever it is feasible, repeated measurements are performed, and the student is asked to determine the
mean and standard error of the measured quantities. For data that are expected to show a linear relationship
between two variables, a linear least squares fit to the data is required. Students are encouraged to do these
statistical calculations with a spreadsheet program such as Excel. It is also acceptable to do them on a
handheld calculator capable of performing them automatically. Use of the statistical calculations is included
in 35 of the 47 laboratories.
GRAPHS
Any graphs required are specifically described. All linear data are graphed and the least squares fit to the
data is shown on the graph along with the data.
PRE-LABORATORY
Each laboratory includes a pre-laboratory assignment that is based upon the laboratory description. We
intend to prepare students to perform the laboratory by having them answer a series of questions about
the theory and working numerical problems related to the calculations in the laboratory. The questions in
the pre-laboratory have been changed somewhat to include more conceptual questions about the theory
behind the laboratory. However, there remains an emphasis on preparing students for the quantitative
processes needed to perform the laboratory.
LABORATORY REPORT
The laboratory includes the data and calculations tables, a sample calculations section, and a list of
questions. Usually the questions are related to the actual data taken by the student. They attempt to
require the student to think critically about the significance of the data with respect to how well the data
can be said to verify the theoretical concepts that underlie the laboratory.
COMPUTER-ASSISTED LABORATORIES
The Table of Contents lists 10 laboratories, prefaced by a symbol WWW that use computer-assisted data
collection and analysis. DataStudio software and compatible sensors are to be used for these laboratories.
The laboratories are available to purchasers of this manual at www.thomsonedu.com/physics/loyd.
Options for including these computer-assisted laboratories in a customized version of the lab manual are
available through Thomson’s digital library, Textchoice. Visit www.textchoice.com or contact your local
Thomson representative.
CONTACT INFORMATION FOR AUTHOR
Please contact me at david.loyd@angelo.edu if you find any errors or have any suggestions for improvements in the laboratory manual. I will keep an updated list of errors and suggestions at the Thomson
website.
Acknowledgements
I wish to acknowledge the mutual exchange of ideas about laboratory instruction that occurred among
H. Ray Dawson, C. Varren Parker and myself for over 30 years at Angelo State University. I also thank the
following users of previous editions of the manual for helpful comments: (1) Charles Allen, Angelo State
University (2) William L. Basham, University of Texas at Permian Basin (3) Gerry Clarkson, Howard
Payne University (4) Carlos Delgado, College of Southern Nevada (5) Poovan Murgeson, San Diego City.
I am grateful to all the highly professional and talented people of Thomson Brooks/Cole for their
excellent work to improve this third edition of the laboratory manual. I especially want to acknowledge
the help and encouragement of Rebecca Heider and Chris Hall in this rather lengthy process. Their
comments and suggestions about the changes and additions that were needed were very beneficial.
I wish to thank the Literary Executor of the late Sir Ronald A. Fisher, F.R.S., to Dr. Frank Yates, F.R.S.,
and to Longman Group Ltd., London, for permission to reprint the table in Appendix I from their book
Statistical Tables for Biological, Agricultural and Medical Research. (6th edition …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency

Order your essay today and save 15% with the discount code ESSAYHELP