Lab Paper Skeleton System

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Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L
Student Name: Click here to enter text.
Kit Code (located on the lid of your lab kit): Click here to enter text.
Pre-Lab Questions:
”1. List the functions of the skeletal system.”
It provides fuctions to protect, allow movement, storage for calcium and aid in red blodd cell
production.
”2. What material contributes the greatest to the compressive strength of bone? ”
The greatest contribution to bone strenght is the ossesous tissue
”3. Briefly describe the process of bone remodeling. ”
Bone remodeling consists of a process by which old bone is removed while new bone is being
formed through a process called ossification. The remodeling itself is the bone generation.
Experiment 1: Classification of Bones
Table 6: Classification of Bones
Bone Name
Classification by Shape
Classification by Location
VERTEBRAE
IRREGULAR
AXIAL
RIBS
FLAT
AXIAL
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Post-Lab Questions
”1. Why is it important to classify bones? ”
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”2. Aside from length, what are some other common characteristics of a long bone? Are long
bones typically associated with the axial or appendicular skeleton? ”
Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L
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”3. Compare flat bones and long bones. How are they different? How are they the same? ”
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Experiment 2: Digital Slide Image Examination—Bone
Post-Lab Questions
”1. Label the arrows in the following digital slide images: ”
”Cortical Bone: ”
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B- Click here to enter text.
C- Click here to enter text.
D- Click here to enter text.
”Trabecular Bone: ”
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B- Click here to enter text.
Lab 6 The Skeletal System
”2. Compare and contrast cortical and trabecular bone. ”
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”3. What is the purpose of cortical bone? What is the purpose of trabecular bone? ”
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”4. What are trabeculae? What is their function? ”
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”5. What are haversian systems? What is their function? ”
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BIO201L
Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L
Experiment 5: Physical Skeleton – The Axial Skeleton
Table 9: Cervical Vertebrae Observations
Vertebral Feature
Observations
Size of cervical vertebrae in comparison to
those of the thoracic and lumbar region
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Shape of the vertebral foramen
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Spinous Process of the C3 – C6 Vertebrae
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Spinous Process of the C7 Vertebra
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Table 10: Thoracic Vertebrae Observations
Vertebral Feature
Observations
Size and weight of the thoracic vertebrae in
comparison to those of the cervical and lumbar
region
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Shape of the vertebral body
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Appearance and projection direction of the
Spinous Process
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Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L
Table 11: Lumbar Vertebrae Observations
Vertebral Feature
Observations
Size of the lumbar vertebrae in comparison to
those of the cervical and lumbar region
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Shape of the vertebral body
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Appearance and projection direction of the
Spinous Process
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Table 15: Rib Feature Observations
Rib Feature
Observations
Length of ribs 1 – 7 (do they increase or decrease
in length?)
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Length or ribs 8 – 12 (do they increase or
decrease in length?)
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Articulation of the ribs and thoracic vertebrae
(notice the specific rib and vertebra that
articulate)
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Post-Lab Questions
”1. What are the three components of the axial skeleton? Describe the function of each. ”
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”2. On the skull below, fill in the blanks with the correct bone names. ”
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Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L
Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L
”3. For the following bones, state whether they are cranial or facial bones and give their
location. ”
Bone
Facial or Cranial Location
Temporal Bones
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Mandible
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Vomer
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Zygomatic Bones
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Parietal Bones
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Ethmoid Bone
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Sphenoid Bone
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Lacrimal Bones
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”4. What are the three regions of the vertebral column? Describe the general shape and size of
the vertebrae in each region. ”
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”5. What are the atlas and axis? What are their functions? ”
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”6. On the vertebra below, fill in the blanks with the correct vertebral structure. ”
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Lab 6 The Skeletal System
”7. What is the purpose of the thoracic cage? ”
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”8. Describe the three components of the sternum. ”
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”9. Describe the difference between true ribs, false ribs and floating ribs. ”
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BIO201L
Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L
Experiment 6: Virtual Model – The Axial Skeleton
”1. What features are located inferior to the cranium, and superior to the mandibular? Identify
the category here. How many individual items are included in this category? Hint: The answer
is not a bone. ”
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”2. Why aren’t teeth considered bones? ”
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”3. Identify the two major bones which compose the head. ”
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”4. To what bone does the right scapula attach? ”
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”5. Is the left clavicle superior or inferior to the right scapula? ”
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Experiment 7: Physical Skeleton – The Appendicular Skeleton
Post-Lab Questions
”1. What are the four parts of the upper extremity and the lower extremity of the appendicular
skeleton? ”
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”2. Compare and contrast the size and function of the upper and lower extremities of the
appendicular skeleton. ”
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”3. What are the three fused bones that make up the coxae of the pelvic girdle? What is their
location in relationship to one another? ”
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Experiment 8: Virtual Model – The Appendicular Skeleton
Post-Lab Questions
”1. How many left metatarsals are there? ”
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”2. Is the right fibula inferior or superior to the patella? ”
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”3. Are the ossa digitorum or the ossa metatarsalia more medial to the body? ”
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”4. Which two bones attach to the patella? ”
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”5. Identify the three bones which comprise the leg. ”
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Experiment 9: Articulations
Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L
Post-Lab Questions
”1. What two ways can joints be classified? What are the three classifications of each type? ”
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”2. Fibrous joints are either sutures or syndesmoses. What is the difference between the two?
Give examples of each type. ”
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”3. A symphysis and synchondroses are two classifications of what type of joint? What are the
differences between the two classifications? ”
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”4. What allows synovial joints to be diarthrotic? ”
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”5. For the following, match the correct synovial joint to the movement it produces. ”
”Pivot Joint”
”Ball and Socket Joint ”
”Saddle Joint”
”Gliding Joint”
”Condyloid Joint”
”Hinge Joint”
Movement
Joint
Uniaxial movement, typically flexion or extension
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Uniaxial rotation
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Side-to-side and back-and-forth movement
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Multiaxial movement
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Concave and convex surfaces of both bones allow for biaxial
movement
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Ellipsoidal fit allows for biaxial movement
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6. Fill in the chart below:
Joint
Articulating Bones
Type of Synovial Joint
Movement
Elbow
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Knee
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Hip
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Ankle
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Wrist
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Lab 6 The Skeletal System
Experiment 10: Virtual Model- Skeletal System Coloring Activity
”Insert the image for each exercise below: ”
”Left Arm: ”
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Lab 6 The Skeletal System
”Sternum and Clavicles: ”
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Lab 6 The Skeletal System
”Vertebral Column: ”
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Lab 6 The Skeletal System
”Right Hand: ”
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”Sacrum: ”
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”Legs: ”
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”Feet: ”
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Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L
Experiment 11: Skeletal System of the Fetal Pig
Table 34: Skeletal Region Observations
Skeletal Region
Observations
Axial Skeleton
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Appendicular Skeleton
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Joints
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Post-Lab Questions
”1. What are some of the similarities and differences you noticed between the human skeletal
system and the palpation of the fetal pig skeletal system? ”
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”Insert photo of pig in dissection tray with your name clearly visible in the background: ”
Lab 6 The Skeletal System
BIO201L

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