Media study and mass communications. 1000 words2

1000 words. Don’t need references. Give me the sources only.The rise of popular music is directly related to the music industry-audience relationship. How important is it to understand this relationship and why? Is popular music driven by the music industry or by the audience? Discuss the relationships between radio, sound recording, popular music and audiences.
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Student ID: 28745086
Unit: MCD 1360 Media Studies B
Lecturer: Patricia DiRisio
Radio Program 1: Melbourne’s Positive Alternative (89.9 Light FM), Public
radio station
1. Top hits/Billboard but content is monitored and family friendly Pop,
gospel, worship ? edit hit songs for censorship reasons, avoids explicit
content
2. Vibrant and Encouraging tone
3. Advertisements = local businesses, 10 ads in 6 minutes
4. Audience = Christian and family oriented audiences, appeals to family,
engages with the audience
5. Public station
Radio Program 2: KIIS (106.5) radio station, commercial radio station
1. Similar to Nova, Top hits, Dance music and DJ remixes of popular songs
2. Whimsical and satirical tone
3. Due to its presentation style on weekdays and weekends, KIIS was able
to reach a wide audience as well as building a strong niche audience
following throughout the week, 20 advertisements in 5 minutes
4. Directed towards the mature audience.
5. Commercial station
Radio Program 3: Nova 96.9- Sydney (100- Melbourne) (106.9-Brisbane) (919
Adelaide) (93.7- Perth)
1. Top hits
2. Multiple announcers for different times of the day,
3. Taylor Swift takes over the radio to promote her new album, an estimate
of 3-5 advertisements in breaks between songs in a listening period of
30 minutes.
4. Attracts an audience of under 40’s
5. Commercial
Radio Program 4: IVR Islamic Voice Radio
1. Islamic songs
2. Content consisted of reading the Quran, Memorization of the Quran,
Prayer time, basically a virtual mosque
3. Advertisements are by mainly by individuals in the Muslim community
(businesses can voice their products and services).
Student ID: 28745086
Unit: MCD 1360 Media Studies B
Lecturer: Patricia DiRisio
4. Audience = Muslim community
5. Public station ? relies on donations.
Radio Program 5: Talking Lifestyle Radio 2UE 954 AM
1. Content includes advice and conversation around vacation, holidays,
films/movies, plants, vegetable. Not so much music is played as the
majority of the content is based on lifestyle advice. [listened for 40
minutes and no music] ? just advice given to callers seeking advice
about lifestyle.
2. Calm and passionate tone
3. 7 advertisements in 8 minutes
4. Audience=Individuals interested in lifestyles
5. Commercial (based in Sydney)
Radio Program 6: SmoothFM (91.5)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Classic rock and ballads (high culture) late 1950’s – 1960’s music
Relaxed
11 advertisements in the course of 5 minutes
Targets baby boomer’s (aged 40-60)
Commercial (based Sydney and Melbourne – listened to Melbourne
station)
Radio Program 7: ABC Jazz
1. Jazz music and Instrumental
2. Informative and happy tone however, no full-time presenters because of
more emphasis being placed on the music e.g. no introduction to title of
music.
3. Listened to 30 minutes, no advertisements reason being the time of day
12:15 am.
4. Audience = appeals to fans and artists, jazz community.
5. Public station
Student ID: 28745086
Unit: MCD 1360 Media Studies B
Lecturer: Patricia DiRisio
Media is an essential underlying fabric of society and has been since early
cultures because of its ability to not only communicate and interact with the
masses but also as an influential body equipped with the power to shape
individual opinions and beliefs. From its initial existence through old media,
such as print, to its evolution towards refinement, civilization has since
witnessed multiple advancements in its role as a significant force in modern
cultures. The nature of media is intrinsically intertwined in its diverse purpose,
uses, format and varying technologies. The essence of the music industry,
radio, sound recording and other media forces alike, is one of dynamism due
to social, economic and political change. It is important to understand the
abstract mechanism behind media, particularly the relationship between the
music industry and the audience because of its universal character.
According to Williams, radio was ‘primarily designed for transmission and
reception with little nor definition of preceding content’ (1975 cited in McQuail
2010, p. 34). Aired content are an assortment of information, namely
advertisements, current affairs and music. The platform radio offers is a
disparate one primarily because of its flexibility and learned behaviour to
survive (Baran 2008). It was used freely for experiment and expression for the
majority, mostly minority because it was equipped with an extensive channel
capacity and greater diversity. Hence, radio was able to broaden itself and in
doing so, was able to broaden its audience pool. The establishment of a vast
number of stations caters to the mass audience, different groups and their
values, beliefs and opinions. For example, LightFM is an Australian Christian
radio network which targets the Christian community and music is monitored
where explicit (profane) content is avoided whereas KISSFM (a fitting example
of a shock jock) is a commercial station popular for playing top hits regardless
of explicit content. This station targets individuals under the age of 40.
‘Narrowly defined audiences’ determines the constitution of a station. The
synergy of the radio and music industry acts as a benefactor. Although radio
has experienced multiple instances where its listeners rate would decline, its
incorporation of music culture boosted the number of individual listeners and
formed the concept of mass culture – ‘an artificial construction that
conceptually binds people into a homogenous undifferentiated category’
(Casey, Calvert, French & Lewis, 2008, p. 166). The conjunction of both
industries as mass media, doubled their influence upon a mass audience. The
importance of recognizing this relationship is because in this affiliation, radio
operates as an exhibitor; it showcases and promotes particular songs of a
major industry, the music industry as the distributor; it provides the content
Student ID: 28745086
Unit: MCD 1360 Media Studies B
Lecturer: Patricia DiRisio
and the audience as the consumer; they purchase the content (Branston &
Stafford, 2006, p. 261). Therefore, studying the connection between radio and
music industries is important because singularly, they are each powerful media
outlets. Their synergy boosts their effectivity to influence and control the mass
audience and implies the passive interaction on the audience’s part.
Early sound recording as a medium converted mechanical energy into
electrical energy (Baran 2008, p. 197). Further development of new hardware
revolutionised the digital age. Advancements made in sound recording meant
the audience would be able to listen to music from the past for instance,
SmoothFM – where the music genre is classified as classical rock and ballads.
This genre of music is aimed at baby boomers, elderly individuals aged
between 40-60 years of age. MP3 players was a device designed for the
audience’s use, whether it be social or personal and permitted the distribution
of digital files over computer networks. Digital tracks were converted to
computer files, CD’s could be copied and files could be exchanged with other
consumers of the product. The growing popularity is owed to the MP3 being
portable, inexpensive and its ability to hold multiple files. Despite MP3 being
used individually, it introduced the mass audience to other like-minded
individuals via file sharing. This sense of community becomes a shared
experience because the swapping of files implies that the communication
between peers share an interest in the same music or subject etc. The popular
culture observed among individuals denotes what many or most people like or
prefer.
Furthermore, the transformation of the music industry over the years was a
consequence of socioeconomic and political change of values and beliefs
(Baran 2008, p. 210). An individual’s beliefs and opinions are variable and since
society is made up of individuals, society’s standards are not fixed. However,
this does not excuse the matter that society is completely independent of
media’s influence because they are prone to be affected by the media’s
potential to frame society’s opinions. Major music labels such as Sony and EMI
records, are one of many mega-companies who dominate the entertainment
industry and are among the biggest accumulators of revenue. Like radio, film
was essential to introduce the mass audience to new music. The prevalence of
a particular synergy saw significant films featuring hit singles by signed artists
to boost their success e.g. Grease and Star Wars (Branston & Stafford 2006, p.
260). In addition, the collaboration between television and the music industry
anticipated a format that was music television or MTV, enabling the audience –
to be precise, youth culture, a visual indulgence by producing music videos –
Student ID: 28745086
Unit: MCD 1360 Media Studies B
Lecturer: Patricia DiRisio
unlike radio where the reader is limited to only using their sense of hearing.
Political change after WWII lead to a strong sense of equality among the
African American community resulting in their pursuit of integration. Their
passion seeped into their music which became popular, even among the white
youths- this genre was called Rhythm and blues (RnB), and later addressed
taboo issues such as racism and segregation. The original songs sung by black
artists would be covered by music industry’s and their signed white artists then
aired on radio, which eventually received backlash from white and black
youths demanding for the originals to be played on radio, television etc. (Baran
2008, p. 210) In this, mass media illustrates their powerful ability to distort,
promote, impede and conceal the minority.
Hence, as aforementioned, radio, sound recording, popular music and the
music industry are interweaved through their similar nature and characters.
Synergy and convergence of mass media is what advances their effects as one
of society’s giant influencers. In saying this, it is important to recognize the
impact each platform has individually and via synergy. Seeing as mass media is
a cultural forum, the media does not necessarily have entire control over the
masses. Rather, popular music is driven by the music industry to a limited
extent. The mass audience play an essential part in media’s relationship with
society because despite media’s powerful influence, it is ultimately shaped by
society’s views, values and beliefs which is often reflected and relayed back to
the masses.
Student ID: 28745086
Unit: MCD 1360 Media Studies B
Lecturer: Patricia DiRisio
Student ID: 28745086
Unit: MCD 1360 Media Studies B
Lecturer: Patricia DiRisio
Reference:
Baran, Stanley J. (2008), “Radio, Recording and Popular Music” in Introduction to Mass
Communication: Media Literacy and Culture. (5th Ed.), New York, McGraw-Hill.
Branston, G. & Stafford, R. (2006) “Audiences” and “Industries” in The Media Student’s
Book. (4th Ed.), London & New York: Routledge.
Casey, B. & N., Calvert, B., French, L. & Lewis. J. (2008) “Mass Culture” in Television Studies:
The Key Concepts, London & N.Y: Routledge.
McQuail, D. (2010) “Mass Culture and Popular Culture” in McQuail’s Mass Communication
Theory. (6th Ed.), London, SAGE Publications.
McQuail, D. (2010) “The Rise of Mass Media: Broadcasting, Recorded Music, Dimensions of
Use and Reception” in McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. (6th Ed.), London, SAGE
Publications.
Diploma of Arts
Unit Outline
MCD1360: Media Studies B: Mass Communication
and the Modern World
Assessment 3: Minor Essay
Status:
Individual
Hurdle:
‘Must Attempt’
Weighting:
20%
Word limit:
1000 words (Essay) 500 words (Radio Diary)
Due date:
Week 5, Tuesday 9am
Topic: Week 2 – Impacts and Influences of Mass Communication: Popular Culture, Popular
Music and Audiences
Question: The rise of popular music is directly related to the music industry-audience relationship.
How important is it to understand this relationship and why? Is popular music driven by the music
industry or by the audience? Discuss the relationships between radio, sound recording, popular music
and audiences.
Points to consider:
•
Listen to different Australian radio stations on both public and commercial broadcasting or online, web-streaming, radio on demand
• Keep a diary for one week of different Australian radio programs commenting on the genre of
music, the radio presenter’s style/manner, the amount of advertising inserted between
songs/announcer’s voice, the type of audience that the program attracts (maximum 14 entries,
minimum 7 entries);
• Check the newspapers/radio stations on-line and off-line for radio programming details
• Try and differentiate between public and commercial radio (eg. ABC Radio National, Triple J,
Nova, Triple M, 3AW) and iView TV Double J and the type of audience it attracts
• Use the recommended Reading List to frame key ideas related to the topic, eg. Casey’s article
on ‘Mass Culture’, McQuail’s article on ‘Radio, Recorded Music, Dimensions of Use and
Reception’ and ‘Mass Culture and Popular Culture’
Submission of Radio Diary is compulsory; failure to submit the diary will result in a 10% penalty
In-class tutorial preparation:
•
Refer to Baran’s article “Radio, Recording and Popular Music” (2008) and work on the
Resources for Review and Discussion on page 226;
•
Refer to Branston and Stafford’s “Case Study: The Music Industry, Technology and Synergy”
(2006) on page 257
•
Use the Questions for Review on page 227 to discuss the history and future of radio and
popular music
•
Plan an outline, detailing the music from two radio programs, one from a commercial station
and another from a community/public station (3PBS, 3RRR, 3CR) and use these two
programs as examples in your essay, to argue whether popular music is driven by the music
industry or by the audience.
ABN: 064 031 714
CRICOS: Monash College Pty Ltd 01857J
monashcollege.edu.au 21
Diploma of Arts
Unit Outline
Recommended Reading List:
Baran, Stanley J. (2008), “Radio, Recording and Popular Music” in Introduction to Mass
Communication: Media Literacy and Culture. (5th Ed.), New York, McGraw-Hill.
Branston, G. & Stafford, R. (2006) “Audiences” and “Industries” in The Media Student’s Book. (4th
Ed.), London & New York: Routledge.
Casey, B. & N., Calvert, B., French, L. & Lewis. J. (2008) “Mass Culture” in Television Studies: The
Key Concepts, London & N.Y: Routledge.
McQuail, D. (2010) “Mass Culture and Popular Culture” in McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. (6th
Ed.), London, SAGE Publications.
McQuail, D. (2010) “The Rise of Mass Media: Broadcasting, Recorded Music, Dimensions of Use and
Reception” in McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. (6th Ed.), London, SAGE Publications.
ABN: 064 031 714
CRICOS: Monash College Pty Ltd 01857J
monashcollege.edu.au 22
Diploma of Arts
Unit Outline
MCD1360: Media Studies B: Mass Communication
and the Modern World
Assessment 3: Minor Essay – Marking Guide
Name: ___________________________________________
Criteria for Assessment
1.
Marks
Knowledge/Response to the question
Understanding of the history of radio broadcasting: public and commercial
1 2 3 4 5
Understanding of the relationship between the music industry and audiences
1 2 3 4 5
Understanding of the relationship between sound recording and popular music
1 2 3 4 5
Understanding the concepts of audience, use of radio and its reception
1 2 3 4 5
Positioning an argument for or against the idea of popular music being driven by
the music industry or the audience
1 2 3 4 5
2.
Submission of Radio Diary
A diary of one week’s radio program schedule with comments on 14 different
radio stations
1 2 3 4 5
Use of examples of both a public and commercial radio stations to support
argument in essay
1 2 3 4 5
3.
Essay structure
Introduction, paragraphing (development and sequencing of ideas) and
conclusion
1 2 3 4 5
Use of language, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling
1 2 3 4 5
Use of recommended reading material, accurate referencing style and
appropriate reference list
1 2 3 4 5
Comments:
Total
Percentage
ABN: 064 031 714
CRICOS: Monash College Pty Ltd 01857J
/50
%
monashcollege.edu.au 23

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