Memo format 5 questions please include a minimum of 3 sources in APA format

I have attached two different papers from two different students to answer the questions as the guideAfter reading and reviewing the group portion and the contributions from your fellow subcommittee members, your supervisor asks you to prepare a memo to him with your personal position on the following:Which prevention strategy do you personally believe would be most effective, and why?Which prevention strategy do you believe would be the least effective, and why?Which prevention strategy would you recommend for the preteen population (defined as children ages 10–12)?Do you believe that the strategy that you identified as the most effective is cost-effective? Support your position with facts.As a subcommittee member, rank the 3 prevention strategies in order of the most valuable to the least valuable, and explain your position.


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Strategies for the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse
Name of Student:
Name of Professor:
Course Title:
Strategies for the prevention of alcohol abuse among children
The use of school-related strategies can prove to be effective so as to prevent underage
The definition of the prevention strategy and where you learned of it
School strategies to prevent alcohol abuse among children refer to measures which are deeply
rooted in behavioral theory as well as knowledge about risks and also the protective factors. I
learned of the prevention strategy where it was applied in some of the high schools that I have
managed to visit over time. Moreover, research sources have also provided met with a vast
knowledge relating to their application.
How it is put into practice
For the strategies to work, they have to be applied at levels that encourage individual interaction
(Capuzzi & Gross, 2014). The interaction is based on creative teaching techniques that are going
to be applied by the teachers who are going to be coming into close contact with the students.
What environment this prevention strategy is used in
Mostly, it is applicable in schools. As the youngsters go to educational institutions for learning, it
becomes easy for this particular strategy to be applied. This is especially where the prevalent
level of peer pressure is high among the schools necessitating mitigation measures to curb and
prevent the use of alcohol.
The efficacy of the prevention strategy
With the provision of the skills that are necessary to go through life, the effects of the interaction
are normally quite long lasting. The changes that normally come about are in most cases at an
individual level. Moreover, the effect of the prevention strategy becomes profound especially if
it coupled with programs that seek to ensure that social influences are of a positive nature.
The cost of the prevention strategy
When examining the costs that come about as a result of the implementation of a given strategy,
the various stakeholders that are to be involved have to be critically examined. These
stakeholders include the school, the parent and their children. For the parents and their children,
the strategy is not as expensive as it is incorporated into the teaching programme. The school can
only incur the cost of hiring teachers who can be in a position to teach the required life skills to
their students.
The specific minor age group that it targets
The strategy mostly focuses on adolescents. The point at which children are more likely to
cultivate a drinking habit is from the age of ten. The use of alcohol increases at the age of 13 to
Strategies that have a family orientation can be used in keeping children away from alcohol
The definition of the prevention strategy and where you learned of it
The strategy refers to the role that parents have to play in ensuring that their children do not
engage in alcohol abuse. The parent should be able to come up with guidelines that should be
applied by their child. I was able to come across the method while dealing with the various
documented sources available.
How it is put into practice
The first step involves ensuring that proper relations are present between children and their
parents. Next, positive reinforcements should be effectively used. Both parties should listen to
each other and effectively utilize their communication skills. Moreover, the parent is expected to
oversee the activities that their child gets involved in.
What environment this prevention strategy is used in
The method is applicable to the children’s homes. Moreover, the home should have parental
figures who can oversee the activities of their children (Larimer, 2013). The strategy is especially
effective where the surroundings in which a child grows are not shrouded in constant conflicts.
The efficacy of the prevention strategy
The methods are effective where parents are consistent with their practices. However, the
strategy needs to be combined with other programs that are going to increase its positive effects.
One such successful program is the Preparing for the Drug-Free Years (PDFY).
The cost of the prevention strategy
This method is very affordable to the parties involved. The cost-effectiveness of the strategy
mostly benefits the parents who play a very significant role. The most important part is normally
changed in parental practices which can also have a resounding effect on the youngsters.
The specific minor age group that it targets
The strategy mostly focuses on adolescents. Most children are inducted to drinking at the age of
ten. The use of alcohol increases at the age of 13 to 14.
The final strategy that can be used to prevent the abuse of alcohol by children is the
extracurricular strategy
The definition of the prevention strategy and where you learned of it
The extracurricular based strategy aims to ensure that the other than the school activities or even
home responsibilities that may be given to children, the general activities they get involved in
will be worthwhile. I first learn of the application of the strategy in our neighborhood where it
was being implemented in such a way that teenagers were kept busy with activities that would
positively impact their lives (White & Hingson, 2013). Moreover, I read it from educational
How it is put into practice
Children have to participate in activities that allow for parental guidance. The activities have to
be in the areas of interest for the children. In the course of participating in the activities, it should
become possible to develop well-rounded skills applicable in various spheres of the child’s life.
What environment this prevention strategy is used in
They are applicable when the child is away from home and school. Moreover, it comes in handy
in putting together activities that children can participate in. The overall setting will normally be
the child’s community setting.
The efficacy of the prevention strategy
The model has not only effective in preventing the use of alcohol, but also the use of other
substances. Moreover, the children are able to participate in programmes that lead to the
development of leadership qualities. The method has been proven to be efficient especially
where collaborative effort between members of a given community is ensured.
The cost of the prevention strategy
The only cost that might be incurred would be in putting together the activities that would
prove to be beneficial to the children. Hence, the costs are manageable. This is especially
where the people chose to mentor the children are their guardians and parents.
The specific minor age group that it targets
The strategy mostly focuses on adolescents. The point at which children are more likely to
cultivate a drinking habit is from the age of ten. The use of alcohol increases at the age of 13 to
Capuzzi, D., & Gross, D. R. (Eds.). (2014). Youth at risk: A prevention resource for counselors,
teachers, and parents. John Wiley & Sons.
Larimer, M. (2013). Preventing alcohol abuse in college students: A harm-reduction approach.
Alcohol problems among adolescents: Current directions in prevention research, 147.
White, A., & Hingson, R. (2013). The burden of alcohol use: excessive alcohol consumption and
related consequences among college students. Alcohol research: current reviews.
Project Towards No Drug Use
The first program is called Project Towards No Drug Use. It is a high school drug prevention
program that focuses on at risk youth, who have a higher probability for violent and drug use
related behavior. The program was developed and is owned by Steve Sussman, Ph, D.,
University of Southern California. (Mihalic, 2017)
The current course curriculum contains twelve 40-minute interactive sessions and when taught
should not deviate from any of the written course material. Single page summaries should be
given to any student that misses a lesson. The single page summary will provide material that
can be utilized to make up any previously taught material.
The twelve modules taught are: 1) Communication and Active Listening, 2) Stereotyping, 3)
Myths and Denial, 4) Chemical Dependency, 5) Talk Show, 6) Stress, Health and Goals, 7) Self
Control, 8) Perspectives, and 9) Decision Making and Commitment 10) Marijuana Panel, 11)
Positive and Negative Thought Loops and Subsequent Behavior, and 12) Smoking Cessation.
The Socratic method should be used throughout the course (Mihalic, 2017). Meaning importance
should be placed on communications between student and teacher and student to student.
Leading questions posed by the teacher, facilitates a way for the students to answer questions
based on the premise that information is internalized better when it is not forced by someone
Positive standards of classroom behavior are developed through classroom management. The
course is mainly teacher-led and very structured and interaction with the youths is highly
encouraged. Active development and maintaining peer group support in the class is the primary
role of the teacher, and is accomplished by modeling support and positively reinforcing it among
group members, while simultaneously negatively reinforcing deviant peer relationships and
behaviors. Prosocial communication between students is fostered by the teacher
Program Outcomes
Illicit Drug Use
Violent Victimization
Program Type
Alcohol Prevention and Treatment
Cognitive-Behavioral Training
Drug Prevention/Treatment
School – Individual Strategies
Skills Training
Program Setting
Continuum of Intervention
Universal Prevention (Entire Population)
Selective Prevention (Elevated Risk)
Late Adolescence (15-18) – High School
Male and Female
Target Race/Ethnicity
All Race/Ethnicity
Program Costs
Year One Cost Example
To implement TND in two schools with a total of 24 teachers, the following costs can be
projected for the first year:
Initial Training w/Trainer travel
$200 per teacher x 24
Workbooks-$12 per workbook X 2,159 students served
Total Year One Cost (Cost per student would be $15.65)
Program Effectiveness
Compared to control groups of students, TND students showed:
27% prevalence reduction in 30-day cigarette use.
22% prevalence reduction in 30-day marijuana use.
26% prevalence reduction in 30-day hard drug use.
Long-term (at years 4 and 5) maintenance effect for 30-day hard drug use.
9% prevalence reduction in 30-day alcohol use among baseline drinkers.
Lower probability of 30-day tobacco and hard drug use for the health-educator-led
condition at the 2-year follow-up.
Lower level of marijuana uses among male baseline non-users in the health-educator-led
condition at the 2-year follow-up.
21% relative reduction in weapon carrying among males.
23% relative reduction in victimization among males.
Mihalic, S. (2017). Project Towards No Drug Abuse substance abuse program | Detailed
Evaluation Abstract | Blueprints Programs. Retrieved from

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